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Historical Timeline (1066 - 1939)




The following Historical Timeline was compiled by Hilary Brookes and submitted to several Rootsweb Genealogy Mailing Lists.

 
 (1066-1216) list of significant dates in English history.  It is
 subjective and not comprehensive.  Please add your own favourite events,
 make corrections, or add further information to your own copy; the intention
 is to create a draft for you to improve to your own satisfaction.
 I know the most interesting dates for most members will probably be from the
 1700s on up.   



1066  September                Battle of Stamford Bridge, Yorks, English vs.
                               Norwegians

1066  October 14               Battle of Hastings, Sussex, English vs. Norman
                               French

1066                           Christmas Day, coronation of William I

1066-1087                      Reign of William of Normandy 

1085                           Domesday Book Survey

1085                           Population of England estimated at about 2
                               million

1086                           Death of William I

1087-1100                      Reign of William II (Rufus for red hair)

1096                           First Crusade

1100-1135                      Reign of Henry I (seizes crown when brother
                               Rufus is shot while hunting)

1106                           Battle of Tenchebrai, France, English vs.
                               Normans

1110                           Marriage of Henry's daughter Matilda to Henry V,
                               Emperor of Germany

1120                           Death of William, heir of Henry I, in wreck of
                               White Ship

1126                           Matilda, now widow, returns to England

1135-1154                      Henry dies, Matilda claims crown, so does
                               Matilda's cousin Stephen 

1138-1152                      Civil war breaks out

1138                           Battle of the Standard, Northallerton, Yorks,
                               Yorkshiremen vs. David I of Scotland, supporter
                               and cousin of Matilda.  Yorks 1, Scotland 0.

1152                           Peace made at Wallingford by Henry, Matilda's
                               son by Geoffrey Plantaganet, Count of Anjou,
                               France.

1154-1189                      Reign of Henry II after Stephen's death

1159                           War in Toulouse

1164-1170                      Henry's quarrels with Thomas Beckett (later St.
                               Thomas the Martyr)

1170                           Christmas, Henry's men murder Beckett,
                               Archbishop of Canterbury

1187                           Fall of Jerusalem

1189-1199                      Reign of Richard I (Richard the Lionheart)

1190                           Richard on Crusade, taken captive (January 1193)
                               by Henry VI, German Emperor, brother John takes
                               control.  Ransom raised, Richard returns and
                               forgives John.

1199                           Richard killed fighting King Phillip in France

1199-1216                      Reign of John I

(1204-1307) list of significant dates in English history.   

1204                           Loss of Normandy

1205                           By this time, most of French possessions lost

1206-1213                      John quarrels with English Church and Pope, John
                               loses

1214-1215                      Barons revolt

1215 June 15                   Magna Charta ("Carta") signed at Runnymede,
                               island in Thames

1216  October 18               John dies at Newark Abbey after overeating
   
1216-1272                      Reign of Henry III, aged 9 upon taking the throne

1219 May 14                    Death of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke and
                               regent for Henry III

1232                           Fall of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent and
                               Justiciar

1234                           Fall of the Poitevins

1236                           Henry marries Eleanor of Provence

1257-1265                      National Rising, caused by Henry's desire to buy
                               Sicily for one of his sons

1264 May 14                    Battle of Lewes Simon de Montfort; Henry and
                               heir (Edward) captured, Simon rules. 

1265 August 4                  Edward escapes, kills de Montfort at Evesham,
                               puts father back on throne

1265                           First Parliament convened

1266                           Fall of Kenilworth Castle

1267                           Statute of Marlborough

1272-1307                      Reign of Edward I (riches from wool industry
                               during this time)

1282                           Conquest of Wales, Llewellyn killed, David
                               executed, union of England and Wales

1286                           Death of King Alexander of Scotland, infant
                               granddaughter is heiress, "Maid of Norway";
                               Edward proposes marrying her to his eldest son 
  
1290                           Death of Maid of Norway; expulsion of the Jews

1294-1307                      Attempt to conquer Scotland

1295                           Model Parliament

1296                           Edward quarrels with Pope Boniface VIII because
                               the latter forbade clergymen from paying taxes
                               to any king

1307                           Death of Edward I

(1307-1413) list of significant dates in English history.    

1307-1327                      Reign of Edward II (the poltroon)

1314                           Battle of Bannockburn: Scotland 1, England and
                               Wales 0

1327                           Deposing and murder of Edward II, after revolt
                               fomented by his wife

1327-1377                      Reign of Edward III

1338-1455                      The Hundred Years' War

1340                           Battle of Sluys (at sea), near River Scheldt;
                               Edward claims French crown (until 1802 English
                               kings also called themselves King of France)

1346                           Battle of Crecy

1346                           Battle of Neville Cross (Durham), Scottish king
                               captured

1347                           Calais captured

1348-1349                      Black Death, kills 1/3 English population of
                               about 4 millions, villein class cut by 1/2,
                               price of labour doubles

1356                           Battle of Poitiers, French king captured

1361                           Peace of Bretigny, all French land returned,
                               plus Calais, Edward's heir, Edward the Black
                               Prince governs Aquitaine

1369-1370                      The Spanish War

1369                           New French king resumes old war with England

1376                           Death of Black Prince

1377                           Death of Edward III, Black Prince's son Richard
                               II, aged 11, is heir, regents are John of Gaunt,
                               Duke ofLancaster, and Thomas, Duke of
                               Gloucester; John Wyclif challenges Roman
                               Church's teachings, laws passed re burning of
                               heretics, Wyclif survives but many adherents do
                               not over next 150 years (called "Lollards" 
                               = babblers)

1377-1399                      Reign of Richard II

1381                           Peasant Revolt over attempt to lower wages of
                               farm labourers,concept of free labourers now
                               firmly established

1397                           Tired of barons, Richard murders Uncle Thomas
                               and banishes cousin Henry of Lanaster (son of
                               John of Gaunt,Edward III's third son)

1399                           Henry of Lancaster deposes and murders Richard

1399-1413                      Reign of Henry IV

(1400-1525) list of significant dates in English history.   
In the meantime, numerous wars and battles are starting to appear.
Someone may find a possible reason for a missing ancestor or a new direction
to search. . .  

1400                           Death of Chaucer, first great English poet

1403-1406                      Barons' rebellion against Henry

1413                           Death of Henry

1413-1422                      Reign of Henry V

1415                           Henry's attack on France, ruled by mad King
                               Charles VI; Henry responsible for building first
                               Royal fleet

1415                           Battle of Agincourt

1420                           Henry enters Paris with Charles, forces him to
                               sign Treaty of Troyes:  Henry to succeed to
                               French crown and marry French Princess Katherine

1422                           Death of Henry, leaving nine-month old heir to
                               both crowns

1422-61                        Reign of Henry VI (eventually founded Eton
                               school), regent, John, Duke of Bedford

1425                           Death of Bedford

1430-1453                      Hostilities resume with France, Joan of Arc
                               helps drive English out, everything lost except
                               Calais; Henry marries Margaret of Anjou

1450                           Insurrection of Jack Cade in Kent, marches to
                               London, beheads several of King's ministers. 

1452-1497                      Wars of the Roses, N and W = Lancaster, S and E
                               = York

1459                           William Caxton invents printing press with
                               movable type, starts printing books in English
                               and Latin

1461                           Henry VI deposed and imprisoned in Tower of
                               London by Duke of York, who then becomes Edward
                               IV

1470                           Edward IV deposed by Earl of Warwick, Henry
                               restored to throne

1471-1483                      Edward returns, battle ensues, slays Warwick,
                               Henry's heir, and many Lancaster leaders,
                               murders own brother, Duke of Clarence

1483                           Death of Edward, brother Richard seizes crown,
                               Edward's young sons (Edward V and Richard, Duke
                               of York) die in tower, Richard is suspect, but
                               becomes King

1485                           Battle of Bosworth Field, Leics., Henry Tudor,
                               Earl of Richmond, defeats and kills King
                               Richard, becomes Henry VII

1487                           "Passage of Enclosure Act, fencing of formerly
                               common lands deprives peasants of livelihood,
                               causes roaming bands of vagabonds,leads to Poor
                               Laws."  

1485-1509                      Reign of Henry VII, relative peace

1509-1547                      Reign of Henry VIII, son of Henry VII

1513                           Henry makes war with France which starts war
                               with Scotland, Battle of Flodden Field, English
                               victorious 

1517                           Henry forbids reading of Martin Luther's  books,
                               doesn't work; by 1527 some scholars attacking
                               Church, call themselves Protestants, are
                               considered heretics

1516                           Henry's daughter Mary born

1525                           Introduction of potato from South America

Events are beginning to be much more interesting, as England enters its "Golden
Age" with Elizabeth I.  

