to Continental Lodge #287's Home Page. We Fraternally invite you to
view our Communication and visit us on our regular meeting night. We
meet on the first Wednesday of the month at Grand Lodge, 71 West 23rd
Street in the Renaissance Room on the 6th Floor at 7:30PM. Our
Brothers meet for dinner prior to the meetings. Check the
Communication for location and feel free to join us..... Dutch of
Be Well, God Bless and let our Brotherly Love Spread Around the
If you are not already a member
of our ancient & honorable fraternity, and would like additional
information, please contact this Lodg or any of our fraternity.
Although we cannot directly solicit members, we will be pleased to
respond to your interest by answering your questions and will gladly
provide a petition at your request.
Senator from South Carolina; born in Edgefield, S.C., December 5, 1902; attended the
public schools; graduated, Clemson College 1923; taught in
South Carolina high schools 1923-1929; Edgefield County superintendent of education
1929-1933; studied law and was admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1930; city and county
attorney 1930-1938; member, State senate 1933-1938; circuit judge 1938-1946; served in the
United States Army 1942-1946, in Europe and in the Pacific; major general, United States
Army Reserve; Governor of South Carolina 1947-1951; unsuccessful States Rights candidate
for President of the United States in 1948; unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic
nomination for United States Senator in 1950; practiced law in Aiken, S.C., 1951-1955;
appointed as a Democrat to the United States Senate to complete the term of Charles E.
Daniel, who resigned, and served from December 24, 1954, to January 3, 1955; had been
previously elected as a write-in candidate in November 1954 for the term commencing
January 3, 1955 and ending January 3, 1961, but due to a promise made to the voters in the
1954 election, he resigned as of April 4, 1956; again elected as a Democrat in November
1956 to fill the vacancy caused by his own resignation and served from November 7, 1956 to
January 3, 1961; reelected in 1960, 1966, 1972, 1978, 1984, 1990, and again in 1996 for
the term ending January 3, 2003; changed from the Democratic to the Republican Party
September 16, 1964; President pro tempore of the Senate during the Ninety-seventh,
Ninety-ninth, One Hundred Fourth and One Hundred Fifth Congresses; chairman, Committee on
the Judiciary (Ninety-seventh through Ninety-ninth Congresses); Committee on Armed
Services (One Hundred Fourth and One Hundred Fifth Congresses). Return to Last Page
Senator from Wyoming; born in Cody, Park County, Wyo., February 17, 1933; attended
public schools; B.A., University of Wyoming 1955; entered the United States Marine Corps as a private 1955,
released as a captain 1959; executive vice president, Wyoming Farm Bureau 1966-1975;
natural resource director 1971-1975; general manager, Wyoming Rural Electric Association
1975-1989; independent small businessman; state representative, Wyoming, 1984-1989;
elected as a Republican to the One Hundred First Congress, by special election, April 26,
1989, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Richard B. Cheney; reelected to the
One Hundred Second and One Hundred Third Congresses and served from April 26, 1989 to
January 3, 1995; was not a candidate for reelection to the House of Representatives in
1994, but was elected to the United States Senate in 1994 for the term commencing January
4, 1995. Return to Last Page
Senator from Wyoming; born in Denver, Denver County, Colo., September 2, 1931;
attended Cody, Wyo. public schools; graduated, University of Wyoming,
Laramie, Wyo., 1954; graduated, University of Wyoming Law School 1958; admitted to the
Wyoming bar in 1958 and commenced practice in Cody; served in the United States Army,
Infantry, 1954-1956; assistant attorney general of Wyoming 1958-1959; city attorney, Cody,
Wyo.; United States Commissioner 1959-1969; member, Wyoming house of representatives
1964-1977; elected as a Republican to the United States Senate, November 7, 1978, for the
six-year term commencing January 3, 1979; subsequently appointed by the Governor, January
1, 1979, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Clifford P. Hansen for the term
ending January 3, 1979; reelected in 1984 and again in 1990 and served January 1, 1979 to
January 3, 1997; not a candidate for reelection in 1996; Republican whip (1985-1995);
chairman, Committee on Veterans Affairs (One Hundred Fourth Congress). Return to Last Page
Representative from New York; born in New York City, June 11, 1930; attended New
York City public schools; B.S., New York University
School of Commerce, Washington Square, N.Y., 1957; LL.B. (J.D.), St. Johns Law
School, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1960; entered United States Army in 1948 and was discharged as a
staff sergeant in 1952; admitted to the New York bar in 1960 and commenced practice in New
York City; assistant United States Attorney, 1963; counsel to speaker of the New York
State assembly, 1965; counsel to the Presidents Commission to Revise the Draft Laws,
1966; secretary, New York State Penal Law and Code Revision Commission; member, State
assembly, 1966-1970; elected as a Democrat to the Ninety-second and fourteen succeeding
Congresses (January 3, 1971-January 3, 2001); chairman, Select Committee on Narcotics
Abuse and Control (Ninety-eighth through One Hundred Third Congresses).Return to Last Page
Senator from Georgia; born in Perry, Houston County, Ga., September 8, 1938; educated
in the public schools of Perry, Ga.; attended Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga.,
1956-1959; graduated, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., 1960; received a law degree from the
same university 1962; served in the United States Coast Guard 1959-1960, Reserve
1960-1968; admitted to the Georgia bar in 1962 and commenced practice in Perry; farmer;
member, Georgia house of representatives 1968-1972; elected as a Democrat to the United
States Senate, November 7, 1972, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Richard B.
