Presented by 
Wm. Max Miller, 
M. A.

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Introduction

Quickly Access Specific Mummies With Our  
Mummy Locator 

Or
View mummies in the
following Galleries:

XVII'th
Dynasty

Gallery I


XVIII'th
Dynasty

Gallery I

Gallery II

Gallery III

 Gallery IV
Featuring the controversial KV 55 mummy. Now with a revised reconstruction of ancient events in this perplexing tomb.

Gallery V
Featuring the mummies of Tutankhamen and his children. Still in preparation.


XIX'th
Dynasty

Gallery I 
Now including the
mummy identified as
Ramesses I


XX'th
Dynasty

Gallery I


XXI'st
Dynasty

Gallery I

Gallery II


  Unidentified  Mummies

Gallery I
Including the mummy which some experts believe may be that of Nefertiti.

Gallery II
Including the KV 60 mummy found by Donald P. Ryan



About the Dockets

Inhapi's Tomb

Acknowledgements

Links

Using this website for research papers

Project Updates
See what's new at the T. R. M. P.

The Hall of Records
Archived Update Reports

Biographical Data about William Max Miller
 


Special Exhibits

Updated!
The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu

  View the funerary equipment of Queen Tiye's parents!

New!
 Tomb Raiders of KV 46!
How thorough were the robbers who plundered the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu? How many times was the tomb robbed, and what were the thieves after? This study of post interment activity in KV 46 provides some answers.
 

Updated!
Special KV 55 Section!
========

Follow the trail of the missing treasures from mysterious KV 55.

KV 55's Lost Objects: Where Are They Today?

The KV 55 Coffin Basin and Gold Foil Sheets


KV 55 Gold Foil at the Metropolitan

Mystery of the Missing Mummy Bands

KV 35 Revisited
See rare photographic plates of a great discovery from Daressy's Fouilles de la Vallee des Rois.

Unknown Man E  
Was he really
buried alive?

The Tomb of Maihirpre
Learn about Victor Loret's important discovery of this nearly intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Special Section!
Tomb Robbers!
Who were the real tomb raiders? What beliefs motivated their actions? A new perspective on the ancient practice of tomb robbing!

Special Section!
Spend a Night
with the Royal Mummies

Read Pierre Loti's eerie account of his nocturnal visit to the Egyptian Museum's Hall of Mummies.

Special Section!
An Audience With Amenophis II
Journey once more with Pierre Loti as he explores the shadowy  chambers of KV 35 in the early 1900's.


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Most of the images on this website have been scanned from books, all of which are given explicit credit and, wherever possible, a link to a dealer where they may be purchased. Some images derive from other websites. These websites are also acknowledged in writing and by being given a link, either to the page or file where the images appear, or to the main page of the source website. Images forwarded to me by individuals who do not supply the original image source are credited to the sender. All written material deriving from other sources is explicitly credited to its author. 
Feel free to use  material from the Theban Royal Mummy Project website. No prior written permission is required. Just please follow the same guidelines which I employ when using the works of other researchers, and give the Theban Royal Mummy Project  proper credit on your own papers, articles, or web pages. 

--Thank You
 

This website is constantly developing and contributions of data from other researchers are welcomed.
Contact The Theban Royal Mummy Project at:
anubis4_2000@yahoo.com

Background Image:  Wall scene from the tomb of Ramesses II (KV 7.) From Karl Richard Lepsius, Denkmäler (Berlin: 1849-1859.)

 

 

 


XX'th Dynasty Gallery I
Learn more about the 20'th Dynasty.


Ramesses III (c. 1182- 1151 B.C.)
20'th Dynasty
Provenance
: DB 320
Discovery Date
: 1860? (official discovery 1881.)
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61083; JE26208b
Click here for biographical data

Details: The mummy of Ramesses III was fairly intact when it was discovered in DB 320, and Maspero had it partly unwrapped on June 1, 1886, in the presence of the Khedive Tewfik. Since some of the resin-impregnated bandages had solidified into a hard, shell-like carapace, the decision was made to leave them in place rather than risk damaging the mummy in the difficult process of removing them. This prevented a full examination of the mummy which might have uncovered any wounds indicating that Ramesses III had indeed been assassinated by the conspirators named in the Harem Conspiracy Papyrus. (See Ian Bolton's page on the Harem Conspiracy.) Years later, when the mummy was x-rayed, three figures of the sons of Horus, probably made of wax, were found in the thoracic region. 
   
