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Wm. Max Miller, 
M. A.

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Introduction

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View mummies in the
following Galleries:

XVII'th
Dynasty

Gallery I


XVIII'th
Dynasty

Gallery I

Gallery II

Gallery III

Revised 5/15/03 Gallery IV
Featuring the controversial KV 55 mummy. Now with a revised reconstruction of ancient events in this perplexing tomb.

Gallery V
Featuring the mummies of Tutankhamen and his children. Still in preparation.


XIX'th
Dynasty

Gallery I 
Now including the
mummy identified as
Ramesses I


XX'th
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Gallery I


XXI'st
Dynasty

Gallery I

Gallery II


  Unidentified  Mummies

Gallery I
Including the mummy which some experts believe may be that of Nefertiti.

Gallery II
Including the KV 60 mummy found by Donald P. Ryan



About the Dockets

Inhapi's Tomb

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Biographical Data about William Max Miller
 


Special Exhibits

Updated!
The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu

  View the funerary equipment of Queen Tiye's parents!

New!
 Tomb Raiders of KV 46!
How thorough were the robbers who plundered the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu? How many times was the tomb robbed, and what were the thieves after? This study of post interment activity in KV 46 provides some answers.
 

Updated!
Special KV 55 Section!
========

Follow the trail of the missing treasures from mysterious KV 55.

KV 55's Lost Objects: Where Are They Today?

The KV 55 Coffin Basin and Gold Foil Sheets


KV 55 Gold Foil at the Metropolitan

Mystery of the Missing Mummy Bands

KV 35 Revisited
See rare photographic plates of a great discovery from Daressy's Fouilles de la Vallee des Rois.

Unknown Man E  
Was he really
buried alive?

The Tomb of Maihirpre
Learn about Victor Loret's important discovery of this nearly intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Special Section!
Tomb Robbers!
Who were the real tomb raiders? What beliefs motivated their actions? A new perspective on the ancient practice of tomb robbing!

Special Section!
Spend a Night
with the Royal Mummies

Read Pierre Loti's eerie account of his nocturnal visit to the Egyptian Museum's Hall of Mummies.

Special Section!
An Audience With Amenophis II
Journey once more with Pierre Loti as he explores the shadowy  chambers of KV 35 in the early 1900's.


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Most of the images on this website have been scanned from books, all of which are given explicit credit and, wherever possible, a link to a dealer where they may be purchased. Some images derive from other websites. These websites are also acknowledged in writing and by being given a link, either to the page or file where the images appear, or to the main page of the source website. Images forwarded to me by individuals who do not supply the original image source are credited to the sender. All written material deriving from other sources is explicitly credited to its author. 
Feel free to use  material from the Theban Royal Mummy Project website. No prior written permission is required. Just please follow the same guidelines which I employ when using the works of other researchers, and give the Theban Royal Mummy Project  proper credit on your own papers, articles, or web pages. 

--Thank You
 

This website is constantly developing and contributions of data from other researchers are welcomed.
Contact The Theban Royal Mummy Project at:
anubis4_2000@yahoo.com

Background Image:  Wall scene from the tomb of Ramesses II (KV 7.) From Karl Richard Lepsius, Denkmäler (Berlin: 1849-1859.)

 

 



The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu
Text and Commentary by
William Max Miller, M. A.




Left: "...The name of her father is Yuya. The name of her mother is Tuyu..." Commemorative scarab announcing the marriage of Tiye to Neb-Maat-Re
Amenhotep III, which emphatically proclaims the names of her parents.