1500s early                    Pop. of London about 75,000

1527                           Henry seeks divorce on grounds that Katherine of
                               Aragon was late brother's wife; in addition Anne
                               Boleyn (1507-1536) now Henry's fancy; Pope
                               Clement VII refuses

1529-1536                      Parliament convenes to devise laws against
                               Church, Church now dependent on Crown (not the
                               reverse), monarch becomes Head of Church in
                               England, King granted divorce by his new
                               Archbishop of Canterbury
                               (Cranmer), marries Boleyn, Elizabeth born,
                               declared heir to throne, Mary set aside;
                               monasteries dissolved; Pope excommunicates Henry
                               and Cranmer

1530 November                  Wolsey arrested, dies at Leicester Abbey on way
                               to London 

1534                           Act of Supremacy legitimises Henry's position as
                               Head of Church of England

1535                           Heretics still being burned; this year 25
                               Anabaptists burned in one day; John Fisher,
                               Bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More 
                               beheaded under new Treasons Act 

1535                           Publication of first authorised translation of
                               Bible (the "Coverdale Bible")

1536                           Pilgrimage of Grace, rising in Lincolnshire and
                               the North, action for restoration of 
                               monasteries      

1537-1564                      Boleyn beheaded for adultery; Henry marries Jane
                               Seymour (1509-1537), Seymour dies giving birth
                               to future Edward VI; Henry marries Anne of
                               Cleves (1515-1557), divorces her; Henry marries
                               Catherine Howard, beheads her (1542); Henry
                               marries Catherine Parr, she outlives him

1539                           Remaining monasteries dissolved; wealth taken
                               and used for Oxford and Cambridge, among other
                               things; result almost 1/4 of land in England
                               given to new owners, creates buyer's market

1544                           Henry orders English translation of Bible placed
                               in every parish church; Litany said in English
                               for first time; Pope declares Henry deposed,
                               supported by all Catholic princes, particularly
                               France and Scotland; Henry builds 70-ship navy,
                               arms people, fortifies coast

1547                           Henry outlaws vagabondage; 9/10 of pop.
                               estimated to be rural, average Tudor town 
                               = about 3,000 people; debasement of coinage 
                               leads to 25% inflation, further debasement by
                               Somerset leads to prices almost double within
                               two years, average person hardly affected but
                               export woollen cloth trade doubles

1547 28 January                Death of Henry VIII

1547-1553                      Reign of Edward VI, inherits crown at age 10;
                               nobles created by dissolution of monasteries
                               jostle for primacy: Seymours, Dudleys, Russells,
                               Herberts, Greys, more; regent is uncle Edward
                               Seymour, Duke of Somerset

1548                           More trouble with Scotland, England wins Battle
                               of Pinkie, Scots driven even further into French
                               camp, Mary Queen of Scots escapes to France,
                               marries King's son

1548                           Enclosure Commission convened

1549                           Parliament imprisons Somerset, Smith and Cecil;
                               Warwick and Wriothesley now in power; Enclosure
                               Commission lapses

1550                           Increased cost of producing woollen cloth and
                               saturation of export market causes downturn;
                               coinage devalued 50%; sales fall from 132,000 in
                               1550 to 85,000 in 1552; Parliament passes laws
                               regulating industry, imposing 7-year
                               apprenticeships, but depression gets worse 

1550-1553                      John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland brings in
                               many foreign Protestants for positions in
                               English Church; bullies Princess Mary(Catholic),
                               imprisons leading Catholics and gives remaining
                               Church lands to friends

1551                           Thomas Gresham appointed King's Merchant (royal
                               agent) in Antwerp, becomes nation's financial
                               wizard

1552 22 January                Somerset executed

1553 July                      Death of Edward.  As the boy is dying, Dudley
                               persuades him to leave the crown to Lady Jane
                               Grey, Dudley's daughter-in-law; nation rejects,
                               supports Mary; Lady Jane, plotters, imprisoned
                               and executed

1553-1558                      Reign of Mary I (Bloody Mary), more Spanish than
                               English, devout Catholic; determined to restore
                               Pope to head England's Church,imprisons all new
                               Church leaders, re-establishes Catholic services
                               everywhere; Mary marries Prince Philip of Spain,
                               sparks failed Kent rebellion led by Sir Thomas
                               Wyatt

1554                           Laws against burning "heretics" repealed 

1555-1558                      More than 300 people burned at stake, almost all
                               in SE England; north and west still heavily
                               Catholic

1558                           Philip drags England into war with France,
                               Calais is lost; Mary dies of dropsy, leaving no
                               heir; sister Elizabeth inherits the throne

1558-1603                      Reign of Elizabeth I (Gloriana, the Virgin
                               Queen), begins November 17

1558-1563                      William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), the Queen's
                               closest advisor, assists Elizabeth in passing
                               laws making monarch head of Church, making
                               English prayer book only one, and generally
                               laying foundations of Church as known today

1559                           Tobacco introduced from North America; John Knox
                               returns to Scotland aflame with Calvinism

1561                           Mary Queen of Scots, now widowed, returns to
                               Scotland, finds new Church of Scotland is
                               Presbyterian, not Catholic, not well received
                               by Covenanters

1562 October                   Elizabeth survives smallpox

1562-1563                      John Hawkins emulates Spanish ferrying slaves
                               from West Africa to West Indies, is attacked by
                               Spanish at San Juan de Ulua; Sir Francis Drake
                               joins with Hawkins in raids on Spanish shipping,
                               they return with great plunder

1563                           Statute of Artificers:  planned recruitment and
                               control of labour and wages

1564                           Birth of Shakespeare

1565                           Mary marries Lord Darnley, gives birth to son
                               (later James I of England, VI of Scotland)

1567                           Darnley is murdered; Mary marries his murderer,
                               Earl of Bothwell; people furious, depose her,
                               crown her baby son (bring him up as Protestant)

1568                           Mary escapes from prison, flees to England

1568-1587                      Mary imprisoned (partly in Sheffield Castle),
                               constantly plots overthrow of Elizabeth

1569                           Short-lived northern insurrection in favour of
                               Mary

1575-1585                      English trade booms

1576-1578                      Frobisher and Locke search unsuccessfully for
                               North-West Passage

1578                           Hawkins appointed Treasurer of Navy

1577-1580                      Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates globe,
                               plunders Spanish shipping

1583                           Munster, Ireland colonised

1585                           Elizabeth sends troops to Holland to help Dutch
                               Protestants against Spain

1587                           Mary tried for treason, condemned, beheaded at
                               Fotheringay Castle; leaves will making Philip of
                               Spain heir to both her crowns and imploring him
                               to avenge her; Royal Navy now completely rebuilt

1588 June                      Spanish Armada - 60,000 troops, 30,000 sailors,
                               77,000 tons of shipping - sails against England,
                               battle lasts one week, decimated by English then
                               by gales

1592                           Plague in London and provincial towns

1595                           Ulster Rebellion, Philip of Spain sends 100
                               ships, 10,000 men in aid, decimated by gales

1596                           Hawkins dies in Puerto Rico, Drake on a march at
                               Nombre de Dios 

1597                           Poor Law Act passed, prompted by three
                               successive poor arvests resulting in
                               demonstrations by starving peasants; codifies
                               previous measures, differentiates between able-
                               bodied and weak unemployed; town councils began
                               to tax citizens to pay for alms

1600                           Founding of English East India Company

1600                           Pop. of London about 200,000

1602                           Plague in London and provincial towns

1602                           Founding of Dutch East India Company

1603                           Plague in London and provincial
                               towns                            

1603 24 March                  Death of Elizabeth at Richmond, aged 70, after
                               45-year reign

The new king (son of Mary Queen of Scots) is legitimate heir to the thrones of
both England and Scotland, colonies are founded, the Pilgrim Fathers leave,
the English Civil War breaks out, a king is executed, and England is governed
by a military dictatorship.  
        