Ramesses III had been covered with an orange colored shroud, and the retaining band used to keep the shroud in place around the head had been inscribed. Apparently never published, the exact nature of this inscription is unknown, and Maspero described it merely as "figures mystiques." On the bandages beneath the shroud was a Linen Docket (see Linen Docket translations below) and a drawing which depicted the god Amun as a winged ram. Other linen notations appeared on the bandages, and Reeves notes that some of them bore the inscription "imn-re-hnm-nhh hry-ib t3 hwt."  ("Amon-Re-United-With-Eternity who is in the midst of the temple." The temple referred to is Medinet-Habu) 
    G. E. Smith, who documented his examination of this mummy for his 1912 Royal Mummies, wrote that the technique of embalming used on Ramesses III was similar to the embalming methods employed on the mummies of other late 19'th-early 20'th dynasty royal mummies. He did, however, find several innovations. The arms were crossed over the chest with the hands in an unflexed position not usually found before with royal mummies. (See, however, the mummy of Seti I in the XIX'th Dynasty Gallery I.)  He also notes that artificial eyes are hereRamesses III.jpg (51246 bytes) employed for the first time. (Although Smith is not specific concerning the kind of artificial eyes which he found in the mummy of Ramesses III, Ikram and Dodson state that the mummy's eye-sockets had been packed with cloth, which can be seen in the photographic plates. They do not say whether this cloth had been painted to resemble open eyes [which would perhaps entail that Ramesses III's eyelids were left open by the embalmers as in XXI'st Dynasty mummies, cf. Nodjmet in XXI'st Dynasty Gallery I] or had simply been inserted under the eyelids in order to give them a full, more natural appearance when closed. Smith says that Ramesses III's mummy is the earliest to display this feature. However, see his comments about the artificial eyes of  Tuyu [in XVIII'th Dynasty Gallery III], which were similarly fashioned with cloth. Tuyu's artificial eyes--according to Smith--had been painted, perhaps to resemble open eyes, although her eyelids appear to be closed.) 
    As a matter of interest to students of popular culture, the mummy of Ramesses III holds the unusual distinction of providing the model for Lon Chaney, Jr.'s version of Kharis the mummy, a character in four Universal Studios films of the 1940's. (Click here for photograph from the movies compared to close-up of mummy's face.)
    Ramesses III was found in a replacement cartonnage coffin (CG 61021) which still retained some traces of its original gilding. (Click here to see photo of coffin from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site.) It had been placed within the immense coffin of Queen Ahmose-Nofretari (CG 61021) along with another body that many experts identify as that of the Queen. (See lithograph reproduced in TVK, p. 139, of Ahmose-Nofretari's coffin.) The trough of Ramesses III's original coffin was discovered in KV 35, containing the mummy of Amenhotep III. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 34; DRN, 202, 208, 214; EM, 97-98; MiAE, 327; MR, 535f., 563ff. [pl. 17, a-b]; RM, 84ff; XRA, 2E7-2F2; XRP, 46, 161-165.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
KV 11
Official Inspections/Restorations: As evidenced by a linen docket found on his wrappings, Ramesses III was "Osirified" (r rdit wsir) in Year 13 2 smw (27?) of Smendes/Pinudjem I. The docket further names the men in charge of this operation: Butehamun, the well-documented royal necropolis scribe from Dier el-Medina, and a temple scribe named Djesersukhons. Reeves connects graffiti inscriptions found in the burial chamber of KV 11 with this event because they also name Butehamun (and his son, Pakhyneter.) Champollion also recorded another graffiti from KV 11, naming a "god's father Hori," but Reeves notes that this is not very legible in Champollion's text and is therefore of minimal value in helping to determine the chronology of events in the tomb.
Reburials: Reeves dates the removal of Ramesses III from KV 11 to a time (immediately?) following his "osirification" as noted above. Reeves believes that he was cached in the k3y of Inhapi, along with other royal mummies, including that of Ahmose-Nofretari, in whose coffin he was found. Ramesses III was finally moved to DB 320 with the other mummies at a date which Reeves sets as sometime after Year 11 of Shoshenq I. (Source: AG, 93 [III-IV]; DRN, 115, 235, 248-249; H II, 190; NI, 414, 571, 811.)

