to Continental Lodge #287's Home Page. We Fraternally invite you to
view our Communication and visit us on our regular meeting night. We
meet on the first Wednesday of the month at Grand Lodge, 71 West 23rd
Street in the Renaissance Room on the 6th Floor at 7:30PM. Our
Brothers meet for dinner prior to the meetings. Check the
Communication for location and feel free to join us..... Dutch of
Be Well, God Bless and let our Brotherly Love Spread Around the
If you are not already a member
of our ancient & honorable fraternity, and would like additional
information, please contact this Lodg or any of our fraternity.
Although we cannot directly solicit members, we will be pleased to
respond to your interest by answering your questions and will gladly
provide a petition at your request.
Following his graduation from Howard University and Hartford Theological
Seminary, Young pastored small Congregational churches in Marion, Alabama and in Thomasville
and Beachton, Georgia. Later Young moved to New York City to become Associate Director of
the Department of Youth Work for the National Council of Churches. In 1961, Young returned
to Atlanta to work as a top aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. during the civil rights
movement. He served as Executive Vice President of the Southern Christian Leadership
Conference and chronicles his experiences in his book An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights
Movement and the Transformation of America.
Andrew Young was elected to three terms in the United States congress where he represented
the Fifth Congressional District of Georgia. In 1977, Young resigned his seat in the House
of Representatives to become United States Ambassador to the United Nations under
President Jimmy Carter.
First elected Mayor of Atlanta in 1981, young was re-elected for a second term in 1985.
During his administration, over half a million jobs were created, and the metropolitan
region attracted more than $70billion dollars in private investment and construction.
Following his terms as mayor, Young joined Law Companies Group, Inc., one of the most
respected engineering and environmental consulting companies in the world. Young served as
Chairman of its subsidiary, Law International, Inc., until February 1993 when he was
appointed Vice Chairman of Law Companies Group.
As a result of Youngs visibility in both the national and international arenas, he
played an instrumental role in bringing the 1996 Summer Olympic Games to Atlanta. He
served as Co-Chairman of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (ACOG).
Recently, President Clinton appointed Young Chairman of the new Southern Africa
Enterprise Development Fund (SAEDF). This $100 million fund will help establish small and
medium size businesses throughout Southern Africa.
Young is a member of numerous boards, including: Delta Airlines, Thomas Nelson Publishing
Company, Host Marriott Corporation, the Howard University Board of Trustees, the Georgia
Tech Advisory Board, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center Board of Directors, the Global
Infrastructure Fund, and the Center for Global Partnership.
Young has received many awards during his career: the Presidential Medal of Freedom,
Americas highest civilian award; the Legion dHonneur (France); and more than
45 honorary degrees from Universities such as Notre Dame, Yale, Morehouse and Emory. Return to Last Page
George Corley Wallace was born to George C. and Mozell (Smith) Wallace at Clio,
Alabama, on August 25, 1919. A farmer's son,
Wallace and his brothers Jack and Gerald and his sister Marianne attended local schools
and helped out on the farm. In 1936, while attending Barbour County High School, Wallace
won the state Golden Gloves bantamweight championship and held the title for the following
year. He was also quite active with the high school football team until his graduation in
1937. Wallace enrolled in the University of Alabama Law School in 1937, the same year his
father died, leaving the family with limited financial resources. Wallace worked his way
through law school by boxing professionally, waiting on tables, serving as a kitchen
helper and driving a taxi. Finding time to take part in school activities, he was
president of his freshman class, captain of the university boxing team and the freshman
baseball team and a member of the highly regarded law school honor court. He received his
degree in 1942.
Following a brief period in the U.S. Air Force (Wallace received a medical discharge),
he returned to Alabama where he served as an assistant attorney general for the state. In
1947, running as a candidate from Barbour County, George Wallace was elected to the state
legislature. His legislative tenure was quite productive. Among the highlights were
several Wallace-sponsored bills which greatly enhanced Alabama's industrial environment by
attracting more than one hundred industries into the state and the GI and Dependents
Scholarships Act which provided college and trade school tuition to children and widows of
war casualties. Wallace was elected judge in the Third Judicial Circuit in 1953, a
position he held until 1959. During subsequent years he also served the Democratic party
in many capacities.
In 1958, Wallace formally entered the governor's race and received more than a
quarter-million votes to place second in the primary to John Patterson. Patterson ran
strong on the racial issue and accepted the support of the Ku Klux Klan; Wallace refused
it. Wallace thereupon received the endorsement of the NAACP. In the run-off, Patterson
defeated him by over 64,000 votes. This devastating loss forced Wallace to significantly
adapt his political pitch to appeal to the state's voters.