1603                            At end of Elizabeth's reign, English population
                                estimated at 4 million, 4/5 living in rural
                                areas

1603-1625                       Reign of James I of England, VI of Scotland     
                                (House of Stuart), ascends throne at age 35
                                (old for the time), unites two
                                countries; accession celebrations cut short by
                                outbreak of Black Death (plague) which kills
                                30,000 in London alone

1605                            The Gunpowder Plot, led by Guy Fawkes; Catholic
                                plot to blow up King, heir (Prince Charles) and
                                Houses of Parliament (Bonfire Night, 5
                                November, still celebrated)

1606                            Virginia colony subscribed in London, is
                                thriving by 1620

1607                            First permanent English settlement in New World
                                (Jamestown, Virginia); Ulster colonised

1612                            English factory built at Surat (India);
                                deforestation of England for charcoal to make
                                iron already a problem, substitutes sought

1612, 1615                      Fighting with Dutch over Spice Islands

1616                            Death of Shakespeare

1618-48                         Thirty Years War in Germany, Catholics vs.
                                Protestants; James refuses to send troops,
                                English men volunteer and fight for Protestant
                                cause

1620                            Strict band of Puritans object to using Prayer
                                Book, set sail to the New World, are known as
                                "Pilgrim Fathers", settle in Plymouth
                                (Massachusetts); other North American colonies
                                are settled; Madras settled

1622                            Commission to enquire into decline of woollen
                                trade

1623                            Dutch massacre English Company servants,
                                "Massacre of Amboyna"  

1625                            Death of James I

1628                            William Harvey (1578-1657) publishes De Motu
                                Cordis (Circulation of Blood)

1625-1649                       Reign of Charles I (the Martyr King)

1625-1659                       Charles quarrels with three Parliaments,
                                wouldn't give him money

1629-1640                       Charles refuses to call Parliament into
                                session, people are furious

1629                            Colony of Massachusetts Bay founded

1630                            Boston founded

1633                            Connecticut settled; Maryland founded by Lord
                                Blatimore                    

1636                            Mild outbreak of Black Death  

1637                            Charles quarrels with Scotland re religion;
                                tries to force English Prayer Book on Scots

1638                            Covenant signed in Scotland, signers bound to
                                preserve Presbyterianism

1640, May                       "The Short Parliament" is convened; instead of
                                discussing Scottish problem, discusses taxes,
                                customs, ship-money, bishops, popery, corrupt
                                judges--everything but Scottish problem

1640 November 3                 "The Long Parliament" is convened; insists on
                                power of Parliament over Crown as it was before
                                Wars of Roses; Earl of Stafford beheaded,
                                Archbishop Laud to Tower, corruption cleaned
                                up; also decides Parliament will meet at least
                                every three years

1641                            Rebellion of dispossessed Irish Catholic
                                landowners, scares Parliament, bishops
                                abolished; command of army transferred from 
                                Crown to Parliament; seeing revolution, Charles
                                prepares for civil war. his supporters dubbed
                                "Cavaliers," Parliament's supporters
                                "Roundheads" (note:  King's foot soldiers
                                mostly Cornish or Welsh)

1642 Autumn                     Battle of Edgehill, Warwickshire

1643                            Charles sets HQ at Oxford; tries 3-pronged
                                attack on Roundheads,lasts a year, finally John
                                Pym recruits Scots to fight for Parliament,
                                Scots demand their Covenant and Presbyterianism
                                be enforced on all three kingdoms as price of
                                participation; Connecticut, New Haven, Plymouth
                                and Massachusetts Bay unite in common defence

1644                            Battle of Marston Moor near York, Scots help
                                rout Charles; Oliver Cromwell gains fame as
                                leader of cavalry

1645                            New Parliamentary army raised under Fairfax and
                                Cromwell

1645                            Battle of Naseby, decisive victory for
                                Roundheads

1646                            Charles flees to Scotland, Royalist army
                                surrenders at Oxford; Charles refuses to sign
                                Covenant, Scots sell him to Roundheads for
                                400,000 pounds

1647-1648                       Parliament tries unsuccessfully to treat with
                                Charles, who is trying to secure help from
                                France, Scotland or Ireland; Parliamentarians
                                try unsuccessfully to fulfill their agreement 
                                with Scots

1648                            Charles rallies Scots to his defence, Battle of
                                Preston, Scots lose, army returns to London
                                resolving to execute Charles

1649 January 30                 Execution of Charles I

1649                            Long Parliament ("Rump" Parliament) confiscates
                                land from King's Commonwealth established;
                                House of Lords abolished; Charles II, 
                                meanwhile in exile on Continent, travels to
                                Scotland, signs Covenant, Scots support him

1650                            Cromwell crushes Irish rebellion, then Scots at
                                Battle of Dunbar; Dutch traders recognised as
                                most dangerous rivals 

Charles II is still causing problems; Cromwell refuses kingship but agrees to
become Lord Protector of England.  The Commonwealth ends shortly after
Cromwell's death, Charles is restored to throne. There are wars, plagues,
immigrants, new colonies, and medical and scientific discoveries. 
        
1651                            Battle of Worcester, Scots vanquished again,
                                Charles flees again to Continent; Navigation
                                Act passes, forbids exportation of goods
                                except in all-English ships, foreign merchants
                                and goods prohibited in England and colonies,
                                strengthened in 1660

1652                            First Anglo-Dutch War

1653                            Dissolution of Rump of Long Parliament   

1653-1658                       Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland
                                and Ireland (1599-1658); victorious in battles
                                against Spain, and aids France against Spain
                                with his Roundheads; England becomes leading
                                naval power and important military power;
                                restores legal rights to Jews

1654                            Peace with Dutch
                        
1655                            Cromwell dissolves First Protectorate
                                Parliament; failure of assault on Hispaniola,
                                seizure of Jamaica

1656                            Second Protectorate Parliament

1658                            Battle of the Dunes, Spanish defeated by Anglo-
                                French army; acquisition of Dunkirk

1658                            Death of Cromwell

1658-1659                       Oliver succeeded by son, Richard ("Lazy Dick",
                                "Tumbledown Dick"), dictatorship crumbles
                                almost immediately; 18 months of anarchy

1660 May 29                     Charles II, aged 30, rides into London, people
                                go mad with joy

1660-1685                       Reign of Charles II ("Restoration"), two houses
                                of Parliament and Church of England restored,
                                land returned to rightful owners; "Dissenters"
                                born (Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists,
                                etc.)

1661-1665                       Parliament passes laws against Dissenters, now
                                excluded from government office and Parliament;
                                laws permitting burning of heretics repealed

1662                            Royal Society founded in London

1664-1672                       War with Dutch; result England gets New
                                Amsterdam, now known as New York

1665                            Black Death arrives once more, not worst but
                                last full-scale epidemic, kills 1/5 London
                                pop;  Great Fire of London (burns five days)
                                one year later, destroys most of city, 89
                                churches destroyed, founding of Wren's St.
                                Paul's; city rebuilt in brick, wider streets,
                                more difficult for plague to prosper and spread
                                to provinces;
                                London pop. estimated at just under half million

1670-1690                       80,000 Huguenots come to England, majority are
                                silk workers, by 1689 40,000 families make
                                living by silk

1671                            Game Laws, prevent majority of citizens from
                                hunting, even on their own land

1678                            John Bunyan (1628-1688) publishes Pilgrim's
                                Progress

1680-1681                       Move to remove Charles II's brother James from
                                succession (because he married an Italian and
                                converted to Catholicism) and replace with
                                Charles's illegitimate son, also Charles;civil
                                war between Tories and Whigs narrowly averted

1680                            Pennsylvania founded by William Penn for
                                oppressed Quakers

1681                            College of Physicians founded in Glasgow

1685                            Death of Charles II

1685-1688                       Reign of James II, stirs up trouble by
                                replacing important people with Catholic
                                friends, turns out to be a tyrant

1687                            Isacc Newton publishes Principia Mathematica

1688                            Birth of son to King James; envoys immediately
                                sent to Dutch Protestant Prince William
                                (grandson of Charles I and married to James's
                                daughter Mary); William sets sail for England,
                                James flees to France, William enters London
                                just before Christmas

1688                            Gregory King's Tables (from Charles Davenant's
                                Works, 1771), estimates over one million people
                                (nearly 20% of pop.) in occasional receipt of
                                alms, mostly in form of public relief from
                                parish

1689                            James deposed, William anMary declared King and
                                Queen of England and Ireland, then Scotland;
                                James raises army in Ireland, tries to take
                                Ulster, fails 

1689                            James beseiges Londonderry for over three months

1689-1694                       Reign of William III and Mary II ("William of
                                Orange")

1689-1697                       War with France, English allies are Holland and
                                Germany, ends in truce

1690                            Battle of the Boyne, Ireland, James defeated,
                                flees into exile; English found Calcutta

1693                            Richest counties:  Middlesex (w/London),
                                Surrey, Herts, Beds,Bucks, Berks, Oxfordhsire,
                                Northants; Poorest Counties:  Cheshire, Derbys,
                                Yorks, Lancs, Northumberland, Durham,Cumberland

1694-1702                       Reign of William III alone

1690                            John Locke's Essay Concerning Human
                                Understanding

1692, 1693                      Battles of Steinkirk and Lande (against
                                France), both defeats for England

1692-1710                       Retribution against Catholics who helped James,
                                lands confiscated, given to Protestants; harsh
                                laws passed against Catholic religion and trade

1700                            Pop. England and Wales est. 5.5 million

The English colonies in America continue to flourish, William III dies, more
wars erupt, workhouses are created, inventions abound, and art develops.