Photo Credit:
Scarab from  Alexandre Herrero Pardo's Los Nobles de Egypto website (Los documentos Yuya y Tuya)

      Before the discovery of Tutankhamen's opulent treasures, the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu was one of the most important burials to be found in the Valley of the Kings. Discovered on February 5'th, 1905, by James Quibell and Theodore M. Davis, the tomb (designated KV 46) contained one of the most complete and beautifully made sets of funerary equipment then known. 
    Located between the tomb of Ramesses XI (KV 4) and a tomb from the time of Ramesses III (KV 3), KV 46 provides a good example of a single-chambered staircase tomb architecturally similar to other non-royal tombs found in the Valley (see diagram , showing the tomb's architectural plan, from Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou [London, 1907,]  24.) Dating from the 18'th Dynasty, it contained the burials of Yuya and Tuyu, the parents of Queen Tiye, and its many intact objects give an idea of how a high-status burial from the time of Amenhotep III was provisioned.
    High-status the burial undoubtedly was. Yuya and his wife Tuyu were no mere "commoners," elevated to a lofty social position solely by their daughter's royal marriage, as earlier commentators believed, but were probably individuals who had exerted immense political influence during the reigns of Amenhotep III and his father, Tuthmosis IV. The scarabs issued to commemorate the marriage of Amenhotep III to Tiye name her parents prominently in an unprecedented fashion, as though intentionally stressing the royal alliance with this Akhmim-based family. C. N. Reeves argues that the naming of Yuya and Tuyu on the marriage scarabs, which were most likely issued during Amenhotep III'rds second reignal year (when he was still a boy) indicates that the royal in-laws already exerted considerable political clout prior to their daughter's marriage, and may even have functioned as "powers behind the throne" during their youthful son-in-law's early years of rule. The many impressive titles of Yuya and Tuyu (including “God’s Father," “His Majesty’s Lieutenant Commander of Chariotry," “Master of the Horse," “Priest of Min," "Overseer of the cattle of Min, Lord of Akhmim" for Yuya and “King’s Mother of the Great Royal Wife, “Chief of the Harem of Min," “Priestess of Amen," “Chief of the Harem of Amen," and “Chantress of Hathor," for Tuyu) as well as their sumptuous burial in the Royal Valley, support this opinion.     
    Although their tomb had been robbed of its portable metallic objects and expensive linens in antiquity, most of the major funerary furnishings of Yuya and Tuyu remained intact (see diagram # 2, reprinted in DRN, 150, showing positions of objects in the tomb.) Davis, Quibell, Weigall, and Maspero (all of whom participated in the clearance of KV 46) theorized that the tomb had only been entered by thieves once, but Reeves discerns evidence for three separate intrusions. He believes that KV 46 had probably been first plundered soon after the burials of Yuya and Tuyu, and bases this view on the absence of precious oils from the tomb's remaining contents. The valuable oils so highly prized by the Egyptians did not keep long, and would only have been stolen while they were still fresh. Reeves dates two other possible robberies of KV 46 to the 20'th Dynasty, when gangs working on KV 3 and KV 4 had ample opportunity to enter and loot the smaller burial located so closely nearby. The inclusion by Quibell of two seal impressions bearing the names of Ramesses III (CG 51179-80) in his catalogue of objects associated with the burial would seem to pin-point the time of at least some type of post-interment activity to the reign of that king. However, Quibell did not take these seals into account when formulating his chronology of illicit activity in KV 46, and Elizabeth Thomas, who mentions only one of these seals in her work, considered it to be intrusive and irrelevant to the reconstruction of the tomb's pillaging. She indicates that this seal may even have been found in the filling above the entrance stairway, or in the filling of the stairway itself. Even if the seals cannot be used to date one of the alleged robberies, the fact that KV 46 was found covered by a layer of chippings from KV 3 and KV 4 proves that it could have been robbed no later than the 20'th Dynasty. For a detailed analysis of post interment activity in KV 46, click here or on the link below.
    Theodore M. Davis published an account of the discovery of KV 46, including photographic plates of the objects with descriptions written by Percy E. Newberry. The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou was his only official publication of the tomb, and lacks the kind of detail required by today's more scientific Egyptologists. However, this work possesses a charm all its own, with its outdated spellings and colorful assumptions helping to convey the romantic ambience of Egyptology during the Gilded Age. You can read the complete version of his report by clicking on the link below. Also, read Arthur Weigall's version of events at this tomb from his book, The Glory of the Pharaohs ([London, 1923,] 127-130.) Weigall adds color to the dry facts recounted by Davis.  
    Below are images of some of the objects discovered in the tomb. Commentary in quotation marks comes from Percy E. Newberry's descriptions printed by Theodore M. Davis in The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou. For a bibliography of relevant publications used in preparing this online exhibit, go to the end of the page. Any online sources of images are acknowledged by link in the photo credit caption accompanying the images. References to deities on this page link to the Egyptian Mythology section of the Encyclopedia Mythica website. Further detailed information on the mummies of Yuya and Tuyu in our XVIII'th Dynasty Gallery III may be viewed by clicking the links for their mummies given below. 