Following his devastating defeat to Patterson, Wallace resumed his legal duties all the
while forming a plan to achieve his goal - the governor's office. Wallace's expressed
views on race relations and segregation underwent a drastic metamorphosis following the
defeat. By the primary of 1962, Wallace defeated his mentor Folsom, among others, and in
the run-off he defeated the rising young politician Ryan DeGraffenried. In the general
election of November, Wallace polled the largest vote ever given a gubernatorial candidate
in Alabama up to that time.
Wallace's first administration was marked by social tension. Among the major incidents
of the administration were racial demonstrations in Birmingham and Montgomery,
desegregation of schools in Macon County, his dramatic "stand in the school house
door" at the University of Alabama, and the nationally publicized fire hose and
police dog incidents of Birmingham. Furthermore, during this administration, Wallace made
his first sortie into the North. In 1964, he entered the presidential primaries in
Wisconsin, Maryland and Indiana and showed a surprising strength, receiving as high as
forty-three percent of the vote.
In September 1965, Wallace called the legislature back into session, ordering them to
draw up an amendment to allow a sitting governor to run for a second term, which had
theretofore been constitutionally prohibited; however, opposition to this amendment led by
Wallace's political foe, Ryan DeGraffenried, stymied Wallace's attempt. Wallace needed
only twenty-one votes to approve the amendment, but to stop filibuster through cloture and
vote on the bill, he needed twenty-four senators; he didn't get them. Wallace prevailed on
his wife Lurleen to run as his stand-in. The only strong opposition to any Wallace
candidate was Ryan DeGraffenried, making his second bid for governorship. But
DeGraffenried, while campaigning in mountainous northern Alabama, was killed in the crash
of his small private plane. After much contemplation, Lurleen Wallace announced as a
Following an unsuccessful run for the presidency, Wallace returned to the state
political scene. In the first primary election of 1970 Albert Brewer, Lurleen's successor
and former Wallace ally, out polled Wallace 421,197 votes to 414,277 votes; however,
Wallace out polled Brewer in the second primary. Subsequently, Wallace won the general
election of November and was inaugurated in January of the following year.
In 1972, Wallace again entered the presidential primaries, this time within the
Democratic party. He led off with a Florida victory in which he carried every county in
the state. In May 1972, while campaigning in Maryland, Wallace was felled by would-be
assassin, Arthur Bremer. As a result of the assassination attempt, Wallace was paralyzed
in both legs. This spelled the end of Wallace's presidential aspirations; however, he did
go on to garner subsequent presidential primary victories in Maryland, Michigan, Tennessee
and North Carolina. After his hospital stay Wallace returned to his duties as governor. In
the Democratic primaries of May 1974, Wallace easily won the gubernatorial nomination for
a third term without a run-off election, a move allowed by Alabama Constitutional
amendment 282, approved in November 1968. The amendment stated that all previously
authorized laws regarding "self-succession" were thereby repealed and allowed
gubernatorial officeholders to succeed themselves once, but not more than once.
During these successive administrations, Wallace sponsored the largest highway
expansion program in the state's history. Additionally, federal revenue sharing funds were
used to set up the Death Trap Elimination Program. In fiscal year 1973-74, Wallace made a
record educational appropriation of more than five hundred million dollars. Capital
investment in 1973 in Alabama exceeded 1.5 billion dollars, doubling the 1972 rate of
investment and resulted in over 1,000 new or expanded businesses and approximately 43,000
new jobs for citizens.
Wallace also made vital improvements in the Alabama Law Enforcement Planning Agency. He
doubled expenditures for improved health care, allocating revenue sharing funds to mental
health care. The Alabama Office of Consumer Protection was established in 1972. In 1973,
farm income exceeded 1.5 million dollars, doubling the previous year's income. Maximum old
age pensions were raised to $115.00 per month. By 1974, unemployment compensation and
workmen's compensation showed a 130 percent increase for the decade. Essentially, the
state enjoyed a reasonably prosperous economic environment during this era without any
exorbitant increase in state taxes.
In 1982, following a four-year political hiatus, Wallace returned to the state
political scene. In the first primary Wallace won easily taking 425,469 votes to George
McMillan's 296,271 and Joe McCorquodale's 250,614. Wallace subsequently defeated George
McMillan in the second primary and Montgomery mayor Emory Folmar, the Republican
challenger, in the general election.
Wallace's final gubernatorial conquest was characterized by an unprecedented amount of
black voter support during the general election. For the former advocate and chief
spokesman of the state's segregationists, this spelled a complete turnabout in his
During his final term, Wallace masterminded a constitutional amendment that created an
un-spendable oil and gas trust fund. Interest from the Alabama Trust Fund was to be pumped
into the General Fund which finances all non-education segments of state government.