1700                            Pop. of English colonies in America,
                                200,000      

1701                            Death of James II in exile,King Louis of France
                                recognises James's son as King James III 

1702                            Death of William III

1702-1713                       War of Spanish Succession, England tries to
                                prevent grandson of Louis of France from taking
                                Spanish throne; John Churchill, Duke of
                                Marlborough, instrumental in uniting England,
                                Holland, Austria and Germany against France

1702-1714                       Reign of Queen Anne (Mary's sister); freehold
                                yeomen = 1/8 of pop., substantial tenant
                                farmers = a little less; coffee houses become
                                popular

1703                            Birth of John Wesley, Epworth, Lincs, by 1784,
                                356 Methodist chapels built in places lacking
                                church

1704                            Battle of Blenheim, England victorious

1706                            Battle of Ramillies, England victorious
                                       
1708                            Union of England and Scotland; Battle of
                                Maplaquet, Britain victorious

1709                            Quaker Abraham Darby discovers coal-smelting
                                technique for producing pig-iron, replaces
                                charcoal method

1710                            Tories win power in Parliament; wooden paneling
                                replaces tapestry as wall covering

1712                            Savery & Newcomen's steam engine perfected,
                                solves flooding in coal mines

1713                            Treaty of Utrecht, peace with France, but
                                Marlborough has already been dismissed on
                                trumped up charges of prolonging the war;
                                Gibraltar and Minorca (Mediterranean) are among
                                prizes; also Nova Scotia and Newfoundland from
                                French Canada

1714                            Death of Anne; Quaker John Belles urges
                                founding of hospitals as training grounds for
                                medical students; Board of Longitude created, 
                                20,000-pound competition for accurate maritime
                                charts and maps 

1714-1715                       Rioting by Tory and Jaboite mobs commonplace in
                                London (unemployed soldiers, craftsmen),
                                passage of Riot Act, giving increased power to 
                                Justice of Peace

1714-1727                       Reign of George I (Elector of Hanover)

1714-1742                       No big increase from pop. of about 5.5 million
                                but distribution changes: East Anglia loses;
                                West Country, South and East Midlands, East
                                Riding and North (except Tyneside) fairly
                                static;  West Riding and South Lancashire
                                increase; West Midlands, Surrey and Middlesex
                                grow rapidly with London (London 500,000,
                                Bristol 50,000; Manchester, Liverpool,
                                Sheffield, Leeds, Halifax, Birmingham and
                                Coventry, no longer sprawling villages, but
                                still under 50,000); cause = immigration from
                                cities and (in NW) from Ireland

1715                            Scottish  rising on behalf of James (would-be
                                III)  put down

1716                            Septennial Act:  Parliament to meet every seven
                                years instead of every three; John Lombe steals
                                plans for silk manufacture from Italy, he and 
                                brother Thomas build vast factory on island at
                                Derby 

1717                            England allies with French and Dutch against
                                Spanish, Spanish brought to heel in 1718

1720                            Dr. Richard Mead publishes Short Discourse
                                Concerning Pestilential Contagion, advocates
                                quarantine, proposes establishment of
                                government Council of Health; inoculation
                                against smallpox introduced from Constantinople
                                by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; South Seas bubble
                                bursts, many investors lose shirts, numerous
                                government members involved, Walpole untouched,
                                becomes Chancellor of Exchequer and First Lord
                                of the Treasury

1720-1745                       Hospitals founded in London: Guy's, St.
                                George's, London & Middlesex

1721-1742                       Sir Robert Walpole serves as Prime Minister

1723                            Legislation allowing parishes to create
                                "unions" or workhouses, to prevent escape of
                                children they could be manacled; Excise Act, 
                                restrictions removed on exports, duty removed
                                on imports of raw materials; Londond builds
                                bonded warhouse for tea, coffee and chocolate

1723-1792                       Birth-death of Sir Joshua Reynolds, arguably
                                finest English landscape and portrait painter,
                                career 1750-1780

1724                            Duke of Newcastle develops passion for
                                electioneering politics, becomes Secretary of
                                State, controls government patronage for nearly
                                40 years

1725                            Treaty of Vienna:  Austria and Spain resolve
                                differences

1726                            English peers number 179, about 130 of whom are
                                active

1727                            Death of George I after fairly uneventful
                                reign; death of Sir Isaac Newton; Rev. Stephen
                                Hales publishes Vegetable Staticks, important 
                                contributions to chemistry and botany;
                                provincial newspapers increase from 8 in 1700
                                to 25 in 1727

1727-1760                       Reign of George II

1727-1728                       Thomas Gainsborough, influenced by Reynolds

1730                            Famine in Ireland
                  
1730-1740                       Death rate in England is 35.8/1000

1730-1760                       In early part of 1700s, death rate had
                                surpassed birth rate; begins to reverse; after
                                1780 death-rate plummets - due to replacement
                                of gin-drinking with beer-drinking after taxes
                                increased and retail sales curtailed on former
                                in 1750; medical care improves, as does
                                agriculture, more food available

1730s and beyond                William Hogarth (1697-1764), bitter satirical
                                artist of great genius, chronicling social
                                evils of the times

1731                            Second Treaty of Vienna, Austria and Spain
                                smooth out remaining differences

1733                            Further cementing of relations between Austria
                                and Spain ; John Kay, Lancashire clockmaker,
                                invents fly-shuttle

1734                            Walpole returned to power with smaller
                                majority, power weakened

1735                            Bristol Hospital founded

1736                            Duke of Newscastle now controls clerical
                                (religious) patronage

1737                            Porteous Riots in Scotland; Spain begins to
                                attack British trade in America; Franco-Spanish
                                alliance

1738                            Third Treaty of Vienna setlles Polish question,
                                gives Lorraine to France

1739, 1740                      War with Spain, War with France; Britain uses
                                German and Dutch mercenaries

1740                            For stealing a handkerchief from the person a
                                child could be hanged by the neck until dead;
                                publication of first novel, Samuel Richardson's 
                                Pamela

1740s early                     Quaker Benjamin Huntsman discovers method of
                                making high-quality cast steel

1741                            Further famine in Ireland, pop. about 4 million

1742                            Walpole resigns after criticism for advocating
                                mercenaries; Carteret succeeds him

1743                            Battle of Dettingen (Germany), King George is
                                victorious

1744                            Carteret resigns after similar badgering

1745                            Walpole dies; Battle of Fontenoy
                                (Flanders/Belgium), George's son, Duke of
                                Cumberland, leads Britain's defeat

1745 Summer                     Prince Charles Edward, son of James III (Bonnie
                                Prince Charlie), lands in Western Highlands of
                                Scotland

1745 Winter                     Scots reach Derby; Charles Stuart is
                                inexplicably persuaded to turn back, loses
                                initiative

1746                            Battle of Culloden (Invernesshire), Scots
                                defeated by Cumberland; fails to capture
                                Charles who, after five months, escapes to
                                France; Pitt enters government

1739                            First "lying-in" hospital for women

1740-1748                       War in America against the French

1740-1748                       War in India against the French, Major Stringer
                                Lawrence and Robert Clive win for Britain

1748                            Peace, Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ineffective

1749-1758                       Deaths among women 1/41, children 1/15

1750                            Royal Infirmaries founded in Edinburgh,
                                Glasgow, Aberdeen; tea-drinking begins to rival
                                alcohol-drinking; pop. England and Wales est.
                                6.5 million

In the last half of the 18th century, there are significant medical and
scientific discoveries, battles in India, improvements in transportation
(trade and consumer), the rise of Napoleon, the madness of George III, and the
rebellion of English colonials in North America
       
1750-1780                       English countryside takes on today's familiar
                                apearance as accelerated enclosure produces
                                small fields surrounded by hedges, fences and
                                walls

1752                            Sir John Pringle (1707-1782), Scottish Army
                                physician, publishes Observations on Diseases
                                of the Army, institutes rules for camp hygiene,
                                clothing and diet, shows how dysentery and
                                malaria spread, identifies hospital/camp/gaol
                                (jail)/ship fever as typhus