Tomb Raiders of KV 46!
by William Max Miller, M. A.
This page presents a detailed examination of the tomb robbing and
restoration work which occurred in the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu. It
compares the history of KV 46 given by its excavators with the
recent views of C. N. Reeves, and formulates a new reconstruction
of events in the tomb based on an analysis of J. L. Smith's diagram
of the burial chamber as it was first discovered.

The Finding of the Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou
by Theodore M. Davis

The Discovery of the Tomb of Yuaa and Tuau

by Arthur Weigall

The Mummy of Yuya

The Mummy of Tuyu



                                       Yuya's Sarcophagus--CG 51001

YuyaSarcoph.jpg (60983 bytes)"The sarcophagus is made of coarse grained wood covered with pitch and decorated with figures and hieroglyphic legends in stucco gilt. In shape the sarcophagus is rectangular with a projecting curved cornice around the tip; its lid is rounded on either side of a flat beam running down the axle, and has massive uprights at each end. The joints are mortice- and tenon-pinned, and the roller is dovetailed into the frame of the sledge."--Percy E. Newberry, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.

    Although designed to look like a sledge, this impressive wooden sarcophagus actually had no bottom, and the nested set of coffins which it contained rested directly on the floor of the tomb in which it had been constructed. Noting that the black pitch coating in some places had smeared over the gilding, Quibell  believed that it had probably been applied to the sarcophagus in the tomb itself. The decorative scheme resembles that used on 18'th Dynasty "black" style coffins: figures of Isis and Nephthys, with upraised arms, kneel upon nub-signs at the head and foot ends respectively, and figures of protective deities adorn the sides. The five deities on the sides of this particular sarcophagus, however, are not the traditional Four Sons of Horus. Here, two end figures of Thoth, each bearing a standard, face each other, while two jackal-headed figures (Anubis? Wepwawet? Duamutef?) and a human-headed figure (Imseti?) stand between them. The end boards of the lid are decorated with gilded figures of the recumbent Anubis, and the lid itself adopts the form used by the per-nu shrine of Lower Egypt. When it was discovered by the excavators, the lid of this massive sarcophagus was slightly out of alignment. It had been removed by thieves at some point in order to reach Yuya's mummy, and the ancient necropolis officials who restored the tomb replaced it at a crooked angle. The damage to the side panel visible in the photograph may have occurred when the heavy lids of Yuya's outer and second coffins were removed by thieves and thrown against it.

Photo Credit:  from private collection. Probably color-tinted print of photo from Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907.)


                                       Yuya's Outer Coffin--CG 51002

"The outer coffin is mummiform in shape, and, like the sarcophagus, is covered with pitch and ornamented with inscriptions and designs in stucco-gilt. The face and hands are gilt; the wig is long and the hair is represented by stripes of alternate black and gold. The eyes and eyebrows are inlaid; the eyebrows and lashes are of dark blue glass, the iris of black obsidian and the white of white marble. Around the neck and upper part of the chest is a broad necklace in gold, and on the wrists are bracelets. Upon the abdomen is a vulture with outspread wings and holding the [shen] rings in its talons..."
--
Percy E. Newberry, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.