 Linen Notations:
   
(i.) Year 9 of Smendes/Pinudjem I: "The high priest of Amon-Re king of the gods Pinudjem
son of Piankh, true of voice, for his father Amun in Yr 9" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 235; GPI, doc. 4; MR, 564 [transcr.]; RNT, 250 [5a]; TIP, 418 [12].)

   (ii.) Year 10 of Smendes/Pinudjem I: "('La meme formule, avec la date de l'an X')" Source
Bibliography: DRN,
235; GPI, doc. 6; MR, 564; RNT, 250 [5b]; TIP,
 
418 [13].)

Linen Docket:      
  
  (i.) Year 13 of Smendes/Pinudjem I: "Yr 13 2 smw 27? On this day the high priest of Amon-Re king of the gods Pinudjem commanded the scribe of the temple Djesersukhons and
the scribe in the place of truth Butehamun to osirify (r rdit wsir) king (nsw) Usermaatre-
meriamun, he being made firm and enduring forever (smn.ti w3h.ti dt)" (Source Bibli-
ography: DRN,
235; GPI, doc 10; MR, 563f. [facs., transcr.]; RNT, 250 [7];
TIP,
419 [25].) 

                              
Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. L. For high resolution photos of Ramesses III see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates L, LI, and LII. ) Recent images of the mummy of Ramesses III may be seen at the Eternal Egypt website.

Source Abbreviation Key


Ramesses IV (c. 1151-1145 B. C. )
20'th Dynasty
Provenance
: KV 35
Discovery Date
: March 9'th, 1898 by Victor Loret
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61084; JE34597
Ramesses IV.jpg (37986 bytes)

Click here for biographical data

Details: The mummy of Ramesses IV was discovered in side-chamber Jb of KV 35 (at position 9--see diagram) and was unwrapped by G. E. Smith on June 24'th, 1905. It had been covered by a shroud on which appeared a Type A Linen Docket (See Linen Docket translation below.) Beneath this lay a mass of tattered bandages which were all that remained of the original wrappings. These had been shredded by ancient tomb robbers in their search for valuable objects, and the restorers had simply repositioned them over the mummy in a tangled disarray without making any attempt to repair or straighten them.
    Beneath these bandages lay the relatively intact mummy of Ramesses IV, which had sustained only minor damage at the hands of the thieves. One of his feet had been broken off but was still present with the other remains. A hole was also found in the skull of Ramesses IV, similar to those found in the skulls of Merenptah, Seti II, Ramesses V (see below) and Ramesses VI (see below)--all of whom were found along with Ramesses IV in KV 35. (But note differences in the skull wound of Ramesses V, discussed in his entry below.) As noted before, Maspero believed these cranial openings served some unknown ritual purpose, perhaps functioning as a portal through which evil spirits could escape. Smith's theory, however, seems more plausible. He felt that the holes in the skulls of these mummies were made by thieves who had employed the same kind of tool--most likely an adze--in the same fashion in order to first cut through the bandages of the head in their attempt to strip the mummies of their outermost wrappings.
    Smith comments that the finger nails of the mummy are missing, but they could have dropped off  during the embalming process (especially if they had not been secured to the fingers with string prior to the natron treatment) and their absence is not necessarily the result of damage done by tomb robbers as Smith concluded. (However, Smith describes some of the nails as "displaced," indicating that some were present, and had been detached from the fingers. This strengthens his belief that the nails had been dissociated from the fingers when thieves ripped through the wrappings.) Ramesses IV also exhibited a crescent shaped band of black paint on his forehead, similar to the one found on the mummy of Siptah. His body cavity was packed with dried lichen, also similar to the lichen packing used in Siptah's mummy. Smith also notes that the skin of the forehead and neck were partly eaten away by insects. This may indicate that Ramesses IV had not been mummified immediately upon his death. 
    Smith estimated that Ramesses IV was approximately 50 years old when he died--perhaps older.  His teeth were healthy although well worn. According to Smith, the method of embalming used on Ramesses IV was congruent with that used on other mummies from the mid XX'th dynasty, but he did notice some innovations. One new feature was the ball of resin used to plug up the anus of Ramesses IV. Another innovation were the onions that had been used to provide artificial eyes, and Smith comments on how realistic these appear. (Smith's comments about the artificial eyes of Ramesses IV, and also about Tuyu [XVIII'th Dynasty Gallery], Ramesses III [see above], and Nodjmet [XXI'st Dynasty Gallery] show a progression in the development of artificial eyes used in mummification. Tuyu and Ramesses III had "eyes" made of linen which were probably no more than packing, sometimes painted to resemble open eyes,  inserted under the eyelids in order to give them a rounded, life-like appearance when the lids were closed. Nodjmet's artificial eyes were made of semi-precious stone(s) and were intended to give her mummy an open-eyed appearance with the eyelids wide open. The onions used for Ramesses IV may also have been intended to give him a natural, open eyed look, but were more probably used like the linen packing of Tuyu and Ramesses III, under closed eye-lids in order to bestow the more natural appearance of a sleeping person rather than the sunken-eyed look of earlier mummies. They seem to represent a transitional stage in the development of mortuary cosmetics, falling between linen packing and the XXI'st Dynasty use of artificial stone eyes.)
    The king was found in a coffin that originally belonged to a wcb-priest named Ahaaa (CG61041). Its original decoration had been concealed with a layer of plaster that had been inscribed in black ink for Ramesses IV (see photo of coffin from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity website.)
(Source Bibliography: BIE, [3 ser.] 9 [1898], 112 [9]; CCR, 222ff.; DRN, 115, 204, 210, 215; EM, 105; MiAE, 327-328; RM, 87-90; XRA, 2F3-12; XRP, 165f.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
KV 2
Restorations/Reburials: Reeves calls attention to the fact that the coffin of Ramesses IV was obviously finished in the same workshop that had decorated the coffins of Seti II and Siptah at the time of their reburials in KV 14. The date of these events was Year 6-7 of whm mswt, and it is highly likely that Ramesses IV was also reburied in KV 14 at this time. He was removed from this tomb and placed in KV 35 at a date which Reeves sets as sometime subsequent to Year 13 of Smendes. (Source: DRN, 249.)