1753                            James Lind (1716-1794) Scottish Navy physician,
                                publishes Treatise on Scurvy; Sir Gilbert
                                Blane, Scottish Naval surgeon, enforces strict
                                rules regarding cleanliness, improves health,
                                lifespan of sailors

1754                            First royal troops disembark in India; Takes
                                4.5 days to travel London to Manchester

1756-1763                       Seven Years' War against France

1756                            Prince Surajah Dowlah (India) takes Calcutta;
                                English prisoners suffocate in "Black Hole";
                                Clive brings 2000 sepoys (Indian soldiers) 
                                from Madras to avenge, retakes Calcutta

1757                            Clive wins Plassy for Britain, extends power of
                                East India Company into Bengal

1757-1761                       William Pitt serves as War Minister

1758-1760                       General Wolfe wins Quebec for Britain, Montreal
                                taken 1760

1759                            Battles of Quiberon (Brest fleet) and Lagos
                                (Toulon fleet), Admirals Sir Edward Hawke and
                                Boscawen, respectively, victorious for Britain; 
                                Dakar captured

1760                            New France conquered by British (Quebec 1759,
                                Montreal 1760)

1760                            Death of George II

1760-1820                       Reign of George III, ascends throne at age 22

1761                            Hanway and Porter begin campaign on behalf of
                                child chimney sweeps, achieve protective
                                legislation in 1788

1761                            Pondicherry, India, captured, French power
                                destroyed; Pitt resigns over King and advisors
                                not permitting further conflict with France and
                                ally Spain; river power reaches saturation
                                point, Duke of Bridgewater cuts Worsley Canal,
                                thereby halving price of coal in Manchester

1761-1765                       Various municipalities secure Private Acts by
                                which money can be raised ("rates") to pay for
                                public improvements, such as paving and lighting

1762                            Spain declares war on Britain; Britain gains
                                West Indian islands from French, Cuba and
                                Manila from Spanish

1763                            Treaty of Paris returns Cuba and Manila to
                                Spain, keeps Florida, recovers Minorca; returns
                                West Indian islands and trading stations in 
                                India to French, keeps Canada
        
1766                            Priestley discovers Law of Inverse Squares
                                (electricity), Louis XV convulses with laughter
                                when line of monks leap into air as electric 
                                shock is administered  

1767                            John Wilkinson, ironmaster, produces railroads
                                for mines; Manchester and Liverpool joined by
                                canal     

1768                            General election, reformer Wilkes elected as
                                member for Middlesex amid scenes of jubilation;
                                Royal Academy (painting) founded
     
1769                            Inventions:  Watt's steam engine, Arkwright's
                                water-powered spinning-frame, Hargreaves' jenny
                                (1770), help revolutionise production of yarn

1771                            First edition of Encyclopaedia Brittanica
                                published

1772                            Lord Mansfield makes slavery illegal

1772-1773                       James Burgh publishes Political Disquisitions,
                                advocates universal male suffrage

1774                            Priestley isolates oxygen

1774-1776                       Captain Cook discovers Australia and New Zealand

1775-1782                       Rebellion of the American colonies - and I'm
                                not writing any more than that; y'all look it up

1776                            Wilkes introduces bill for universal male
                                suffrage; Inquiry into the Wealth of Nations
                                published by Adam Smith, Common Sense by Tom
                                Paine  

1776-1788                       Gibbon authors Decline and Fall of Roman Empire

1778-1783                       Naval war with France, Spain and Holland ally
                                with France

1779                            Wilkinson builds first iron bridge in world
                                over Severn; Crompton invents his mule,
                                significant progress in spinning/weaving
                                industry

1780                            Gordon Riots in London, city at mercy of
                                violent mobs for days, expression of deep
                                discontent of working-class

1780-1815                       Country banks rise in number from less than 300
                                to over 700

1781                            Boulton and Watt produce improved engine with
                                rotary motion, significant impact - means that
                                manufacturers are no longer restricted to site
                                with natural power (i.e., water, wood for 
                                charcoal)

1782                            Lord North's government collapses

1783                            William Pitt the Younger becomes Prime
                                Minister, simplifies taxes and customs duties,
                                tries to pacify Ireland, abolish slave-trading
                                and laws preventing Catholics holding office;
                                treaty acknowledges independence of United
                                States, returns Florida and Minorca to Spain
                                and Senegal to France; Act of Renunciation
                                gives Ireland rights in legislation and 
                                judication 

1784                            Introduction of mail coach

1785-1818                       Glasgow triples in size, has 54 cotton mills
                                in full work       

1787                            In Windsor Great Park King George III alights
                                from carriage and addresses oak tree as King of
                                Prussia, but eventually recovers from this
                                attack of dementia; first colonies in
                                Australia, first iron boat launched

1788                            Time to travel from London to Manchester
                                reduced from 4.5 days to 28 hours

1788-1824                       Birth-Death of Lord Byron

1789                            French Revolution, Louis XVI, many aristocrats
                                and others guillotined, France declares war on
                                European monarchies

1790                            Lower-class radicalism increases, Habeas Corpus
                                Act temporarily suspended

1792                            Cartwright invents steam-powered weaving loom

1793, 1 February                France declares war on Britain

1793                            Board of Agriculture formed to popularise new
                                methods and machinery

1793-1815                       British naval power eventually crushes commerce
                                and takes colonies of any power unwilling to
                                fight against France, Britain becomes foremost
                                world trader

1794, 1 June                    Howe defeats French fleet at Ushant

1794                            More lower-class radicalism, Habeas Corpus
                                suspended again, instigators charged with
                                treason, in Scotland found guilty and
                                transported

1794-1796                       Total of 40,000 British troops die in West
                                Indies in war with France

1795                            Near-civil war between Protestants and
                                Catholics in Ireland, erupts in 1798, takes
                                nearly a year to suppress; "Speenhamland"
                                system introduced in Berks puts premium on
                                pauperism; new Treason and Sedition Act passed

1796                            General Napoleon Bonaparte appears on scene,
                                attacks Austrian armies in Italy; Jenner
                                discovers smallpox vaccine; British conquer
                                Ceylon

1797                            All Europe makes peace with France save
                                Britain, sea battle off Cape St. Vincent (off
                                Spanish coast), Jervis and Nelson (then
                                Captain) utterly defeat big French and Spanish
                                fleet; Royal Navy sailors at Spithead and the
                                Nore mutiny over deplorable conditions

1798                            Battle of the Nile, Napoleon's Mediterranean
                                fleet smashed;   Malthus publishes Essay on the
                                Principles of Population; Catholic uprising in 
                                Ireland, French help thwarted, Irish cut to
                                pieces at Vinegar Hill; Wordsworth and
                                Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads

1799                            Napoleon becomes President of France;
                                amendments to Treason and Sedition Act

1799-1800                       Deaths among women 1/913, children 1/115; for
                                the first time London birth rate passes death
                                rate, continues until introduction of water 
                                closet deposits effluence in Thames (source of
                                potable water) and typhoid returns

1800                            Battle of Copenhagen, Napoleon's Danish fleet
                                decimated; after Catholic rebellion in Ireland
                                Pitt proposes one Parliament for both
                                countries, but King George refuses, Pitt
                                resigns; Sir Joseph Banks introduces voltaic
                                battery

In the first half of the 19th century, there are the first of many important
discoveries in all fields, especially those affecting industry, such as
railway transportation. Napoleon is still a problem but Nelson and Wellington
win the day, Britain builds an empire, the colonies expand, public health and
safety become concerns, especially as famine and riots take place.  
       