    The outermost coffin of Yuya provides a classic example of the 18'th Dynasty "black" style coffin, which Ikram and Dodson note came into vogue during the reign of Hatshepsut and remained popular until the time of Ramesses II. The coffin is Osiriform, and decorated to resemble a wrapped mummy. Hands, face, inscriptional banding, parts of the wig, and figures of protective deities are all gilded. The non-gilded portions are coated with black Yuyacoffin1.jpg (84429 bytes) pitch, which probably held a symbolic significance because the color black was associated with fertility and rebirth (due to the deposit of rich black silt left by the annual Nile inundation in which the new seed was sown.) The deities adorning the sides of the coffin are the traditional Four Sons of Horus: (starting at the foot end) the human-headed Imesti; falcon-headed Qebsennuef; jackal-headed Duamutef; and ape-headed Hapi. These deities also figure prominently in the decorative scheme used for canopic sets, and stand guard over (respectively) the mummified liver, intestines, stomach, and lungs. Tomb robbers had removed the huge lid of this coffin, and it was found on the floor against the side panel of the sarcophagus.

Photo Credits: (Top Right) from private collection. Probably color-tinted print of photo from Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907.) (Left) Excavation assistant is dwarfed by Yuya's enormous outer coffin, measuring 2.75 meters in height, shown here soon after its removal from KV 46. (From John Romer's The Valley of the Kings [William Morrow and Company, 1981]  202.)

 


Yuya's Second and Inner Coffin--CG 51003-51004                                  

Yuyacoffins23.jpg (83105 bytes)"The second coffin...is of wood, coated with stucco and gold- and silver foil, and richly inlaid with glass of various colors. The wig is long and the hair is represented by alternate bands of silver and gold. The hands are of gold foil and project from the [stylized] mummy wrappings. In the right hand is a [djed] amulet; in the left an [Isis Knot.]...The third or inner [coffin]...is carved in wood, coated with stucco and gilt, and richly inlaid with semi-precious stones and coloured glass...the face and ears are exquisitely modeled. Covering the lower part of the abdomen and legs as far as the shins, is a standing figure of the goddess Nut in low relief, with arms upraised...She stands upon a nub sign..."--Percy E. Newberry, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.

    The second coffin of Yuya (on left in color photo) follows the usual pattern of the 18'th Dynasty "black" style coffins, but employs silver foil instead of black pitch to fill in the open spaces left by the traditional gold-leaf decoration. This is an unusual feature, and once more provides an indication of the power and wealth to which Yuya had attained. A metal much more YuyaCoffinsProne.jpg (59407 bytes) expensive and highly prized by the ancient Egyptians than even gold, silver could only be afforded by someone of extremely high status. The decorative symbolism is wholly traditional: the hands hold djed and tet amulets (symbolizing Osiris and Isis, respectively); a vulture representing Nekhbet (for Upper Egypt) and holding shen (eternity) signs in its talons appears immediately below the hands; and, below this, the sky goddess Nut, with upraised arms, kneels upon a nub-sign. On the lid of the foot-end of the coffin (not visible in the photo) appears the goddess Isis in her traditional position in funerary iconography. Her arms are upraised and she, too, kneels on a nub-sign. Yuya's innermost coffin (on right in color photo) follows the same basic decorative scheme as his second coffin. However, this coffin is entirely gilded, and (somewhat unusually) lacks hands. In The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou ([London, 1907],  9) Newberry states his belief that this coffin was not originally made for Yuya. He observed indications that the name of an earlier owner had been removed from inscriptions on the sides of the coffin and replaced with the name(s) of Yuya. Lending weight to this view is the fact that the facial features of the portrait masks on the two coffins differ significantly. The lids of both coffins had been removed by thieves. The second coffin's lid rested on top of the outer coffin lid on the floor against the wooden sarcophagus. The inner coffin's lid perched on its side on the rims of the three coffin basins inside the sarcophagus.

Photo Credits:  Top photo from private collection. Probably color-tinted composite of photos from Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907.) Inset photo showing 2'nd and inner coffins from James Edward Quibell's The Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu. Catalogue Général du Musée du Caire 51001-51191 (Cairo: IFAO, 1908), pl. III. Painting at right showing close-up of Yuya's inner coffin by William Max Miller, copyright 2003. Painting is based on photo from Quibell's The Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu, pl. V. Detail at left showing face of Yuya's inner coffin from Paul Johnson's The Civilization of Ancient Egypt (HarperCollins Publishers, 1999) cover photo.