Furthermore, he sponsored a controversial bill that re-wrote the state's job-injury laws.
He also worked quite closely with the legislature in the preparation of a $310 million
education bond issue. However, Wallace's attempts to get the legislature to raise property
and income taxes in order to provide a stable pool of money for education were
Wallace's final administration was marked by health problems; however, he continued to
push for the state's economic stability. Furthermore, his final administration was
characterized by ideological alignment with and overwhelming support of some of the
state's more prominent political factions/interest groups, the so-called "Wallace
Coalition;" this coalition included the Alabama Education Association, organized
labor, black political organizations and trial lawyers. Return to Last Page
GOV. TOMMY G. Thompson was born and raised in the small, central Wisconsin town of
Elroy. His father ran a gas station
and general store in that town of 1,500. Thompson's first job-at age six-was sorting and
polishing eggs in his father's store. His mother was a school teacher.
Thompson toppled a long-time incumbent of the state Assembly in 1966 to begin his own
career in public service. He knocked on nearly every door in a district that spanned three
counties to beat the man who had represented the area for almost 20 years. He was elected
assistant Assembly minority leader in 1973 and Assembly minority leader in 1981. He
practiced law during the majority of his time in the legislature.
Thompson was first elected governor in 1986, surprising the political experts by
defeating the incumbent Democratic governor and receiving 53 percent of the vote. Gov.
Thompson was reelected in 1990, garnering 58 percent of the vote. The governor in 1994
became the first in Wisconsin's history elected to a third, four-year term with almost 68
percent of the vote.
Since the day he took office, Gov. Thompson has pursued an ambitious and innovative
agenda focused on five main policy areas: the economy, ending welfare, education reform,
the environment and crime.
Wisconsin's economy was in poor shape when Gov. Thompson took office over a decade ago.
It was so bad that state business leaders placed an ad in the Wall Street Journal warning
other businesses to stay out of Wisconsin.
The governor went to work immediately to turn around the state's economy. He cut state
income tax rates, eliminated the inheritance tax and phased out the gift tax. He retained
an 60 percent exclusion on capital gains, making Wisconsin the only state to do so after
it was eliminated at the federal level. He has vetoed more than $600 million in
legislative tax increases. Return to Last Page
First sworn in at the 91st Congress, Representative Stokes has served fifteen
consecutive terms in the House of Representatives. In the 105th Congress,
Representative Stokes was a member of the Appropriations Committee, and was the third
ranking minority member of the Subcommittee on Veterans Affairs-Housing and Urban
Development-Independent Agencies. In addition, he served as a member of the Subcommittee
on Labor-Health and Human Services-Education. In the Congress, Representative Stokes
ranked eleventh overall in House seniority, and was the ninth ranking Democratic Member of
Congress. Representative Stokes was appointed by Minority Leader Dick Gephardt to
membership on the Leadership Advisory Group, which played a key role in advising the
leadership on important policy issues. By virtue of his seniority, he also served as Dean
of the Ohio Congressional Delegation.
During his thirty-year tenure as a member of Congress, Representative
Stokes served as the Universitys principal advocate. He is universally recognized as
a stalwart in advancing minority health issues and the health sciences. Return to Last Page
Carl Burton Stokes was born in Cleveland. He was only two years old when his father, a
laundry worker, died. His widowed mother supported her two
sons by working as a domestic. At one time the family was on public assistance. He helped
support his family by working as a newspaper carrier and in neighborhood stores. He
dropped out of high school and went to work in a foundry. After his 18th birthday, he
entered the Army. Stokes received an honorable discharge as corporal and returned to
school. He got his high school diploma in 1947. After graduating, he supported himself by
working as a dining car waiter. He earned a B.S. degree in law at the University of
Minnesota in 1954. Two years later, he received his L.L.B. degree from night law school in
Cleveland. In 1962, he became the first African-American democrat to be elected to the
Ohio Legislature. He was elected mayor of Cleveland in 1967 and was re-elected in 1969. Return to Last Page
Harold Stassen, (1907- ), American political leader. He is known chiefly for his
persistent and futile pursuit of the office of PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
Stassen was born in West St. Paul, Minn., on April 13, 1907. With a bachelor's and a
law degree from the University of Minnesota, he began to practice law in South St. Paul. A
leader of the Minnesota Young Republican League, he ran for governor as a reformer in 1938
and became Minnesota's youngest governor. In 1943, during his third term, Stassen resigned
to serve as a lieutenant commander in the Navy and as an aide to Adm. William Halsey. In
1945 Stassen was a U.S. delegate at the founding conference of the United Nations, where
he fought the inclusion of the veto provision in the Security Council.