1800                            Robert Owen buys mills at New Lanark, turns
                                into successful humane model
 
1800-1801                       Over 20 miles of railway tracks laid

1800-1810                       30 acres of new docks built in London, becomes
                                greatest port in world

1801                            Pop. of England and Wales now 10 million (first
                                census), Great Britain est. 11 million, biggest
                                increases in North and West Midlands, London 
                                now 1 million plus, Manchester 137,201, Glasgow
                                and Edinburgh 100,000 plus, England has 8 towns
                                larger than 50,000, 6 of them in the North; 
                                Lord Dundas travels on Scottish canal in small
                                steamboat - beginning of steamboat travel

1802                            Ineffective Treaty of Amiens signed with French

1803-1805                       Threat of French invasion causes flood of
                                volunteers, army of half a million fielded

1804                            Napoleon crowned Emperor of France; John Dalton
                                establishes atomic theory

1805  21 October                Battle of Trafalgar, Admiral Horatio Lord
                                Nelson trounces French and Spanish fleets for
                                Britain, is mortally wounded; John Wilkinson
                                expires, buried in iron coffin

1806 23 January                 Death of Pitt the Younger; Cape Colony passes
                                under British control

1806                            Trading in slaves made illegal in England by
                                work of Wilberforce; Sir Humphry Davy discovers
                                sodium, magnesium, potassium, many other 
                                metals, and chlorine

1807                            Slave trade abolished within British Empire

1808                            The Peninsular War, Battle of Vimeiro
                                (Portugal), British victory; British casualties
                                less than 40,000 dead

1809-1812                       Grain famine each of these years

1811-1831                       Birth rate falls all over England

1812                            Napoleon attacks Russia, defeated

1813                            British victory at Battle of Vittorio (Portugal)

1814                            Napoleon abdicates, exiled to Isle of Elba

1810-1821                       Death rate in England and Wales 21.1/1000

1811-1812                       Ned Ludd leads rioters who smash machinery,
                                burn factories, followers known as Luddites

1812                            Cylinder Printing press invented and adopted by
                                The Times (London)

1813                            2300 power looms in use, by 1833 - 100,000

1815 March                      Napoleon escapes from Elba, leads French in war
                                once more

1815 18 June                    Duke of Wellington trounces French at Waterloo
                                (Belgium) with timely help of Blucher (Prussia)

1815                            Passage of Corn Law prohibits import of corn
                                until certain price is reached, keeps corn
                                prices high, disastrous, poor people denied
                                farm products via high prices; George
                                Stephenson patents first steam engine; Davy
                                invents miners' safety lamp, refuses to
                                patent;  now 2600 miles of canals, 500 in
                                Scotland and Ireland; China clippers take 109
                                days to sail 15000 miles from Canton to English
                                Channel; Britain's pop. est. 13 million;
                                Britain imports 82 million pounds of raw
                                cotton, by 1860 1000 million pounds; coal
                                output 16 million tons (30 miillion by 1835, 50
                                million by 1848)

1815-1830                       Five new states founded along Mississippi
                                Valley, mostly due to people fleeing
                                Depression; more go to Canada, as many as
                                20,000 some years, frequently Scots

1816                            Violation of game laws can result in seven
                                years transportation

1818                            Britain defeats Maratha, now effective ruler of
                                India

1819                            60,000 people assemble in Manchester to hear
                                radical orator Hunt, mounted yeomanry go to
                                arrest Hunt, kill 11 people, injure 400
                                (100 women) = "Massacre of Peterloo"; Singapore
                                founded as free trade port

1820                            Death of George III, blind and insane, Prince
                                Regent ascends throne as George IV; London's
                                pop. est. at 1,274,000; government finances
                                scheme to send out 6,000 settlers to Cape in
                                South Africa

1821                            Faraday invents electric motor and generator

1822                            Famine in Ireland prompts migration to US and
                                Canada

1825                            First passenger steam railway, Stockton-
                                Darlington; trades unions legalised

1825-1850                       Settlement of Canada, Australia and New Zealand
                                begins in earnest

1827                            Printing press can now print 4-5000
                                copies/hour, 11.5 million copies of newspapers
                                pour over Britain

1829                            Sir Robert Peel founds police force in London,
                                constables become known as "bobbies"

1830                            Death of George IV, succeeded by William IV
                                ("Salty Bill"); starving field labourers in
                                southern counties riot for higher wages, 19
                                hanged, 481 deported to Australia; opening of
                                Manchester and Liverpool Railway; Royal
                                Commission finds that mail coach average speed
                                is 9 miles per hour; free immigrants to
                                Australia = 1500, by 1841 = 32,000

1830-1832                       Cholera epidemic

1831                            Pop. of England and Wales now 14 million

1832                            Reform Act, extends franchise; Cholera Act;
                                house-breaking, sheep-stealing and forgery
                                removed from list of capital crimes; commission 
                                created to look into inhumanity of transporting
                                prisoners to Australia, another in 1837,
                                transportation to New South Wales finally stops
                                in 1840

1832-1867                       Age of Coal and Iron or The Railway Age, dooms
                                canals and stage coaches. Leaders are mostly
                                Quakers of Midlands and North: Peases,
                                Croppers, Sturges; fetsst railway timetable
                                published by Quaker Bradshaw in 1839

1833                            Lord Althorp's Factory Act, first regulation of
                                industrial working conditions, ste working
                                hours of women and children, enforced by 
                                inspectors, sparks Ten Hours Bill

1834                            New Poor Law Act, object to make life in the
                                poorhouse far worse than in fields and
                                factories (see Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens)

1835                            Municipal Reform Act, sets up democratic local
                                government in boroughs

1836                            William Lovett founds London Working Men's
                                Association, beginning of Chartism

1836-1840                       Boers leave British South Africa in search of
                                independence on Great Trek

1837                            Death of William IV

1837-1901                       Reign of Victoria I ("Victoria the Great"),
                                niece of William, ascends throne at age 18

1838                            First electric telegraph

1839-1842                       The Opium Wars, Britain forces China to take
                                European goods 

1840                            Rowland Hill produces first postage stamp,
                                "Penny Black"; New Zealand annexed

1840-1853                       Convicts still sent to Tasmania at rate of
                                about 4,000/year

1842                            Lord Shaftesbury's Mines Act forbids
                                underground work for women and children under
                                10; Hong Kong annexed

1843                            About 2000 miles of railway lines now laid

1844-1847                       Ten Hours Bill, limited hours of women and
                                youths in textile business to 10 hours/day,
                                passes thanks to Lord Shaftesbury

1844                            Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
                                Children founded; Chartist and Owenite workers
                                of Rochdale open Rochdale Pioneers Store
                                (cooperative) in Toad (T'owd) Lane

1845                            Dreadful Irish famine, many deaths; General
                                Enclosure Act, further enclosure prohibited

1845-1849                       Conquest of Punjab and Kashmir

1846                            Corn laws repealed, Britain moves towards
                                complete free trade; Electric Telegraph Company
                                formed, 17 offices by 1854

1848                            5000 miles of railway tracks now laid, 2000 of
                                which were equipped with telegraph wires;
                                Britain now produces about half of world's pig
                                iron, trebles output within 30 years; Public
                                Health Act; Queen's College for Women founded;
                                Marx (1818-1883) and Engels (1820-1895) publish
                                Communist manifesto

1850                            Mines Inspectorate created, helps protect adult
                                male mine workers

Britain is well into the Victorian Age and scientific wonders are the delight
of the day.  Australia and New Zealand grow by leaps and bounds, nursing and
police services gain respectability, the American Civil War erupts, social
improvements continue, education takes on increased importance, there are
economic downturns and upturns, socialism gathers momentum, "red-brick"
universities are founded, women begin to gain a little more freedom, and
emigration continues.

1851                            Great Exhibition in London; window tax
                                abolished; Census shows 10,736,000 females,
                                8,155,000 of whom were aged 10 and older,
                                largest occupational group domestic service
                                workers, 905,000, 145,000 washerwomen, 55,000
                                charwomen (cleaners), 272,000 in cotton
                                industry, 113,000 in woolen industry, 140,000
                                in lace, hosiery and linen; first cable, Dover
                                to Calais; Reuters opens in London

1851-1861                       Population of Australia rises from 405,000 in
                                1851 to 1,168,000 in 1861

1851                            Australian gold fever - in September. 19,000
                                immigrants land at Melbourne, for the whole
                                year 94,664, seven times as many as 1851

1851                            Livingstone's explorations begin; associations
                                of accountants begun in Scotland, later
                                Chartered Accountants by examination, England
                                follows suit by 1870

1854-1856                       Crimean War, Florence Nightingale achieves
                                respectability for nurses, beginning of
                                competent medical care for soldiers

1856                            Every county and borough required to employ
                                police force

1856-1878                       Population of New Zealand rises from less than
                                60,000 to 350,000

1856                            Marriage and Divorce Act permits any man to
                                divorce his wife on grounds of adultery,
                                permits woman same but has to also show cruelty
                                or desertion; prior, a special Act of
                                Parliament required for divorce

1856                            Darwin publishes Origin of Species; Britons
                                panicked by false rumours of Napoleon III's
                                designs on Britain; John Stuart Mill publishes
                                Liberty

1856                            Great novels:  Dickens, Dumas, Flaubert,
                                Turgenev,Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy

1861-1865                       American Civil War

1861                            Women first given vote (Australia)

1863                            First underground railway (London)

1864                            Chimney-sweeper's Act, due in part to Charles
                                Kinglsey's Water Babies

1864                            Great Battle of Berkhamstead Common saves
                                common land, Epping Forest also saved

1864                            Reform Bill, working men given franchise;
                                Dominion of Canada established; judge declares
                                trades unions illegal