 


         
    Yuya's Mummy Mask--CG 51008

"[Yuya's mummy mask] is made of several layers of coarse linen, glued together and coated  with plaster. The inside is bitumened, the exterior is gilt. The wig is long, lined, and with bands at the ends. The face is finally modeled. The eyes, eyebrows and eye lashes are inlaid: the eyes are of white marble and obsidian, the eyelashes and brows are of blue glass."--Percy E. Newberry, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.   

At the time of its discovery, Yuya's mummy mask had been seriously damaged by ancient thieves, who had broken it into several sections. It was finally restored by conservator Samir Abaza and placed on display in the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities several years ago, next to the mummy mask of Tuyu, Yuya's wife. (For information on the restoration of this mummy mask, see the article by Dennis Forbes in KMT [7:2] 40-45.) Larger than the mummy mask of Tuyu. this mask displays some interesting stylistic features that tend to date it to the last years of Amenhotep III's reign. As Dennis Forbes points out, "It's exceptionally small nose and over-large eyes hint at the 'juvenalizing' style favored by the deified Amenhotep III during his last decade." (KMT [7:2] 42.) Photograph of mask in profile at left clearly shows the "juvenalizing" tendencies characteristic of artistic trends late in the reign of Amenhotep III. This would indicate that Yuya had lived to a very old age, past Year 30 of his royal son-in-law's tenure on the throne. Reeves also theorizes that the mask may have been made later than Tuyu's mummy mask (see below.) Because of this--and contra Quibell, Maspero, Weigall, et al--Reeves leaves open the possibility that Yuya may have died after his wife and was thus buried in KV 46 later than Tuyu. (However, see his comments on the canopic jars of Tuyu noted below.)

Photo Credits: Upper right: Yuya's restored mummy mask from Ikram and Dodson's
Mummies in Ancient Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1998.) Pl. XIX. Lower left: Yuya's
mummy mask in profile, showing stylistic features common to Amenhotep III's
last years of rule. (Photo by George B Johnson, from KMT
[7:2] 43.)


                               Tuyu's Wooden Sarcophagus--CG 51005
    
             TuyuSarcoph.jpg (44502 bytes)               
"The sledge and sarcophagus are both of a coarse grained wood covered with pitch and decorated with figures and hieroglyphic legends in stucco gilt. In shape, the sarcophagus is rectangular, with a lid in the form of a projecting curved cornice and top of the common Egyptian box shape. Like the sarcophagus of Yuya, the joints are mortice- and tenon-pinned."--Percy E. Newberry, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.

    Unlike her husband's, Tuyu's sarcophagus was built with an inner bottom floor. But the sledge runners on which it sits rest on wooden cross-beams. As in the case of Yuya's sarcophagus, the sledge-like appearance of Tuyu's sarcophagus is also purely symbolic. Made of wood coated with black pitch, the lid of this sarcophagus was designed to resemble that of a per-wer shrine of Upper Egypt. Ikram and Dodson note that the cornice of the sarcophagus forms part of its lid--a feature which, they point out, also appears in the granite sarcophagus of Akhenaten, the grandson of Yuya and Tuyu. Gilded figures of Isis and Nephthys with upraised arms kneel on nub-signs at the foot and head end of the sarcophagus respectively, and gilded representations of protective deities identified by Maspero as "the four gods of the West" (i.e., the Four Sons of Horus) line the sides. Tuyu's sarcophagus was also decorated on the inside, where the figures of Isis and Nephthys appear once more along with texts from various chapters of the Book of the Dead. When discovered, the lid and one of the side panels of this sarcophagus had been removed by ancient thieves in order to facilitate the ransacking of Tuyu's mummy.

Photo Credit:  from private collection. Probably color-tinted print of photo from Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907.)


                       Tuyu's Outer and Inner Coffins--CG 51006-51007

Tuyucoffins12.jpg (63382 bytes)"The outer coffin...is made of wood carved and covered with stucco gilt. It is mummiform in shape, the wig is long and the hair is represented by bands of incised lines. The features of the face are very finely modeled. The eyes, eyelashes, and eyebrows are inlaid; the eyes are of white marble and obsidian, the eyelashes and eyebrows of opaque violet glass." The inner coffin is also of wood covered with stucco gilt. Newberry remarks that the "broad necklace is very elaborate, and consists of fifteen rows of conventional flowers and petals and drop shaped beads, which are inlaid in colored glass."--Percy E. Newberry, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.