 Type A Linen Docket: "('Un nom presque entierement efface et impossible a lire')" (Source Bibliography: BIE, [3 ser.] 9 [1898], 112 [9]; DRN, 232.)
                              
Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. LIII. For high resolution photos of Ramesses IV see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LIII, LIV and LVII.) Recent color images of the mummy of Ramesses IV may be seen at the Eternal Egypt website

Source Abbreviation Key


Ramesses V (c. 1145-1141 B.C.)Ramesses V.jpg (32048 bytes)
20'th Dynasty
Provenance
: KV 35
Discovery Date
: March 9'th, 1898 by Victor Loret
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61085; JE34566

Click here for biographical data

Details: The mummy of Ramesses V was found in side chamber Jb of KV 35 (at position 6--see diagram.) It was unwrapped by G. E. Smith at the Cairo Museum on June 25, 1905. Beneath an outer shroud (on which appeared a Type A Linen Docket--see below) lay a mass of torn bandages, probably all that remained of the original wrappings after they had been mangled by tomb robbers in their search for valuables. As in the case of the mummy of Ramesses IV (see above) no attempt had been made to restore these bandages to any semblance of their original order, and they had simply been thrown carelessly over the mummy. Smith makes the interesting observation that some of these bandages showed signs of being burnt by a corrosive agent. As in the case of Tutankhamen's charred wrappings, which had been slowly oxidized by the oils poured upon them during the funeral ceremony, the burns on the linen bandages of Ramesses V may have also been the result of chemical reactions involving the organic substances used during the embalming and funerary rituals.
    Smith commented that Ramesses V had been a much younger man than his predecessor, and noted that his body had been very well preserved. Ikram and Dodson place his age at death as being in the early thirties. The face had been painted red (probably in imitation of the red coloration used for men's faces in paintings and on statues) and linen had been packed under his eyelids to form artificial eyes. The ears of Ramesses V had been pierced and the holes had been greatly enlarged to such an extent that the lobes were stretched into what Smith described as "strings" of dangling tissue. Smith had observed this kind of lobular elongation in some of the other royal mummies, and it provides more interesting evidence for the practice of decorative body modification among the Egyptians similar to that practiced by other African peoples.
    After removing the brains, the embalmers had packed the skull of Ramesses V with 9 meters of linen, inserted through the right nostril. Both nostrils had then been plugged with wax. The embalming incision on the abdomen was large and gaping, and is clearly visible in the photo above. The viscera, although removed according to ancient tradition, had been reinserted into the abdomen, along with a quantity of sawdust, and were found lying loose and unwrapped. The reinsertion of the internal organs into the body cavity anticipates a custom that would become common in the XXI'st Dynasty.
     Thieves had done relatively little damage to the mummy beyond chopping off some of the finger tips of the left hand with the sharp instrument used to hack through the bandages. In this process, they had also sliced off some of the skin from the knuckles. As in the cases of  Merenptah, Seti II, Ramesses IV (see above) and Ramesses VI (see below), the skull of Ramesses V also exhibits a hole, which Smith described as located "in the left parietal bone, just behind the coronal suture and close to the middle line." (See link to Plate LVII below for photograph of this hole.) However, this wound differs significantly from those found in the other KV 35 mummies, whose scalps had been completely desiccated when the holes in their skulls had been made. Smith comments that the scalp immediately behind the cranial opening in Ramesses V is rolled back in a fashion that could only occur when the scalp still retained its resiliency, i. e. before or immediately after death, and certainly prior to mummification. Smith also noted that there is a large area of discoloration around this cranial opening and an area of some type of blackened substance