Russell for the term ending January 3, 1973, and at the same time elected for the six-year
term ending January 3, 1979; reelected in 1978, 1984, and again in 1990 and served from
November 8, 1972 to January 3, 1997; not a candidate for reelection in 1996; chairman,
Committee on Armed Services (One-Hundredth through One Hundred Third Congresses); resumed
the practice of law in Atlanta, 1997; part-time, unpaid professor, Sam Nunn School of
International Affairs, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 1997-; co-chair, Concord
Coalition. Return to Last Page
Representative and a Senator from Mississippi; born in Grenada, Grenada County, Miss.,
October 9, 1941; graduated from
Pascagoula public schools; B.P.A., University of Mississippi, 1963; J.D., same university
1967; served as field representative for the University of Mississippi 1963-1965; admitted
to the Mississippi bar in 1967 and commenced practice in Pascagoula; administrative
assistant to United States Representative William M. Colmer 1968-1972; elected as a
Republican to the Ninety-third and to the seven succeeding Congresses (January 3,
1973-January 3, 1989); minority whip (Ninety-seventh through One Hundredth Congresses);
elected to the United States Senate in 1988; reelected in 1994 for the term commencing
January 3, 1995; Republican whip, 1995-1996; majority leader, 1996-. Return to Last Page
enator from Louisiana; born in Shreveport, Caddo Parrish, La., June 10, 1932; educated
in the public schools of Shreveport, La.; attended Washington and Lee University and United States Military
Academy; graduated, Louisiana State University Law School, Baton Rouge, La., 1956;
admitted to the Louisiana bar in 1956 and commenced practice in Shreveport; served in the
United States Army, Judge Advocate General Corps, Germany, 1956-1959; member, Louisiana
house of representatives 1964-1968, serving as floor leader; member, State senate
1968-1972; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate, November 7, 1972, for the
term commencing January 3, 1973; subsequently appointed by the Governor to complete the
unexpired term caused by the death of Allen J. Ellender, for the term ending January 3,
1973, left vacant by the resignation of Elaine S. Edwards; reelected in 1978, 1984, and
again in 1990 and served from November 14, 1972 to January 3, 1997; not a candidate for
reelection in 1996; chairman, Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (Ninety-fourth
Congress), Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (One Hundredth through One Hundred
Third Congresses); engaged in the consulting and development businesses. Return to Last Page
A native of Charleston, S.C., Fritz Hollings graduated from the Citadel in 1942. He
then served in World War II as a U.S. Army officer in North
Africa and Europe. He was decorated with seven campaign stars, including the Bronze Star
Medal. He attended the University of South Carolina School of Law from which he graduated
in 1947. The following year Hollings was elected to the South Carolina House of
Representatives. After a term as a state representative, he was elected twice to be
Speaker Pro Tempore. In 1955, he became South Carolina's lieutenant governor. Four years
later, he was elected governor. In 1966, Hollings was elected to the United States Senate,
and has been re-elected five times. He is the sixth-ranking senior member of the Senate
and is the fifth-leading senior Democrat.