     Ikram and Dodson point out that Tuyu's outer coffin is unusual because it is entirely gilded--most outer coffin's from nested coffin sets of this period were of the "black" style and partly decorated with a coating of black pitch. The decorative symbolism employed on bothTuyuCoffinsProne.jpg (59333 bytes) coffins is traditional, with figures of Isis, Nephthys, and Nut surrounded by bands of texts designed to look like  mummy straps. These bands are inscribed with prayers  and invocations to the gods, and also give the names and titles of the deceased. The ornate necklace on the inner coffin is inlaid and decorated with kheper, djed, and sa signs. Like her husband's innermost coffin, Tuyu's also does not have hands. (See a close-up color photo of the face of Tuyu's inner coffin at the Amigos de la Egyptologia website.)
 
  The excavators of KV 46 discovered that Tuyu's mummy lay only in her innermost coffin within the partly disassembled wooden sarcophagus. The coffin's lid had been removed and left next to the coffin basin on the floor. The lid and basin of Tuyu's outer coffin had been separated and discarded at two different locations in the burial chamber. The positions of the coffin and sarcophagus elements from Tuyu's funerary ensemble provide important clues to the number of robberies which occurred in the tomb. (See Tomb Raiders of KV 46 for more details.)

Photo Credits: 
Top photo from private collection. Probably color-tinted composite of photos from Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907.) Inset photo showing outer and inner coffins from  James Edward Quibell's The Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu. Catalogue Général du Musée du Caire 51001-51191 (Cairo: IFAO, 1908), pl. IX. Painting at left showing close-up of Tuyu's outer coffin by William Max Miller, copyright 2003. Based on pl. XI of  Quibell's The Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu.


Tuyu's Mummy Mask--CG 51009

"The mask is made of several layers of coarse linen glued together and coated with plaster. The inside is bitumened, the exterior is gilt. The wig is long, lined, and with bands at the ends; it is secured round the top of the head by a broad fillet composed of a band of lotus petals with a lotus flower and two buds on the forehead."--Percy E. Newberry, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.

    When discovered by Davis and Quibell, the face of this beautiful mummy mask was partly obscured by remnants of Tuyu's discolored linen shroud, which had probably gotten stuck to the gilded features by the oils and liquid resins used by the ancient priests to anoint the mummy. (Sections of this blackened adhering shroud still can be seen at the top and and along the sides of the wig.) Now cleaned, the lovely face of the youthful-appearing Lady Tuyu, Chantress of Hathor, Leader of the Harem of Amen, smiles back at us across a gulf of thirty-five centuries from what must be considered an undisputed masterpiece of ancient Egyptian portrait art. (See Tuyu's mummy mask from a different angle at the The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities  website. Then view The Egyptian Museum of Antiquity's display of the mummy masks of Yuya and Tuyu together at the Valley of the Kings Foundation website.)

Photo Credit: Salima Ikram and Aidan Dodson, Mummies in Ancient Egypt  
(Thames and Hudson, 1998,) pl. XVIII.


Canopic Equipment
CG 51012--CG 51013

Canopic chests of Yuya (left) and Tuyu (right). Both chests are made of wood coated with black pitch. The inscriptional bands and representations of the gods are gilded, and the over-all decorative scheme closely resembles that employed on the sarcophagi shown above. Images of Isis and Nephthys appear on the fronts of the chests. The goddesses Neith and Selket adorn the back panels. The sides of both chests are decorated with images of the Four Sons of Horus. The lids adopt the form of the per-wer shrine of Upper Egypt, and that on the chest of Tuyu is decorated with the double wedjet (representing the two eyes of Horus, i.e. the moon and the sun,) flanked by two recumbent figures of Anubis. Both chests contained four calcite canopic jars closed with human headed stoppers. These held the lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines of the deceased, which had been wrapped separately like miniature mummies and topped with small human-faced mummy masks. Tuyu's canopic jar and one of herYuyaCanopicLid.jpg (48750 bytes) mummified internal organs are depicted in the photo at right. Reeves notes that stylistic differences between the canopic jars of Yuya and Tuyu indicate that Yuya's had been made earlier, providing further evidence that he had predeceased his wife. (However, see his comments on Yuya's mummy mask, given above.) Lid (on left in photo) is from Yuya's canopic chest viewed from above.

