The site was last updated on
24 Aug 2000
Anti-Freeze: The Green Death
OK, maybe the title of this week's tip is a tad melodramatic, but it serves a purpose. As winter approaches here, many people are getting their vehicles prepared by changing the antifreeze. I hope to remind everyone that the innocent green puddle on the garage floor is a potential death sentence for your Pet!
In my practice, antifreeze poisoning is the most common and deadly toxicity we see in our dog patients. The toxic ingredient in antifreeze is ethylene glycol, ingestion of less than 2 ounces is potentially fatal for a 25 pound dog. Unfortunately, dogs (and children!) are attracted to antifreeze spills by its sweet smell and taste.
When an animal swallows antifreeze, the ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. After absorption, the ethylene glycol is changed into several other chemicals by an enzyme in the liver, alcohol dehydrogenase. Among these substances produced by the liver's metabolism of ethylene glycol are oxalic acid, glycolic acid, glyoxalic acid, and glycoaldehyde. These chemicals are highly toxic to the animal's kidneys, and result in the death of kidney cells. If a high enough dose of ethylene glycol was consumed, fatal and irreversible kidney failure results.
This first signs of antifreeze poisoning are neurologic in nature, these signs result from direct effects of the ethylene glycol. Affected dogs may be lethargic, uncoordinated, and vomiting. Owners often describe the dog as "acting drunk". These signs generally resolve by 12 hours after ingestion of the antifreeze, and the animal may have appeared to "recovered". Signs of renal failure develop 24 to 48 hours after ingestion. The dog will become very depressed, possibly even comatose. Seizures and vomiting may be seen.
Treatment of antifreeze poisoning involves supporting kidney function with fluid therapy and administering medications that reduce the metabolism of ethylene glycol by the liver. The key to successful treatment is early recognition. Treatment must be begun in the first few HOURS after the animal consumes the antifreeze in order to prevent the irreversible kidney failure from developing. Unfortunately, most animals with antifreeze poisoning are not taken to a veterinarian until they have been "sick for a day or two". At that point, treatment is unlikely to be successful. It is essential to take your dog to the veterinarian if you believe there is even a chance that he may have consumed antifreeze. Don't wait until he begins to act ill!
The bottom line with antifreeze poisoning is PREVENTION. When changing the coolant in your vehicle, clean up all antifreeze spills immediately! Be sure the antifreeze container is securely closed and out of reach. Address a leaking radiator immediately, before it causes the tragic death of a family Pet! Sierra is a relatively non-toxic antifreeze that contains propylene glycol rather than ethylene glycol. Consider using this type of antifreeze if your Pets have access to the areas where vehicles are stored.