In the 103rd Congress, Hollings chaired the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation and the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, and
Judiciary. He was a member of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense and the
Senate Budget Committee. Return
to Last Page
JESSE HELMS, Republican, of Raleigh, NC; born in Monroe, NC, October 18, 1921; attended
Wingate College and
Wake Forest College; U.S. Navy, 1942-45; former city editor, Raleigh Times; administrative
assistant to U.S. Senator Willis Smith, 1951-53, and to U.S. Senator Alton Lennon, 1953;
executive director, North Carolina Bankers Association, 1953-60; executive vice president,
WRAL-TV and Tobacco Radio Network, 1960-72; member: Raleigh City Council and chairman of
Law and Finance Committee, 1957-61; deacon and Sunday School teacher, Hayes Barton Baptist
Church, Raleigh; recipient of two Freedoms Foundation awards for radio-television
editorials; recipient of annual citizenship awards from North Carolina American Legion,
North Carolina Veterans of Foreign Wars, and Raleigh Exchange Club; recipient of
Outstanding Service Award of the Council Against Communist Aggression; the Richard Henry
Lee Award; and the Order of Lafayette Freedom Award; former trustee, Meredith College,
John F. Kennedy College, the Delaware Law School, Campbell University and Wingate College;
president, Raleigh Rotary Club, 1969-70; 33 Degree Mason, Grand Orator, Grand Lodge of
Masons of North Carolina, 1964-65, 1982, 1991; member, board of directors, North Carolina
Cerebral Palsy Hospital; member, board of directors of Camp Willow Run, a Youth Camp for
Christ at Littleton, NC; married Dorothy Jane Coble of Raleigh, October 31, 1942; three
children: Jane (Mrs. Charles R. Knox), Nancy (Mrs. John C. Stuart), and Charles; seven
grandchildren; elected to the U.S. Senate, November 7, 1972; reelected in 1978, 1984, 1990
and 1996. Return to Last
ssembly Member Hawkins, a Democrat from Los Angeles, served from 1934 to 1960,
succeeding Frederick M. Roberts. He served on the important Rules Committee of the Assembly during
part of his over twenty years in the Legislature. His agenda continually focused on
education, labor and employment issues. Return to Last Page
Mark Hatfield is a former United States Senator from Oregon who has been a student,
teacher, and practitioner of the American political system for virtually his entire life. A veteran of the
Pacific Theater in World War II, Mark Hatfield has dedicated his life to preventing and
ending armed conflict and improving the human condition through a lifetime of public
While teaching political science and serving as Dean of Students at his alma mater,
Willamette University, Mark Hatfield began his political career in the Oregon Legislature
in 1950. After two terms in the Oregon House of Representatives and two years in the
Oregon Senate, he became the youngest Secretary of State in Oregon history in 1956 at age
34. He was elected Governor of Oregon in 1958 and came the state's first two-term governor
in the Twentieth Century when he was re-elected in 1962. He has never lost an election.
In 1966, then Governor Mark Hatfield was elected to the United States Senate as an
outspoken critic of the war in Vietnam. In August of 1993, he became the longest serving
U.S. Senator from Oregon, surpassing the previous record set by Senator Charles McNary.
A deeply religious man, Hatfield has always sought peaceful resolutions to world
conflicts and domestic disputes. As a Lieutenant, j.g. in the U.S. Navy during World War
II, Hatfield saw battle at Iwo Jima and Okinawa and was among the first U.S. servicemen to
enter Hiroshima following the atomic bombing.
His experience during the war and his compassion for life have made him an ardent
proponent for nuclear disarmament. Hatfield's tireless efforts to bring an end to the
proliferation of nuclear weapons culminated in 1992 with the passage of legislation he
authored calling for an end to U.S. nuclear testing.
As Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Senator Hatfield has provided for
the development of major public works projects throughout Oregon and the Pacific
Northwest. The results of his efforts can be seen in the reforestation of millions of
acres of federal forest lands, in the Portland Metropolitan area's light rail system, the
new Bonneville Lock on the Columbia River, the Marine Science Center in Newport, the
Oregon Health Sciences University, the University of Oregon, Oregon State University,
Portland State University and numerous other projects around the state.
At the national level, Senator Hatfield constantly strives to remind his colleagues of
what he calls "the desperate human needs in our midst." He has consistently
opposed increases in defense spending and United States military involvement abroad while
focusing on improving health, education, and social services programs.
He is know as an independent legislator who votes his conscience, a trait that has
earned him bipartisan respect from his colleagues. Much of his success in the Senate can
be attributed to his unique ability to work across party lines to build coalitions which
secure the enactment of legislation.
Senator Hatfield serves as Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee. He is also
a member of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee, the Rules Committee, the Joint
Committee on the Library, and the Joint Committee on Printing.
Senator Hatfield was born on July 12, 1922, in Dallas, Oregon. He is the son of Dovie
Odom Hatfield, a school teacher, and Charles D. Hatfield, a railroad construction
blacksmith. He and his wife, the former Antoinette Kuzmanich, were married in 1958. They
have four children and three grandchildren.
Senator Hatfield graduated from Salem High School and earned a Bachelor of Arts Degree
from Willamette University in 1943. Following World War II, Senator Hatfield earned a
Master's Degree in political science from Stanford University in 1948 and later returned
to Willamette University to serve as professor of political science and Dean of Students.
He has a passion for rare books and presidential history and is well known as an
aficionado of Herbert Hoover and Abraham Lincoln. Return to Last Page
Keeping in touch with Iowans enables Sen. Chuck Grassley to bring Iowa common sense to
official Washington. From the
river towns along the mighty Mississippi to the farm communities nestled among the Loess
Hills in Western Iowa, Chuck Grassley stays well-informed by holding open meetings in each
of Iowas 99 counties every year. A hallmark of Grassleys commitment to make
representative government work, the senior senator from Iowa works hard to give individual
Iowans a voice in Washington. Plus, from his assignments on Capitol Hill, Grassley is
where he needs to be to advocate for Iowans in Congress.