which looked to him like ante-mortem dried blood. Although Smith never speculated about the cause of this particular injury, it does suggest that Ramesses V may have died from a blow, made by a sharp instrument, to the top left portion of his head. Professor A. R. Ferguson, who examined the mummy, pointed out that skin eruptions found on the face, lower abdomen, and pubic region also suggest the kind of skin rash which occurs in cases of smallpox. While this disease is usually named as the cause of Ramesses V's death,  the hole in the skull, further described by Smith as being  "obliquely placed" and "irregularly elliptical" is extremely interesting, especially in view of the scalp distortions and possible ante mortem-bleeding which seem to have accompanied it. 
    Smith described the scrotum of Ramesses V as "large and baggy," and notes that it had been folded back over the perineum (see photo above.) This led Smith to believe that Ramesses V had suffered from an inguinal hernia or a hydrocele. Smith also found a large ulcer-like lesion in the right groin which he stated could be an open bubo. His use of this term raises the possibility of yet a third cause of death (bubonic plague) for the king.
    Ramesses V was found on the base of a large rectangular white coffin (CG 61042.) No lid was found with this coffin, which was obviously not the original coffin of the king. No inscriptions are recorded as being found on this rectangular coffin trough which would provide a clue concerning the identity of its original owner. (Source Bibliography: BIE, [3 ser.] 9 [1898], 111 [6]; CCR, 224; DRN, 204, 210, 215; EM, 105-106; MiAE, 328; RM, 90ff; XRA, 2G1-10; XRP, 166f.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
KV 9. Elizabeth Thomas has noted an ostracon which gives the date of Ramesses V's interment as Year 2  3 3ht 2 of Ramesses VI, but which does not indicate the place of his burial. Although Ikram and Dodson express some uncertainty regarding the original burial place of Ramesses V, Reeves confidently states that he was buried in KV 9 along with Ramesses VI. The latter king is often said to have usurped the tomb from Ramesses V, but Reeves points out that inscriptions bearing the cartouche of Ramesses V, located in the first several corridors of the tomb, were allowed to remain intact, indicating that the two kings probably shared the tomb. Had Ramesses VI wanted to erase the memory of a predecessor whose tomb he was appropriating, he surely would have had these cartouches defaced or removed in some manner. 
    Robberies and Inspections: Reeves notes that an investigation into the robbery of KV 9 is recorded in Papyrus Mayer B, and proposes that thieves gained entrance into the tomb through KV 12, which intersected KV 9. This particular papyrus fragment is not dated and Reeves points out that it cannot be connected to the other tomb robbery papyri with certainty. If the robbery referred to in the papyrus is the one which occasioned an official visit to the tomb, noted on an inscription on the ceiling of the burial chamber (see Wall Docket translation below), then (according to Cyril Aldred) the KV 9 robbery can be dated to sometime before Year 9 of Ramesses IX. 
    Reburials: Since Ramesses V has a cranial opening similar to those found in the skulls of  Merenptah, Seti II, Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI, it is tempting to place him in the same temporary KV 14 cache in which the first three kings were placed (cf. Ramesses VI below. Reeves finds no evidence to place him in the KV 14 cache with these other mummies.) However, as noted above, the skull wound of Ramesses V differs significantly from those found on the other mummies in the KV 35 cache. The coffin on which he was found, which was the bottom of a lidless, unidentified coffin (apparently inverted to provide a kind of crude bier) also differs stylistically from the replacement coffins of the other mummies who can be confidently placed in the transitional KV 14 cache. Reeves acknowledges that much of the post interment activity involving Ramesses V is uncertain. His body was placed in KV 35 at a date which Reeves sets as sometime subsequent to Year 13 of Smendes. (Source Bibliography: AG, 92, II; DRN, 117-119, 249; Cyril Aldred in GAE, 92ff.; MP, 19f., pl. & transcript. at end; RNT, 134 .)