1869                            Women obtain municipal franchise

1870                            Volume of Britain's external trade equals
                                France, Germany and Italy combined, 3-4 times
                                greater than US; agricultural wages reach
                                height not surpassed for many years; Franco-
                                Prussian War; Education Act makes primary
                                school compulsory (but poor children still roam
                                streets after school), means labourers, spouses
                                and children of succeeding generations can read
                                and write; women permitted to sit on school
                                boards

1870                            Religious tests abolished for academic posts,
                                patronage abolished for all public offices,
                                competitive exams introduced for Civil Service;
                                photography proclaimed greatest boon conferred
                                on poorer classes in later years; Gladstone's
                                Act restores legality to unions, Disraeli's
                                1875 Act legalizes picketing; Britain's pop.
                                est. at 26 million

1872-1873                       First agricultural unions formed

1872-1896                       Period with three slumps and two recoveries,
                                said to be due to imported foodstuffs from US
                                depressing Britain's agricultural business

1873-1896                       The Great Depression 

1875                            Collapse of British agriculture due to cheap
                                grain from US, wheat acreage falls by nearly a
                                million acres; Disraeli buys Suez Canal Company
                                shares to ensure British control of sea route
                                to India; Bell invents telephone; women
                                permitted to be Poor Law Guardians

1877                            Victoria proclaimed Empress of India

1879                            Second Afghan War gives Britain control of
                                Afghanistan

1880                            British forests now decimated except for bits
                                of the New Forest and the Forest of Dean.  

1880                            Number of agricultural labourers reduced by
                                about 100,000 in last 10 years        

1882                            Revolt in Egypt leading to British occupation

1884                            Agricultural labourers given franchise; Fabian
                                Society forms, rejects Marxian theory, embraces
                                Ricardian theory (socialist)

1884                            One-third of world's shipping is British,
                                including 4/5 of world's steamships

1884                            Britain annexes Upper Burma; with Germany
                                partitions East Africa; excess of births over
                                deaths in England is 13.3, in Germany 10.8, and
                                France 1.4.

1886-1927                       3,992,880 immigrants leave UK for US, 2,235,671
                                leave UK for British North America

1887, 1888                      These two Queen's Jubilees were celebrated
                                amidst gentler manners, safer streets,  more
                                humane living and working conditions, improved
                                sanitation and better working-class housing,
                                however, unemployment, sickness and old age
                                still hold terror for the workman

1886                            Local Government Act establishes County
                                Councils as administrative organs of country
                                life, replace Justices of Peace who are
                                preserved as magistrates, creates London County
                                Council (does not cover City); women are
                                included with men in electorate of newly-
                                established County Councils; Rhodes
                                acquires control over diamond industry by
                                floating De Beers Consolidated Mines; South
                                African gold rush begins

1886                            British South Africa Company, formed by
                                Yorkshireman Cecil Rhodes, colonization of
                                Rhodesia begins; Great Dock Strike of London
                                dockers, led by John Burns and Tom Mann

1890s                           Women's clothing becomes less voluminous, lawn
                                tennis takes place of croquet as means of
                                meeting opposite sex, bicycle becomes
                                fashionable

1891-1899                       Agricultural depression as cheaper frozen meat
                                from Australia, New Zealand and South America
                                floods into Britain, cheaper grain comes in
                                from North America

1891                            University of Wales founded; Act permits women
                                to enter medical or other faculty  on same
                                terms as men

1896                            Marconi invents wireless radio, first signal
                                transmitted December 1901 from Cornwall to
                                Newfoundland (2000 miles)

1896                            Items considered luxuries in 1837 are now
                                common comforts,food, clothing, bedding,
                                furniture, all far more abundant; gas
                                and oil lighting being replaced by electricity;
                                seaside holidays no longer rare      

1899-1902                       Boer War, sparked when Englishman dies in Boer
                                police custody. Scandalous British camps cause
                                many deaths of woman and children; education
                                now compulsory to age 12, 1 of 8 receives
                                education after age 14

1896                            Howard publishes Garden Cities of Tomorrow,
                                forerunner of modern city planning; Seebohm
                                Rowntree (of chocolate fame)studies poor in
                                York, determines poverty due to inadequate
                                wages, not shiftlessness

1800s, end                      Approx. 1 million people emigrate from Britain
                                during the 1800s, 50,000 of whom are prisoners
                                transported to Maryland or Botany Bay

1900                            Birmingham University founded




Here follows the last segment of significant dates in English/British
history.   The prudishness of the Victorian Age is ended by Victoria's death
and replaced by the gaiety and spontaneity of the Edwardian Age.
There are more scientific discoveries, all social services continue to
improve, workingmen and women fight for their rights, Ireland is partitioned,
a General Strike lasts six months for coalminers, the Labour Party is formed,
the United States restricts immigration, Britain finds itself in the middle of
the Jewish-Arabic Civil War in Palestine--and there is a devastating World War
with casualties on a level never before imagined.  The timeline ends with the
outbreak of World War II.  

1901 22 January                 Death of Victoria, aged 81, over 63 years as
                                Queen

1901-1910                       Reign of Edward VII, son of Victoria

1899                            Unification of Australia as Commonwealth;
                                judges again declare unions illegal

1902                            Balfour's Education Act provides for secondary
                                education

1903                            Irish land purchase bill, Wyndham's Act,
                                permits Irish to buy land from landlords with
                                150 million pounds worth of loans included;
                                Liverpool University founded

1903                            Leeds University founded; Balfour's Licensing
                                Act, reduces number of houses selling alcohol;
                                trade depression - unemployment results; Act
                                sets up local committees to find employment,
                                voluntary contributions give small stipend to 
                                unemployed

1903                            Einstein publishes theory of relativity;
                                Sheffield University founded

1903                            Act of Parliament secures highly privileged
                                immunity for trades unions; Labour Party
                                formed; free school meals for poor children

1907                            School medical system instituted

1903                            Children's Act, deals with cruelty to children,
                                prohibits imprisonment of children under 14; 72
                                British ships have Marconi's radio, 1912 - 450,
                                1914 - 879, beginning of Old Age Pension scheme

1903                            Bristol University founded; Bleriot flies
                                Channel; trade depression - unemployment
                                results;  William Beveridge publishes
                                Unemployment, a Problem of Industry, which
                                prompts creation of Labour Exchanges

1910                            Formation of Union of South Africa

1910-1912                       Infant mortality now 110 per 1000 live births,
                                declines steadily to 24.4 in 1956; emigration
                                reaches about 464,000/year; divorces average
                                823/year, go to 3,619/year in 1920-1922,
                                7,955/year in 1939 (latter rise because willful
                                desertion, cruelty and incurable insanity
                                added to causes in 1937)

1910                            Death of Edward VII

1910-1936                       Reign of George V

1910                            There are 146,000 female clerical workers, up
                                from 22,000 in 1891, 7,000 in 1881, and 19 in
                                1851; population: England/Wales 36,070,
                                Scotland - 4,761, N. Ireland - 1,251;
                                contributory National Insurance Scheme
                                introduced by David Lloyd George, provides
                                medical care, maternity benefits and sick pay; 
                                Parliament Act reduces House of Lords' veto to
                                delaying power; House of Commons begins to pay
                                members a stipend

1910-1912                       Strikes of seaman, dock and transport workers,
                                general railway strike for higher wages
 
1914                            Britain proclaims protectorate over Egypt

1914-1918                       World War I, declared 4 August, because Germany
                                violates a treaty to respect neutrality of
                                Belgium; Turkey enters war on Germany's side

1914                            Stunning British casualty figures come from
                                Loos -60,000; in on the Somme, 60,000 in one
                                day; total for 5-month offensive - 400,000;
                                Germans use poison gas at Ypres

1914 EasterMonday               Irish rebellion, Irish Volunteers (later Irish
                                Republican Army)proclaim Irish Republic; German
                                submarine lands Sir Roger Casement who is
                                arrested, German ship with rifles intercepted
                                off Irish coast, Casement executed; Sinn Fein
                                and Ulster cannot agree on partition

1914                            Passchendaele, British advance of 5 miles costs
                                400,000 casualties; Balfour Declaration
                                promises Jews home in Palestine; first use of
                                massed tanks (Battle of Cambrai); King George
                                adopts Windsor as Royal Family's English
                                surname in place of family's German name

1917 April                      America enters the war 

1918 Summer                     Great Influenza Epidemic begins, reaches height
                                end of year, new outbreak first quarter of
                                1919:  England and Wales lose 150,000 (15,000
                                in London alone)