The only working family farmer in the U.S. Senate, Grassley brings true grit to his
congressional oversight responsibilities. Seeking a more accountable government, Grassley
works to keep Washington honest. Whether its tracking constituent casework or going
head-to-head with the Pentagon, Grassley works to make the federal government work better.
He successfully led a six-year campaign to make Congress live under the same laws as the
rest of the country.
Sinking his teeth into the federal governments bureaucratic alphabet soup, Grassley
has fostered reforms of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI), the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), the federal agency
that runs Medicare, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS).
Keeping a vigil against waste, fraud and abuse, Grassley also is a nine-time recipient of
the Taxpayers Friend Award. As the second most senior member of the Senate Budget
Committee, Grassley champions fiscal discipline. Involved in negotiating the Balanced
Budget Act of 1997, Grassley helped shepherd through Congress the first balanced federal
budget since 1969.
Grassleys tenacity has earned renown inside the Beltway and outside Washington. The
Iowa senators tight grip on the federal purse strings has brought remarkable results
for the taxpayers. Working to combat fraud against the government by defense contractors
in 1986, Grassley won passage of amendments to the False Claims Act. To date, the Grassley
amendments have recovered $1.8 billion to the U.S. Treasury and have helped to deter
untold billions more. The Grassley provisions have become the governments most
effective weapon against health care fraud.
Honoring the memory of the American servicemen still missing from the Vietnam War, it was
Chuck Grassley who in 1992 successfully challenged the U.S. government to release over a
million pages of documents about those left behind as POWs and MIAs. Grassley pulled back
the cloak of secrecy that had surrounded this painful chapter in American history. For the
families and loved ones of those brave men, there was no stronger advocate than
Iowas senior senator.
A farm state lawmaker, Grassley exercises his authority on the Senate Judiciary and
Finance Committees to watch out for rural Americas interests. Trouble-shooting for
the Midlands, Grassley continues to monitor mega-mergers and potentially anti-competitive
behavior. Specifically, Grassley has asked the U.S. Justice Department to gauge
disproportionate impacts that mergers in the banking, airline, chemical, seed, railway,
telecommunications, and utilities industries may have on farmers, small business owners,
workers, and consumers in rural America.
Grassleys crusade to bring health care equity to rural areas helps keep small town
hospitals open and brings fairness to Iowa Medicare beneficiaries and to the qualified
health care professionals, including physicians assistants and nurse practitioners, who
From his position on the tax-writing Senate Finance Committee, Grassley considers all
legislation affecting tax relief for families, Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and
A Butler County native, Grassley brings real life work experience to the Senate
Agriculture Committee. Grassley understands the ins and outs of farming and how policy
decisions from Washington impact the hardworking American farmer. Scoring a major victory
for the Upper Midwest, Grassley orchestrated congressional approval to extend the ethanol
program to 2007.
The farmer-senator also chairs the International Trade Subcommittee. Here, he works to
open new markets for value-added Iowa products. Committed to a strong, diversified economy
to keep good-paying jobs that keep young people in Iowa, Grassley advocates free and fair
trade opportunities to enhance Iowas competitiveness in the global economy. Since
1986, Grassley has hosted hundreds of international ambassadors on a biennial tour of his
home state to showcase Iowas people, products and places to our global trading
Chuck Grassley sits in a unique position to look out for aging Americans. Elected chairman
of the Senate Aging Committee in 1997, Grassley takes advantage of the committees
broad jurisdiction to tackle issues that will improve the quality of life of older
citizens. Chairman Grassley has addressed predatory home lending practices that target
seniors; retirement income security, including pensions, Social Security and personal
savings; home health care; Americas shortage of geriatricians; age-related diseases,
including Alzheimers disease and prostate cancer; and, quality long-term care,
including nursing homes. With a forward-looking eye to the largest demographic shift in
Americas history, Grassley says its critical the nation is prepared for the
retirement of 77 million baby boomers shortly after the turn of the century.
Grassleys commitment to Iowas future and the next generation prompted him to
launch an extensive, first-of-its-kind statewide initiative to address Iowas growing
drug problem. Called Face It Together (F.I.T.), Grassley has solicited input from
thousands of Iowans to develop a long-term statewide anti-drug strategy. As chairman of
the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, Grassley takes aim at money
laundering, crime rings and drug trafficking that victimize Americas youth.