Photo Credit: Theodore M. Davis, The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907), pl.s X, XVI. Inset photo showing the lid of Yuya's canopic chest and Tuyu's canopic jar with embalmed viscera from James Edward Quibell's The Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu. Catalogue Général du Musée du Caire 51001-51191 (Cairo: IFAO, 1908), pl. XVI.


Box1.jpg (104397 bytes) Inlaid Wooden "Jewelry Coffer"
CG 51118

Chest of inlaid wood decorated with gold, ebony, white and red-dyed ivory, and blue faience tiles. The sides are decorated at the bottom with gilded ankh, djed, and was symbols (forKV46Chest.jpg (122237 bytes) Life, Stability, and Power, respectively) set against a background of fine, stained red linen. The names of Tiye and Amenhotep III, the daughter and son-in-law of Yuya and Tuyu, appear on the sides. At right: the dual cartouches of Nebmaatre-Amenhotep III also appear on the lid of the box above gilded representations of Heh, (the god of "millions of years," i.e. eternity) kneeling on nub signs. 

Photo Credit: (Top photo)  from Wonders of the Past (Wise & Co., 1937,)  facing page 330. This resembles Howard Carter's painting in Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907) but is actually a color-tinted photograph. (Lower photo) from The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities website.


Chair1.jpg (71397 bytes)

Wooden Openwork Chair
CG 51111

Lion footed chair with figures of Bes (the god of health) and Tauret (the goddess of childbirth) standing on nub-signs on the back panel.

     BesChair3.jpg (14313 bytes)   BesChari1.jpg (17091 bytes)   BesChair2.jpg (17339 bytes)

Photo Credits: (Top Right) Wonders of the Past (Wise & Co., 1937,)  facing page 330. This resembles Howard Carter's painting in Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907) but is actually a color-tinted photograph. (Above) Three views of wooden openwork chair from the National Gallery of Art's Quest for Immortality website.


Wooden "Jewelry Coffer"
CG 51117

Table2.jpg (104440 bytes)

Another wooden coffer, bearing the name of Amenhotep III on the lid. It is decorated on the sides with the ankh, djed, and was symbols set against a backing of inlaid blue faience tiles. The top, made of two folding leaves, is decorated with two representations of the god Heh (the god of "millions of years," i.e. eternity) kneeling on nub-signs and bearing cartouches of Amenhotep III on their heads. 




Photo Credit:
Wonders of the Past (Wise & Co., 1937,)  facing page 330. This resembles Howard
Carter's painting in Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907) but is actually a
color tinted photograph.

 


Chair Inscribed for Sitamen--CG 51113SitamenChairSecond.jpg (85635 bytes)

SitamenCarving.jpg (37248 bytes)Gilded wooden chair presented to Yuya and Tuyu by their granddaughter Sitamen, daughter/wife of Amenhotep III. The modeled gesso and gilt decoration on the back panel of the chair consists of a winged sun disc with the place-name Edfu (capitol of the Horus nome of Upper Egypt, approximately 65 miles north of Aswan) on either side. Below this appears a scene showing a dual image of Sitamen receiving gifts of gold necklaces from female servants. The accompanying inscription above the seated princess gives her name: "The eldest daughter of the king whom he loves, Sitamen." The text inscribed above the servants describes the offering of gold from "the lands of the south." 
In his book Tombs, Temples and Ancient Art, Joseph Lindon Smith humorously recounts how the Empress Eugenie, while visiting KV 46 during its clearance, unknowingly horrified the excavators by seating herself in this chair. Incredibly, the three-thousand year old wood remained strong enough to support the weight of the elderly Empress, and no damage was done to this priceless antiquity from the era of Amenhotep III. For close-up views of chair decoration, see James Edward Quibell's The Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu. Catalogue Général du Musée du Caire 51001-51191 (Cairo: IFAO, 1908), pl.s XL (showing inner chair back), XLI (showing chair arm decoration), and XLIII (showing inner chair decoration.) 

