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Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Reformation, Enlightenment (1300s -1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.





 
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Earth


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Sunrise


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The Sun


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The stages of the Sun's evolution, from left to right: nebula, proto-star, main sequence, red giant, expanding helium an nitrogen shells, white dwarf. A white dwarf fades into a black dwarf.


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The stages of the Sun's evolution (top row), from a nebula of gas and dust to a planetary system to a white dwarf.

The Sun is a medium-size yellow dwarf star   -   a small main sequence star in middle age. In five billion years it will expand into a red giant.


Image result for Birth of the SunThe stages of the evolution of the solar system (below): 1. (top left) nebula, 2. (lower left) star with disc of gas and dust, 3. (top right) sun with rings, 4. (lower right) star with planets.


Our solar system at its inception   -   a cloud of gas and dust revolving about a star, the Sun.  




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The stages in the evolution of a solar system.




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Our Solar System


The Planets

  

Discussion on weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


27 May 2004

 

With guests Paul Murdin, Hugh Jones and Carolin Crawford

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p004y25b




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The planets


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The night sky


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The Moon, Mercury and Venus.


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The Moon and Venus


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The Moon and Mars


The Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter

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Asteroids

 

Episode # 10 from the 2010 History Channel documentary series How the Earth was Made

 

Advertisement

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iN3AByKfWQg

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fGEz5_r8u3A

 


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The asteroid belt is the source of many meteorites.




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The Moon, Venus and Jupiter


Those getting up before dawn between January 22 and February 10 will get to glimpse all five naked-eye planets at once. This view is plotted as they'll appear 45 minutes before sunrise on January 25. In the days thereafter, Mercury will climb higher (closer to Venus) and get brighter — making it easier to spot. At month's end, the waning moon will join the celestial party. (Sky  & Telescope diagram)

Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in the night sky.


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Venus, Mars and Uranus in the evening sky.


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Venus, Mars and Neptune in the night sky.


The Kuiper Belt

The Kuiper belt is a disc of asteroids beyond Neptune orbiting the Sun on the same elliptical plane and in the same direction as the planets. It is much bigger and wider than the Asteroid Belt.


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Most comets that take less than 200 years to orbit the Sun are thought to come from the Kuiper Belt. They are called short-period comets. They orbit the Sun on the same elliptical plane and direction as the planets.

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Halley's Comet


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Halley's Comet completes an orbit of the Sun every 75 to 76 years.


The Oort Cloud

It is thought that a spherical cloud of large icy particles surrounds the solar system and the Kuiper Belt. It is called the Oort Cloud.


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Comets that take more than 200 years to orbit the Sun are thought to come from the Oort Cloud. These comets orbit the Sun from all directions rather than one elliptical plane.  

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A long-period comet in the night sky.




 

 

 


The Sun and its planets are believed to be about 4.5 to 4.6 billion years old.

 

 



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The Earth  4 billion years ago (B. Y. A.)




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Top, left to right: 1, 4.6 - 4 BYA, 2. 2.8 - 2.2 BYA, 3. "Snowball Earth" - 600 MYA


Bottom, left to right: 4. Cambrian - 500 MYA, 5. Today, 6. Pleistocene 18,000 YA





Miracle Planet

 

6-part 2006 Canadian and Japanese documentary narrated by Christopher Plummer

 

Part 1. The Violent Past

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOd3SAtoIgw

 

Or in 3 clips:

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40GKH6LJ8g4

 

2.

 

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3amPqpKz0ko

 


 


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                            Geologic Clock




The Earth's Origins

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Simon Winchester, Cherry Lewis and John Cosgrove

 

5 July 2001

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547hl

 


 

 

 

 

From the study of seismic waves, geologists have determined that Earth has a solid inner core of iron the size of the Moon (yellow) and an outer core of liquid iron mixed with other elements the size of Mars (orange).


 

 
Down to the Earth's Core
 
2011 National Geographic documentary (90 min.)
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
Earth's Core
 
Episode from the documentary series Naked Science (2009)
 
 
 
 
The Earth's Core

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Stephen Blundell, Arwen Deuss and Simon Redfern

 

30 April 2015

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05s3gyv

 

 

 

Early Geology

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Stephen Pumfrey, Andrew Scott and Leucha Veneer

 

12 April 2012

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01dgh7d

 

 

 

Birth of the Earth

 

Episode # 3 of Season # 2 from the National Geographic documentary series How the Earth was Made

 

(2009)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OX_mhGTc81c

 

(2014)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnbQv6J6XtI

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWbGLk2wlIE

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbJ0lWypFwA

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFJfAGmaNEI

 

 



Ring of Fire

 

Episode # 7 from the 2010 documentary series 

 

How The Earth Was Made

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2MDhYbeBQcU

 

 


 


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Ice Ages


Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


With guests Jane Francis, Richard Corfield and Carrie Lear


14 February 2013 

 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b01qjj99/In_Our_Time_Ice_Ages/


 