While Senator Grassley works in Washington, he lives in Iowa. He returns home almost
every weekend. He and his wife Barbara raised five children in New Hartford. They have
nine grandchildren. Return
to Last Page
Before he became one of the country's foremost conservative spokesmen, there were many
other Barry Goldwaters:
The mischievous young man, department store head, photographer, ham radio operator,
Phoenix councilman, Kachina collector, pilot, explorer and presidential candidate.
He once discovered a natural bridge in the Grand Canyon and he started a national fad in
Goldwater was born in what then was the Arizona Territory on Jan. 1, 1909, in Phoenix, the
son of Baron and Josephine Williams Goldwater, who lived at 710 N. Center St., which is
now Central Avenue.
Goldwater's grandparents, Michael and Sarah Goldwasser, were Polish-Jewish immigrants who
moved from Europe to San Francisco in 1852 in search of gold. They eventually settled in
Arizona, establishing a store in Prescott, the capital of the new territory.
Goldwater attended Phoenix Union High School, and although he became president of the
freshman class, he almost failed. He was a poor student who appeared to be more interested
in pranks, such as firing a miniature cannon at the steeple of a Methodist church.
His father enrolled him in Staunton Military Academy in Virginia, and he flourished under
the regimentation, playing sports, earning academic honors and graduating in 1928.
He enrolled the next year at the University of Arizona, driving a 1925 Chrysler roadster,
playing football, becoming a class leader and joining a fraternity.
"There is something essentially Western about his personality," observed the
late Howard Pyle, a longtime friend of Goldwater's.
Goldwater's lifelong pal Harry Rosenzweig recalled an evening when Goldwater had a good
time at the Phoenix Country Club and "wrecked the place" before the night was
over. He mailed a check to cover the damages the next day.
Goldwater's carefree college days ended after a year because of his father's sudden death
of a heart attack on March 6, 1929.
The 20-year-old Goldwater then joined the family business, then the oldest retail
mercantile company in the state. The boss' son had to work his way up and, like his
father, to start as a clerk. He also worked as a salesman and spent a year in the firm's
New York buying office.
In 1937, at age 28, Goldwater became president of the stores. He held that position until
1953, except for 1941-45, when he was a pilot with the Army Air Forces. He then became
chairman of the board and remained there until after the stores were sold.
While managing Goldwater's, he created a national marketing hit in 1938 when he dreamed up
and designed "antsy pants" - men's shorts that were white with designs of red
ants on them.
"You'll rant and dance with ants in your pants," Goldwater's advertisements
Goldwater met Margaret Johnson in December 1930, when she and her mother went into the
store. Her family lived in Muncie, Ind., and spent the winters in Phoenix.
The two began dating two years later and were engaged in December 1933. Goldwater said he
proposed in a phone booth, while the two were waiting to make a phone call.
"I told her I was running out of money and out of patience. For the umpteenth time I
asked her to marry me. She said yes."
They married in Muncie on Sept. 22, 1934.
Their first child, a daughter, Joanne, was born on Goldwater's birthday, Jan. 1, 1936.
Barry Jr. was born in 1938, Michael in 1940 and Peggy in 1944.
"Peggy and I have had four children. We have known joy and sorrow together. We have
encountered pain and illness. We have suffered separation for long periods of time.
Through it all she has been my strength, my companion, a part of my private world where no
other human beings, not even our children, have been allowed to enter," his
Goldwater entered politics in 1949 as a founding member of the Charter Government party,
formed by leading Phoenix businessmen to purge the city of corruption. In the 1949
municipal vote, he was elected to the City Council and was the top vote-getter on the
ticket. He was re-elected in 1951.
In between times, he served as campaign manager to his longtime friend Howard Pyle, who
was elected governor of Arizona in 1950.
One secret he shared only with his wife until publication of his book Goldwater in 1988
was that he never really wanted to be president and that he knew he would lose the 1964
"My effort became an effort to take the control of the Republican Party away from the
Eastern Seaboard and move it here to the Rocky Mountains and the West. And we did,"
"I really wouldn't (have liked being president)," Goldwater added. "Ike
(Eisenhower) told me one day that he had signed 1,300 signatures. Now that takes all day.
So when do you have time to sit down and worry about the world?"
He dedicated the book Goldwater to Peggy's memory and in it recalled the pain of her death
in 1985 after complications resulting from the amputation of her leg. She was 76.
"I phoned her four or five times every day for months after returning to
Washington," Goldwater wrote. "The phone would ring and ring. Then her memory
would fall away and my face would collapse into my hands. The healing process has been
slow and painful."
Goldwater had a brother, Bob, born 19 months after him, and a sister, Carolyn, born in
Goldwater's father was Polish- Jewish, but the family adopted the Episcopal faith of his
mother. Goldwater, his brother and sister were baptized as Episcopalians.
Goldwater once said, "I had to go back east and leave Arizona before I found out that
Jews were somehow different from other Americans."