Photo Credit: (Left) Enlargement of carved chair-arm decoration, perhaps in the likness of Sitamen
herself. From Alexandre Herrero Pardo's Los Nobles de Egypto website (Los documentos Yuya y Tuya). (Right) From The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities website.


In The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities, Cairo
Shabtis of Yuya and Tuyu
CG 51024-36  & CG 51037-40

BigShabti.jpg (44088 bytes)Fourteen shabtis inscribed for Yuya and four inscribed for Tuyu were discovered in KV 46. (One uninscribed shabti was also found in the tomb.) Each was inscribed with the shabti text from Chapter Six of TheShabtis.jpg (34479 bytes) Book of the Dead--the magical spell for reanimating the statuettes in the Underworld. Yuya's shabtis were made of expensive wood, including ebony and cedar. Tuyu's were of wood plaited with gold and silver. Along with these were found fifteen painted shabti boxes and assorted miniature tools for the shabti work-force to use in the Underworld. These tools (CG 51034-63) consisted of tiny yokes, hoes, picks, and a brick-mold--this latter item being very unusual for inclusion in shabti tool kits (click here for photo of miniature tools from Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou [London, 1907,]  pl. XXI.)

Photo Credits: (Left)
Wooden shabti of Yuya found in KV 46. From The Museum of Science website. (Right) Photo of KV 46 shabti display in The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt. From  Alexandre Herrero Pardo's Los Nobles de Egypto website. (Los documentos Yuya y Tuya)



In the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Shabtis of Yuya
, ca. 1391–1353 B.C.E.; 

Dynasty 18, reign of Amenhotep III; New Kingdom

Egyptian; Thebes. Painted cedar. Theodore M. Davis Collection, 
Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.8.57)


As a reward for his discovery, Theodore Davis was offered
some of the smaller objects found in KV 46, including the
shabtis shown above. Davis states (in The Tomb of Iouiya 
and Touiyou
[London, 1907], xxx) that he did not want to
accept these items. He must have changed his mind after writing
his account of the tomb's discovery, because these shabtis ended
up in his personal collection.
He willed them to the MMA at
his death in 1915, but, due to lengthy litigation undertaken
by Davis's widow, the MMA could not officially claim
ownership of these items until 1930. (Based on
information from John Larson.--W.M.M.)

Photo Credit: From the website of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Click on the photo to go directly to the MMA page for enlargements
and further data. The Theban Royal Mummy Project's use of this image is
in compliance with the stated Terms and Conditions of the MMA at 
www.metmuseum.org.

 


Various Small Objects

Scarab etc.jpg (52662 bytes)
Some of the smaller objects from the tomb. Top: blue glazed faience kohl tube with 
ebony needle and papyrus pith stopper, bearing the cartouche of Amenhotep III (CG 51175). Bottom Row (from left to right): a blue faience djed-amulet decorated with gold foil (CG 51170?) ; a blue-glass/green feldspar heart scarab, originally carved for a man and subsequently reinscribed for Tuyu (CG 51164); and a circular rosette (?) 

Photo Credit: Wonders of the Past (Wise & Co., 1937,) facing page 330. These resemble items from Howard Carter's painting in Davis's The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou (London, 1907) but are actually separate color-tinted photographs made into a composite.


Go to KV 46 Bibliography


KV 46 Image Links

Since originally publishing this page, a number of other good image resources that photographically document the objects from KV 46 have become available on Flickr. A Flickr member named "yacielcruz" provides an extensive series of beautiful color photos of the Yuya and Tuyu objects as they are exhibited in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. You may view this photo stream by clicking here. Also, if you have a QuickTime player, Chris Couvee presents an interactive panorama of the second floor of The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities which features some of the objects from the Tomb of Yuya and Tuyu.