The Five Major Ice Ages


1. Huronian - 2.4 - 2.1 BYA 


2. Cryogenian (Snowball Earth) - 720 - 635 MYA


3. Andean-Saharan - 460/450 - 420 MYA


4. Late Paleozoic (Karoo Ice Age) - 360 - 250 MYA 


5. Quartenary (Pleistocene Glaciation) (The Ice Age) - 2.58 MYA



Earth covered by snow and ice  -  "Snowball Earth"   -   720 - 635 MYA

 

 

Snowball Earth


Part 2. of the documentary series Miracle Planet

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87hHbiWBwmY&feature=related

 

or in 5 clips:

 

6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x2CsWKNnOQE

 

7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uTMoN5jpV1A

 

8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6e7-j57Kx0o&feature=related

 

9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWl9W1GSjxM&feature=related

 

10 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ffBWJkDQLFM&feature=related





Earth had a single contintent, Pangaea, 225 million years ago

 




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The continent Pangea on Earth



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Pangaea broke into two continents:


Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south



From Pangea to today.




 

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Pangaea broke into two continents:


Laurasia in the north and


Gondwana in the south




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Continental drift 190 - 60 MYA




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150 MYA to Present



Continental drift from 200 MYA to the present

 

 

 

How the Continents were formed –


Alfred Wegener and Plate Tectonics 

 
Episode # 55 of the documentary series Great Moments in Science and Technology (2003) 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GmP_hXyPq0


   

Plate Tectonics

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg 

 

With guests Richard Corfield, Joe Cann and Lynne Frostick

 

24 January 2008


http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b008q0sp



The Last Ice Age


Quartenary (Pleistocene Glaciation) 2.58 MYA - 11,700 YA



 0001_Ma_PleistMaxGlac_GPT

Pleistocene 50,000 to 18,000 years ago



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Pleistocene 50,000 to 18,000 years ago




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The Earth today


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The Moon


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The Earth, Sun and Moon



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There are four main theories of the Moon's origin:

 

The prevailing theory of the Moon's origin is that a collision between two spheres created the Earth and the Moon.

 

 

Giant Impact theory for the formation of the Moon

Source: from Nick Strobel's Astronomy Notes


(http://www.astronomynotes.com/solarsys/moonformation.png)


 

 

There are three older theories:

 

- the Moon was a planet captured by Earth


 

Moon Capture Theory

 



- Earth and Moon were formed together as a twin-planet from a cloud of gas and dust


 

 


 

- a large chunk of Earth was forced out of it by centrifugal force


 

 

 

 


 

Core knowledge: Nasa applied contemporary seismological techniques to data being emitted from sensors left on the Moon in 1971. Scientists now think the Moon possesses a solid, iron-rich inner core and a fluid, primarily liquid-iron outer core

Like Earth, the Moon has a solid inner core of iron (orange) and a liquid iron outer core (yellow).


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The Moon 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Paul Murdin, Carolin Crawford and Ian Crawford

 

3 November 2011

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b016lh15

 



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Alpha Centauri

The nearest star to the Sun is Alpha Centauri, is believed to be a binary-star system, or two-star system, 4.3 light years away.


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View of Alpha Centauri from Chile.


The Sun is a single star. Alpha Centauri is a binary-star system. The two stars are Alpha Centauri A (Rigil Kentaurus) and Alapha Centauri B (Toliman).  


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To the naked eye and through a telescope A and B often appear as one star.


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A and B viewed from the Hubble Space Telescope.

Note that Hubble Space Telescope photos are actually black and white. They are colourised later through guess work.  



A and B are like the Sun. A, the primary star, is slightly bigger and 50% brighter that the Sun.

B, the secondary star, is slightly smaller and half as bright as the Sun.

A and B orbit a common centre of gravity once every 80 years. Their distance from each other varies by about 60%. When closest the distance is about that from the Sun to Saturn. and When farthest apart, the distance is about that from the Sun to the Kuiper Belt. 

Alpha Centauri A and B may be part of a three-star system with Proxima Centauri, a red dwarf. A red dwarf is a small star, much cooler and far dimmer than the Sun. Red dwarfs are the most common stars in the galaxy.     


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Proxima Centauri is about 4.24 light years from the Earth and thus closer than Alpha Centauri A and B. Thus, it is actually 
the closest star to the Sun. It is one-seventh the size of the sun and 50% larger than Jupiter, the biggest planet in our solar system.

Proxima Centauri is about 0.20 light years from A and B. It may be orbiting about the same gravitational centre as A and B. If so, it may take more than half a million years to complete one orbit.






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The Milky Way visible to the naked eye in the night sky.



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the Milky Way seen through time-lapse photography




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Our place in the Milky Way Galaxy, one of countless galaxies in the universe.



 
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The Andromeda Galaxy is the closest major galaxy, 2.5. million light years the Milky Way.  


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Visible to the naked eye in the night sky.





 


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Journey to the Edge of the Universe
 
6-min. documentary
 
 
 
 
Journey to the Edge of the Universe
 
National Geographic documentary (90 min.)
HD 1080p
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
or 720p
 
 
 
 
The Shores of the Cosmic Ocean
 
Episode # 1 of 13 from the series Cosmos with Carl Sagan (1980)
 
 
 
 


 

 

 

 

 

 
















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