Time away from the business revealed Goldwater's strong attachment to Arizona's back
country, particularly Indian country. He published photo compilations and magazine
articles about Arizona and exhibited photographs nationally and internationally. He was an
associate of the Royal Photographic Society of England.
Goldwater compiled two volumes of striking photographs of Arizona into a book titled
Another hobby was music. Goldwater taught himself to play the saxophone, clarinet and
mandolin. And he played golf for many years.
When radio was gaining national prominence in the early 1920s, Goldwater's father bought
him a receiving set. Young Barry became a radio operator in 1922 and never lost his
fascination. In April 1962 he resumed being a ham radio operator.
In 1967, his amateur radio station, operated from his hilltop Paradise Valley home, became
a Military Affiliate Radio Station (MARS), handling more than 100,000 telephone
"patches" between U.S. servicemen and their relatives through the 1970s.
Dozens of volunteer amateur operators, including Goldwater himself, intercepted MARS
transmissions from Southeast Asia and other military installations and patched them into
regular telephone lines.
Around 1917, Goldwater made his first visit to a reservation and developed a lifelong love
for Native Americans.
The Goldwater home - named "Be Nun I Kin" which means "house on the
hill" in Navajo - reflected the love Goldwater had for all things Indian. Collections
of Indian artifacts fill rooms throughout the house.
His prized collection of 450 Kachina dolls have been on permanent loan to the Heard
Goldwater loved to explore the state and in July 1940 took a 700-mile, six-week journey
down the Colorado River. Later, in 1951, while flying over the Grand Canyon, Goldwater
discovered a natural bridge at the eastern end that was previously unreported.
On Nov. 22, 1954, the National Park Service confirmed his discovery. Return to Last Page
Ervin died at about 4:15 p.m. at North Carolina Baptist Hospital in Winston-Salem,
N.C., where he had been undergoing artificial kidney dialysis. He had been hospitalized March 30 in his home town
of Morganton, N.C., for treatment of emphysema and an infected gall bladder, and developed
kidney failure after undergoing gall bladder surgery there.
"The cause of death was attributed by his doctors to respiratory failure which
developed during the day," a hospital spokesman said. "The kidney failure for
which Mr. Ervin was admitted to the center was a significant contributing factor."
Ervin served 20 years in the U.S. Senate, beginning in 1954 at the height of the
McCarthy era and ending with his retirement in December 1974, four months after the
resignation of President Richard M. Nixon. As chairman of the Senate Select Committee to
Investigate Campaign Practices - known more popularly as the "Ervin Committee"
or the "Watergate Committee" - which was established to investigate Watergate,
Ervin was a major figure in Nixon's downfall.
With his arching eyebrows and flapping jowls that signaled his moral indignation at much
of the testimony before his committee, his half-country, half-courtly demeanor and his
predilection for making points by quoting the Bible and Shakespeare and telling folksy
stories, Ervin quickly became a hero to many.
Ervin became so popular that "Senator Sam" T-shirts and buttons appeared all
over the country, but he was far from being a pop cult figure. At a time when Americans
were buffeted by the Vietnam War and Watergate and increasingly distrustful of their
leaders, Ervin came across as a stern father figure who wasn't confused about what was
right and wrong, moral and evil, and who took for granted the moral courage to stand up
for what was right.
Ironically, it was because he was a strict constitutionalist whose interpretation of a
document he revered defied ideology or party lines - the sort of person Nixon professed to
admire - that Ervin was the choice of then-Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield (D-Mont.)
to head the special committee.
"Sam is the only man we could have selected on either side who would have the
respect of the Senate as a whole," Mansfield said.
Ervin came to an uncomplicated verdict on Watergate: Nixon and his chief aides tried to
pull some funny business in order to weaken the Democratic presidential ticket and enhance
Nixon's chances for reelection in 1972, tried to lie about it and cover it up in violation
of the law, and got caught. His remarks at the opening of his committee hearings
underscored the profound seriousness with which he viewed the Watergate case.
"If the many allegations made to this date are true, then the burglars who broke into
the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate were in effect
breaking into the home of every citizen of the United States," Ervin said. "And
if these allegations prove to be true, what they were seeking to steal was not the jewels,
money or other precious property of American citizens, but something much more valuable -
their most precious heritage: the right to vote in a free election."
He said that Watergate "for the first time undertook to destroy the integrity of
the process" and said its perpetrators showed "the same mentality as the
Not surprisingly, he rang down harsh judgments on the perpetrators. Quoting Mark
Twain's injunction, "The truth is very precious; use it sparingly," Ervin said
of Nixon: "He used it sparingly."
On the convictions of former attorney general John Mitchell and former White House aide
John Ehrlichman for their roles in the scandal, he said: "I don't think either one of
them would have recognized the Bill of Rights if they met it on the street in broad
daylight under a cloudless sky."