1918                            Kaiser abdicates 9 November, peace signed 11
                                November, Treaty of Versailles

1918                            Final casualties for World War I - almost 1
                                million British Empire men killed, about 3
                                million maimed (744,000 killed are from UK);
                                Women over 30 given the vote (complete voting
                                equality with men comes in 1928), all men over
                                21 (except peers, lunatics and felons) given
                                vote; consumer purchasing power now about 1/3
                                of what it was in 1914; Bolshevik Revolution in
                                Russia

1918-1919                       Police strikes each year

1919                            Irish Republican Army begins terrorist campaign
                                against police ("Black and Tans")  and their
                                families; first woman in House of Commons,
                                Viscountess Astor; Alcock and Brown fly
                                Atlantic; strikes and riots in Glasgow for 40-
                                hour week; National Industrial Conference
                                convenes, trades union representatives resign
                                in disgust; worldwide influenza epidemic

1919 June                       Sir Ernest Rutherford publishes account of
                                splitting atom

1919-1920                       Runaway inflation; Coal Mines Act (1919) and
                                Mining Industry Act (1920) create 7-hour day
                                for miners plus minor reforms

1920 Easter                     Irish Republican Army begins Civil War in
                                Ireland, with raids on police barracks and
                                income tax offices all over Ireland

1919                            Regular cross-Channel air service commences;
                                post-war boom collapses, unemployment problem,
                                1920 Act provides small payment under National
                                Insurance Scheme; most war-time rationing ends;
                                one-week railway strike; Emergency Powers
                                Act passed to give government war-time powers
                                to deal with threats from "Triple Alliance" of
                                miners, railwaymen and dockers, re high prices,
                                shortage of housing

1920 December                   New Government of Ireland Act, proposes
                                partition of Ireland into Ulster (north) and
                                Irish Free State (south), each to have
                                its own government

1920-1921                       Communist Party of Great Britain founded;
                                affiliation with Labour Party rebuffed = schism
                                between communism and socialism

1920                            Population:  England/Wales - 37,887, Scotland -
                                4,882, N.Ireland - 1,258, economic slump,
                                2,170,000 unemployed; serious clashes between
                                Jews and Arabs in Palestine (Palestine under
                                British administration); US restricts
                                immigration

1920                            Southern Irish parliament passes Government of
                                Ireland Act, civil war effectively ends (until
                                1968); Lloyd George sells honours in return for
                                party contributions, partly responsible for
                                downfall of Coalition government; Britain
                                recognizes Egyptian independence; British
                                Broadcasting Company (BBC) begins transmission
                                of speech over air to public

1922 November                   Tomb of Tun-ankh-amen discovered at Thebes

1920                            Benito Mussolini becomes fascist dictator of
                                Italy; first football cup final at Wembley,
                                greyhound racing becomes popular, radio and
                                cinema begin growth (by 1929, 3,000 cinemas
                                in  Britain); convictions for drunkenness fall
                                from 189,000 in 1913 to 53,000 in 1930; French
                                develop tuberculosis vaccine

1924                            First Labour government headed by Ramsay
                                MacDonald; Housing Act to produce 2.5 million
                                houses by 1939 becomes law in August

1924 October                    Government falls due to purported link with
                                Communists in Russia, known as "Red Letter"
                                scare, entire government resigns on 4 November;
                                Baldwin forms new government

1925                            Infants' Custody Act, women finally secure same
                                rights as men with regard to custody of children

1926                            General Strike begins 26 April with coal miners
                                after mine owners announce cut in wages and
                                government mediation fails, transport,
                                building, heavy industry, printing trades, gas
                                and electricity workers follow suit on 3 May
                                (total 2 million strikers), ends 12 May, miners
                                continue another six months, gain nothing;
                                Imperial Conference sets stage for colonies and
                                dominions to become Commonwealth of Nations

1927                            Trade Disputes and Trade Union Act makes
                                sympathetic striking illegal and prohibits
                                political use of Union funds; Baldwin
                                resigns 4 June, Ramsay MacDonald forms another
                                Labour government, includes first female
                                Cabinet Minister, Margaret Bondfield, Minister
                                of Labour

1928-1929                       Long, critical illness of George V; economic
                                upturn both years

1929                            Further serious clashes between Jews and Arabs
                                in Palestine

1920s                           Population of Great Britain has grown by 5 per
                                cent, emigration overseas declines from 256,000
                                in 1923 (post-war peak) to 92,000 in 1930 and
                                many return to offset those leaving; British
                                population gravitates to south and away from
                                depressed areas of South Wales and northern
                                England, Greater London is now over 8 million

1928                            Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin,
                                leads to use as antibiotic after 1940

1929-1932                       Wall Street Crash precipitates worldwide Great
                                Depression, British segment hits worst in 1931,
                                when unemployment surges quickly to more than
                                3.25 million in 1931, then more slowly to
                                a high of 3.75 million in September 1932

1930                            Sir Oswald Mosely, former Conservative MP and
                                now Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster,
                                resigns and forms New Party (Fascist); Housing
                                Act passes, provides subsidies for slum
                                clearance

1931 24 August                  Resignation of Labour government accepted by
                                King, asks Ramsay MacDonald to form National
                                Government ) Coalition) to deal with economic
                                crisis

1931 21 October                 General Election, vote for National Government
                                overwhelming, more votes for Conservatives,
                                Liberal party in disarray

1931                            Census shows British professional workers now
                                number .75 million (8 per cent); up from 80,000
                                in 1921 Census: population: England/Wales - 
                                39,952, Scotland - 4,842, N. Ireland - 1,243;
                                Agricultural Marketing Act passed, regulates
                                quality of produce

1932                            De Valera succeeds Cosgrave as Prime Minister
                                of Irish Free State, ousts British Governor-
                                General, abolishes senate, alters law re
                                citizenship to distinguish Irish nationality
                                from British, but still claims Commonwealth
                                membership

1932 September                  6-7 million living on "dole", worse in Tyne and
                                Tees and Welsh valleys                          

1932-1935                       Unemployment falls from 3 million to below 2
                                million in July 1935; production rises, but
                                imports steady, exports decline; new industries
                                booming - chemicals, rayon, cars, radio, cost
                                of living falls

1933 February                   Oxford Union Society passes its famous motion,
                                "This House will in no circumstances fight for
                                its King and Country",peace societies become
                                popular

1933                            Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany

1933                            Special Areas Act passes, designed to encourage
                                workers to move to more prosperous Midlands or
                                expanding light industries of South, not very
                                effective; Communist and Fascist disorders,
                                especially in London's East End, cause
                                Incitement to Disaffection (1934) and Public
                                Order Acts (1936), extending police powers,
                                suppressing wearing of political uniforms and
                                limiting holding of provocative processions

1936 20 January                 Death of King George V

1936                            Edward VIII ascends throne; first public
                                television transmission; Arabs attack Jews and
                                British troops and police,riots, strikes,
                                outbursts of great violence, Jews attack Arabs
                                and British, disorder continues through
                                beginning of World War II; jet engine first
                                tested


1936 16 November                Prime Minister Baldwin learns Edward wants to
                                marry twice-divorced Mrs.Simpson and will
                                abdicate if necessary, public storm breaks on 2-
                                3 December, King abdicates on 5 December,
                                announces 10 December, Abdication Act rushes
                                through 11 December; Duke of York (father of
                                Queen Elizabeth II) becomes George VI

1936-1939                       Hitler and Mussolini make "Rome-Berlin Axis",
                                agreement for conduct aggression together,
                                followed by German agreement with Japan which
                                Italy signs later; Spanish Civil War breaks out
                                with Germany and Italy helping rebels against
                                government, Soviet Union aids government, as do
                                International Brigade with volunteers from
                                European countries and US

1937 12 May                     Coronation of George VI

1937 27 May                     Joseph Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister

1937 July                       Japan suddenly attacks China, by end of year
                                Japanese have captured Shanghai and Nanking

1937 May                        Irish Free State becomes republic of Eire,
                                Northern Ireland remains part of United Kingdom

1938 12 March                   Hitler annexes Austria; Chamberlain decides not
                                to help Czechoslovakia or French, who have
                                treaty obligations to Czechs, Hitler tells
                                Chamberlain if he can have Czechoslovakia
                                he will not annex other countries, Chamberlain
                                falls for it

1939 September                  War declared on Germany (1941- Population:  No
                                census, total pop, = 48,216 est., 1951:
                                England/Wales - 43,758, Scotland - 5,096, N.
                                Ireland - 1,371, 1961: England/Wales 46,072,
                                Scotland - 5,178, N. Ireland - 1,423)




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