Meanwhile, Stassen had begun to seek the presidency. He was "available" while
in the Navy in 1944, but his most serious effort was mounted in 1948, when he lost the
REPUBLICAN nomination to Thomas E. DEWEY. His claim to be a presidential primary candidate
in 1992 marked his ninth unsuccessful attempt to run for president.
Stassen was president of the University of Pennsylvania from 1948 to 1953. Under
EISENHOWER, Stassen served as director of the Mutual Security Agency, director of the
Foreign Operations Administration, and assistant to the president on disarmament. Later he
drew on these experiences to write Eisenhower: Turning Toward World Peace (1990).
After failed campaigns for the governorship of Pennsylvania (1958) and the mayoralty of
Philadelphia (1959), Stassen resumed law practice as his main occupation between bids for
the presidency Return to Last
Hubert Horatio Humphrey, was the 38th VICE-PRESIDENT of the United States
(1965-69) and a leader of the prolabor and civil rights elements in
the DEMOCRATIC PARTY. A loquacious, ebullient man who preached a "politics of
joy," he was several times a candidate for the PRESIDENCY.
Humphrey began working as a pharmacist in his father's drugstore. He went on to teach
political science and held federal administrative posts in Minneapolis. He helped unite
Minnesota's Farmer-Labor and Democratic parties, and with their support he was elected
mayor of Minneapolis in 1945. At the Democratic National Convention in 1948, he sponsored
a civil rights plank that caused the southern Dixiecrats to bolt the party. Humphrey was
elected to the SENATE that year and served until 1964, when he was chosen as President
Lyndon B. JOHNSON's running mate. After four years as vice-president, Humphrey was
nominated for the presidency in 1968. His defense of the Vietnam War cost him the support
of the antiwar movement, however, and he was narrowly defeated by Richard M. NIXON.
After two years out of office, Humphrey returned to the Senate in 1971. In 1972 and
1976 he sought the presidential nomination again but lost to George MCGOVERN and Jimmy
CARTER. He was still a senator at his death in 1978. Return to Last Page
America was bursting at the seams with surplus food when Orville Freeman became US
Secretary of Agriculture for President John
Kennedy. Before he went to Washington, Freeman was Minnesota's governor for six years.
None of the ups and downs of politics though, could match what Freeman faced as a Marine
lieutenant in World War II, island hopping in the South Pacific. A bullet in the head
shattered his jaw, nearly killing him. Orville Freeman grew up in Minneapolis, becoming a
football star at the University of Minnesota where he met his life-long friend and
political protege' Hubert Humphrey. While serving as governor from l954 to l960, Freeman
had to try settle a potentially violent strike by meat packers against the Hormel company
in Albert Lea. Then, Minnesota Lutherans reacted to Freeman's nomination of John Kennedy,
a Catholic, for president. Return
to Last Page
MEL CARNAHAN was born in Birch Tree and grew up in Rolla,
Missouri. He graduated from The George Washington University in 1954 with a degree in
business administration. Following graduation, he joined the U.S. Air Force and served
during the Korean War era. He received a law degree from the University of
Missouri-Columbia in 1959. Inspired by Adlai Stevenson, he entered public service at the
age of twenty-six, when he was elected to serve as a municipal judge in Rolla. Two years
later he was elected to the Missouri House of Representatives, where he was voted majority
floor leader in his second term. During his tenure, he twice was awarded the St. Louis
Globe-Democrat Meritorious Service Award and twice was recognized by his colleagues for
outstanding public service. In 1966 he left the Missouri House of Representatives,
returned to Rolla and his law practice, and turned his attention to raising a family and
to civic affairs. He became president of the local school board, a Kiwanis Club officer,
and chair of the local Red Cross chapter, the United Fund, and the ABLE Commission, which
helps the elderly. He also served on the board of Boys' Town of Missouri. In 1980 he was
elected state treasurer. During his term he adopted money management procedures that saved
the state millions of dollars. In 1988 he became lieutenant governor. Four years later he
was elected Governor by a decisive margin. He was reelected in 1996. He is former chair of
both the Democratic Governors' Association and the Southern Governors' Association and
past president of the Council of State Governments. Governor Carnahan serves as a member
of the National Governors' Association Executive Committee. Return to Last Page
American politician, mayor of Los Angeles, California, from 1973
to 1993. Bradley was born in Calvert, Texas. After attending college in Los Angeles, he served in the Los
Angeles Police Department (LAPD) for 22 years. In 1963 he became the first black to win a
seat on the Los Angeles city council. Bradley served five terms as mayor, during which Los
Angeles became one of the world's largest cities. Bradley was known as a consensus builder
with a cautious style. In 1982 and 1986 he was nominated for governor, but lost both
times. Return to