Type A
Linen Docket: "('Prenom presque efface')" (Source Bibliography: BIE, [3 ser.] 9 [1898],, 111 [6]; DRN, 232.)

KV 9 Wall Docket: Found on ceiling of burial chamber J and dated to Year 9  2 prt 14 of Ramesses IX: "Yr 9, 2 prt 14, under the person (hm) of the dual king (nsw bity) Neferkare-setep..., son of Re Ramesses...On this day the visit was made by the scribe Amenhotep and his son the scribe and deputy of draughtsmen of the tomb Amennakhte to see the mansion of the two truths (hwt m3cty)...when they made writings in the tomb (mchct)...(the chief of scribes) of the mansion of the house of Amun Iymisba...they went and they...looked at the hills..." (Source Bibliography: DRN, 233; GMT, 92, II [transcr.]; NI, 635 ['facs.'].)
                              
Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. LV. For high resolution photos of Ramesses V see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LV, LVI, LVII Recent color images of the mummy of Ramesses V may be seen at the Eternal Egypt website

Source Abbreviation Key


Ramesses VI (c. 1141-1133 B.C.):
20'th Dynasty
Provenance
: KV 35
Discovery Date
: March 9'th, 1898 by Victor Loret
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61086; JE34564
Ramesses VI.jpg (52659 bytes)

Click here for biographical data

Details: The mummy of Ramesses VI was found in side chamber Jb of KV 35 (at position 8--see diagram.) It had been severely damaged by ancient tomb robbers. When unwrapped by G. E. Smith on July 8, 1905, the remains were in complete disarray beneath the 21'st Dynasty wrappings, and Smith comments that the king's body had "literally been hacked to pieces." Smith noted that the 21'st Dynasty restorers had to use a rough section of wooden coffin board on which to tie and reassemble the sundered parts of the battered mummy in order to reinforce it and give it the semblance of mummiform shape. Ikram and Dodson identify this board as being part of the king's original coffin. 
    The head of the mummy had been shattered and the bones of the face were missing. The right forearm and right wrist had been chopped off. The King’s hip bone and pelvis were found among the bones at his neck, while his elbow and humerus were discovered on the right thigh. Among the confusion of the king’s remains were found bones from two other mummies. The right hand of an unidentified woman was bound in with the remains of Ramesses VI, as well as the right hand and forearm of a man. The skull of Ramesses VI also displayed a type of piercing superficially similar to that discovered in the skulls of Merenptah, Seti II, Ramesses IV and Ramesses V. Harris and Weeks speculate that the remains of Ramesses VI had been targeted for such severe desecration because he may not have been the legitimate heir to the throne. They refer to an undated papyrus, probably deriving from the reign of Ramesses VI, which mentions a kind of insurrection or civil war that took place at the time of this king's accession. Such civil unrest may have been stirred up by a rightful claimant to the throne who later took maximum revenge upon the mummy of the usurping Ramesses VI. However, Harris and Weeks admit that this theory is purely speculative. 
    Smith noted that Ramesses VI had been embalmed in a fashion similar to that of his two predecessors. The cranial cavity had been packed with linen and resin-paste. Resin-paste had also been thickly plastered over the face, eyes, and forehead. The king's ears had been pierced, and his teeth were only moderately worn. Smith estimated his age at death as being sometime in early middle-age.
    The mummy was found in a coffin (CG61043) of 18'th Dynasty date which had originally belonged to a man named Re, a high priest of the mortuary cult of Menkheperre-Tuthmosis III. The name of the coffin's original owner had been erased and replaced in ink with the prenomen of Ramesses VI. The face of the coffin had been hacked off in ancient times, perhaps indicating that it had originally been gilded.  (See photo of coffin from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity website.)  (Source Bibliography: BIE, [3 ser.] 9 [1898], 112 [8]; CCR, 224ff; DRN, 196f, 204, 211, 215, 249; EM, 106ff; MiAE, 328f; RM, 92ff; XRA, 3A1-6; XRP, 167f.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
KV 9. Most scholars agree that Ramesses VI was buried in the tomb of Ramesses V, along with the mummy of that king. Since the two mummies were so closely associated, their post-interment histories will probably be the same. (See Other Burial Data in the entry for Ramesses V above.)
Official Inspections: (See Other Burial Data in the entry for Ramesses V above.)
Restorations: (See Other Burial Data in the entry for Ramesses V above.)
Reburials: Due to the presence of a skull piercing similar to those found in the skulls of Merenptah, Seti II and Ramesses IV, it is tempting to argue that Ramesses VI had originally  been moved to the KV 14 cache along with these other mummies. However, due to the close association of Ramesses VI with the mummy of Ramesses V, which cannot confidently be placed in the transitional KV 14 cache, any storing of Ramesses VI's mummy in this tomb prior to its final placement in KV 35 is uncertain  However, Reeves does mention the intriguing possibility that the spare male right arm and hand found wrapped in with the body parts of Ramesses VI may belong to the mummy of Seti II, who Reeves includes as part of the temporary KV 14 cache roster. The mummy of Ramesses VI was placed in KV 35 at a date which Reeves sets as sometime subsequent to Year 13 of Smendes. (Source: DRN, 249; RNT, 129f .)