When Nixon initially refused to let his aides testify before the committee, Ervin snapped:
"Divine Right went out with the American Revolution and doesn't belong to White House
aides. What meat do they eat that makes them grow so great? .... I don't think we have any
such thing as royalty or nobility that exempts them. ... That is not executive privilege.
That is executive poppycock."
He used country humor to help bring down Sen. Joseph McCarthy (R-Wis.), who terrorized
a large proportion of the political community, including the Senate, in the early 1950s.
Shortly after he arrived at the Capitol in 1954, then-Vice President Nixon appointed Ervin
to a committee to study whether McCarthy should be censured, an assignment few were eager
The fledgling senator helped strip away the awe in which many of his colleagues held
McCarthy with a notable speech in which he said that McCarthy reminded him of the preacher
who didn't like the top knots women were wearing and wanted to denounce them as being
counter to the will of God, although he had trouble finding an appropriate biblical text
to support his argument.
Finally, the preacher delivered a sermon entitled "Top Knot Come Down," and
someone asked him his source.
The preacher cited Matthew 24:17, which reads: "Let him who is on the housetop not
come down to take anything out of his house." Much of Ervin's colleagues'
apprehension dissolved in laughter and Ervin followed up in a speech advocating that
McCarthy be censured.
Ervin came by his views and expressions directly. Born in Morganton on Sept. 27, 1896, a
descendant of Scots-Irish Calvinists, he began memorizing the King James version of the
Bible under the tutelage of his pious mother.
His father, a fiery, flamboyant, self-taught lawyer, made Ervin the most formidable name
in Burke County, N.C., and gave his son a reverence for the Constitution.
After graduating from the University of North Carolina in 1917, Ervin joined the Army and
was sent to France during World War I. After resigning his commission because of his
dissatisfaction with his performance in combat, he won the Distinguished Service Cross,
the Silver Star and two Purple Hearts for heroism as an enlisted man.
He graduated from Harvard Law School in 1922, then practiced law in Morganton; served
three terms in the state Assembly, where he helped defeat a bill prohibiting the teaching
of the theory of evolution, and served on the state Supreme Court from 1948 to 1954.
As a strict constitutional constructionist, he was the delight of liberals for
supporting civil liberties, opposing "no knock" search laws, data banks and
lie-detector tests as invasions of privacy. In 1966, he helped defeat a constitutional
amendment that would have allowed prayer in school and appeared headed for enactment.
But Ervin opposed almost all civil rights legislation on the grounds that they took rights
away from others, whites - to hire whom they wanted, to sell their homes to whom they
wanted, to go to school where they wanted - and that preserving the Constitution was more
important than redressing blacks' grievances. He turned around on the landmark school
desegregation case, Brown v. Board of Education, however, because of his belief that it
didn't discriminate against whites. Return to Last Page
American politician and United States senator (1969-1996).
He was born in Russell, Kansas. Dole suffered severe wounds during World War II (1939-1945)
and left the military with a disabled right arm. In 1960 he was elected as a Kansas
representative to the Congress of the United States, where he opposed many of the liberal
spending policies of the Democratic administrations of John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.
Dole was elected United States senator in 1968. Dole sometimes deviated from his strict
conservatism, especially in supporting aid to feed the hungry and civil rights
legislation. He married Elizabeth Hanford in 1975.
In 1976 President Gerald Ford asked Dole to be his
vice-presidential running mate. They were narrowly defeated. After several unsuccessful
bids for the presidential nomination of the Republican Party, Dole became leader of
Republicans in the Senate in 1985. Dole resigned his Senate seat in 1996 to campaign for
the presidency. He won the Republican nomination, but was defeated in the general election
by incumbent President Bill Clinton. Return to Last Page
Robert Byrd was born Corneilius Calvin Sale, Jr., in North Carolina in 1917. He lost
his mother before he was a year old and was adopted by an aunt and
her coal-miner husband, Dalton Byrd. As a boy, Byrd worked at various jobs and walked a
great distance to catch a bus to school. He completed 12 grades of schooling in 10 years
and graduated at the top of his class in 1934. Later, he served as a state senator, in
1952 won a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, and later in the Senate, eventually
finishing law school by attending night classes.
Auctioneer, broadcaster, county commissioner, football referee, livestock fieldman and
Marine, Senator Conrad Burns became the first Republican in the history of
Montana to be elected to a second term in November 1994. He won the election with more
than 62 percent of the vote.
Burns became Montana's 19th United States Senator on January 2, 1989. In 1988, Burns
defeated incumbent Senator John Melcher by a 52 to 48 percent margin, becoming only the
second Republican Senator ever elected from his state. He was the only Republican
challenger to defeat an incumbent that year.