 Dockets: (See KV9 Wall Docket quoted above in the entry for Ramesses V.)
                              
Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. LVIII. For high resolution photos of Ramesses VI see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LVIII and LIX.) 

Source Abbreviation Key

 


Ramesses IX (c. 1126-1108 B.C.)
20'th Dynasty
Provenance
: DB 320
Discovery Date
: 1860? (official discovery 1881.)
Current Location: Cairo Museum
Ramesses IX.jpg (62433 bytes)

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Details: Although found in the DB320 cache and shipped to Cairo at the same time as the other DB320 mummies, the mummy of Ramesses IX was never examined by G. E. Smith, and no data about it appears in Smith's published works. 
     Reeves writes that the mummy appears to be superficially intact and has never been completely unwrapped. The head had become detached from the body at some point in time, but whether this was caused in ancient times or by more modern examiners remains unclear. Ikram and Dodson assert that the mummy is damaged considerably, and note that the nose is missing and that the skin of the mummy is badly cracked.
     The mummy was found in one of the coffins that had originally been made for a certain Isiemkheb and later appropriated by Neskhons. Reeves notes that this same Neskhons, a wife of Pinudjem II, had, according to the testimony of a Linen Docket found on the mummy, also supplied linen for use in its restoration at the temple of Medinet Habu in Year 7 of her husband’s reign (see Linen Docket Translations below.) Perhaps she also donated one of her coffins to Ramesses IX at this same time. (See entry for Neskhons in 21's Dynasty Gallery II for more on her donation of this coffin.) (Source Bibliography: CCR, 110ff ; DRN, 202, 208, 237, 250; MiAE, 329; MR, 566ff., 584 (7); XRA, 3A7-3B3.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
KV 6
Restorations and Reburials: The date on which Ramesses IX was removed from KV 6 and transferred into the k3y of Inhapi can be established by the linen dockets found on his wrappings, which record his restoration at Medinet Habu: Year 5 (or 7) of Siamun/Pinudjem II. Reeves dates the removal of Ramesses IX from Inhapi's tomb and subsequent placement in the DB 320 to sometime after  year 11 of Shoshenq I.  (Source Bibliography: DRN, 250 .)
 

Linen Docket Translations:

  1. Year 5 of Siamun (or Amenemope? Osochor?)/Pinudjem II: "Gift (in) which the first great one of the harim of Amun, the priestess of Amen-khnemwast Neskhons made in year 5 (Source Bibliography: DRN, 237; MR, 567[(transcr.]; RNT, 251 [23]; TIP, 422 [66].)
  2. Year 7 of Siamun? (or Amenemope? Osochor?)/Pinudjem II: (‘Expedition faite au temple en l’an VII, pour emaillotter le roi RA-KHAMOIS …’) (Source Bibliography: DRN, 237; MR, 568; RNT, 251f [25]; TIP, 422 [70].)

                               
Photo Credit: From the collection of  Ángel González y Arema, Theban Royal Mummy Project associate researcher. Recent color images of the mummy of Ramesses IX may be seen at the Eternal Egypt website.

Source Abbreviation Key