As Montana's representative, Burns has worked for a healthy job base for Montanans;
effective, fiscally responsible government; tax reform; realistic health care reform; the
expansion of Montana's agricultural industry and preservation of natural resource-based
jobs; and increased individual opportunity through telecommunications. Return to Last Page
Senator Richard Bryan was re-elected to a second term in the United States Senate on
November 8, 1994. Senator Bryan, a native of Southern Nevada and a former
two-term Governor, has pursued a challenging and demanding agenda focusing on issues that
affect our nation, while protecting Nevada's interests in Congress.
For more than a decade, Bryan has been the most ardent defender of Nevadans' health and
safety by opposing the federal government's plans to locate a permanent high-level nuclear
waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Recent efforts by the nuclear power industry have
focused on making Nevada a so-called interim storage site for nuclear waste at
the Nevada Test Site. Senator Bryan is aggressively fighting this interim storage
legislation which would actually create a de facto permanent storage and which waives
almost all health, safety and environmental standards.
Since coming to the Senate in 1989, Senator Bryan has gained a national reputation as
an advocate for consumers. As the former Chairman of the Senate Consumer Subcommittee,
Senator Bryan was responsible for enacting laws to combat errors in the credit reporting
system giving new powers to consumers to correct errors found on their credit reports and
putting the burden of proof on the credit bureaus. He has also led the fight against
telemarketing fraud and to improve auto safety. The Senator has also worked to ban ATM
fees, and to stop telephone slamming.
Senator Bryan has been recognized for his efforts to balance the federal budget and cut
unnecessary government programs. His record on budget cutting resulted in his being named
to the Concord Coalitions Deficit Hawk Honor Roll. Bryan also received the
"Spirit of Enterprise Award" from the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, given to Members
of Congress who have an exceptional voting record on business issues. Bryan is an original
sponsor of a Constitutional Amendment to require a balanced budget and has introduced and
supported numerous budget cutting amendments on the Senate floor. He led the successful
fight to cut the controversial program from NASAs budget which sought to contact
aliens in space. Bryan continues the fight to eliminate the Market Access Program, an
agricultural program which provides American and foreign companies with hundreds of
millions of taxpayer dollars to advertise their products overseas.
Senator Bryan is a leading protector of the environment. He helped establish the Spring
Mountains National Recreation Area and the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area.
Senator Bryan is working to help the Las Vegas Valley better manage growth by changing the
way federal lands are turned over for development. His bill, the Southern Nevada Public
Lands Management Act would require BLM lands, identified for development, be auctioned to
the highest bidder, thereby ensuring taxpayers of the highest price and giving local
government a greater say in development decisions. Senator Bryan established and now
serves as Chairman of the Board of the Corporation for Solar Technology and Renewable
Resources, which is working to bring the solar power industry to Nevada. He is also a
leading advocate of protecting Nevadas jewel in the North -- Lake Tahoe. For nearly
four years Senator Bryan fought to protect the environmentally pristine Galena property
located near Mount Rose.
As a member of the powerful Senate Finance Committee, Senator Bryan is in a unique
position to protect Nevadas gaming industry, which employs more than 200,000
Nevadans. In recent years, the gaming industry has been under attack in Congress,
culminating in the creation of the National Gambling Impact Study Commission, formed by
some of gamings most ardent foes. Bryan is also working to reform the Indian Gaming
Regulatory Act and crack down on illegal Indian gaming operations in several states,
Senator Bryans position on the Senate Finance Committee has also given him a
forum to help protect programs which are important to Nevada's large senior citizen
population. He has worked to ensure that the Medicare system remain solvent for
todays Medicare recipients and future generations. When it was determined that the
federal budget would run a surplus for the first time in 30 years, Senator Bryan joined
with others in calling for the surplus to be used to protect Social Security.
Believing that long-term economic prosperity is closely tied to quality education,
Senator Bryan has consistently worked to improve education in Nevada. As Governor, Richard
Bryan created and chaired a commission on educational excellence. Today, as United States
Senator he supports policies by the federal government that encourage educational
opportunities for all children.
Senator Bryan has a long and successful career of public service in Nevada. His service
began in the law enforcement field, serving as Clark County Deputy District Attorney in
1964. Senator Bryan later went on to be Clark County's first public defender. His first
elected position came with the Clark Country voters sending him to the State Assembly in
1968, where he served until 1972. That year, he was elected to the State Senate.
Bryan's law enforcement background served him well as Nevada's Attorney General. First
elected in 1978, Bryan served as Nevada's chief law enforcement officer until 1982. The
veteran prosecutor and lawmaker was elected by the people of Nevada to be Governor in 1982
and was re-elected in 1986. Bryan ran and won his seat in the United States Senate in 1988
and was re-elected to his second term in 1994.Return
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