Oliver's Site

3. Civilisation














Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Reformation, Enlightenment (1300s -1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.





Continued from page 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man

 
 
 
 
            Beginning of Civilisation
 
 

Civilisation 

 

From hunters and foragers

 

               to farmers and herders 

 

 

 

The Agricultural Revolution

 

Crash Course World History # 1

 

with John Green

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yocja_N5s1I

 

 

Evolution of Human Genes and the Origin of Agriculture

 

John Hawks (2014)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SnmmSZGV88

 

 

 

File:NatufianSpread.svg

Map showing the extent of the Natufian

culture ca. 9,500 B. C. to 12,500 B. C.

 

 

The Natufian Culture and the Origins of Agriculture

 
 
 
Çatalhöyük
 
9,500-year-old settlement in southeast Anatolia
 
 
Image result for Catal Huyuk
 
 

Image result for catal huyuk


 
Image result for Catal Huyuk - location
 
 
 
Entangled:
 
An Archeology of Relationships between Humans and Things
 
Göbekli and Çatalhöyük
 
Lecture by Ian Hodder
 
Talks at Google (52:12)
 
May 4, 2015
 
 
 
A Backward-Looking Curiosity
 
25 Years of Work at Catal Hoyuk
 
Lecture by Ian Hodder
 
British Institute at Ankara
 
15 December 2017
 
 
 
Catal Hoyuk
 
Excerpt from episode # 1 of 4 of the 2000 documentary series Secrets of the Stone Age
with Richard Rudgley
 
 
 
Gathered in Death
 
Archeological and Ethnological Perspectives on Collective Burial and Social Organisation
 
Louvain-le-Neuve, Belgium
 
8 - 9 December 2016
 
 
 
 

 

Gobekli Tepi 



Image result for gobekli tepe

 



Image result for gobekli tepe

 



Map of Syria, Turkey and Iraq with Gobekli Tepe indicated         Source: CureZone

 

 

 

Gobekli Tepi

 

12,000-year-old religious hill site built by hunter-gatherers

 

 

Brief description

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjJeEP8-fAQ

 

 

Göbeklitepe

 

The Worlds First Temple

 

2010 Turkish documentary in English and Turkish (English sub-titles missing)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3IF5K5QDL8 

 

 

Gobekli Tepe

 

Episode from the National Geographic documentary series Lost Civilisations (2012)

  

Hunter-gatherers built religious sites of stone 12,000 years ago  

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHG9URGDt6s

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHG9URGDt6s

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foRfxp3vZzM

  

 

Klaus Schmidt on Gobekli Tepi

 

Lecture by archeologist Klaus Schmidt, excavator of Gobekli Tepi, in Istabul, Turkey

 

Uploaded in February 2012

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GnLSU7_MC1k

 

 

Gobekli Tepe

 

Lecture by Klaus Schmidt at the Freer and Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. on 15 June 2014

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2PIHqatiRXc

 

 

The World's Oldest Temple?

 

Radio interview in 2010 with archeologist Klaus Schmidt, excavator of Göbekli Tepe

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8DOjnZu8H4

 

 

Constructing a model of Göbekli Tepe

 

National Geographic

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=heV7CebZKw8&feature=related





 

 

 

The First River Valley Civilisations

 

 

Image result for the six river civilisations of the world



Image result for the six river civilisations of the world



Many scholars believe that the above six civilisations were the first and that they were contemporaneous and developed more or less independently. 

 

 

Some charts show civilisations in Central and South America beginning at the same time as Old World civilisations.

 

The graph below offers current time-lines of the development of civilisations.



 

 Image result for ancient civilisations timeline - sumer,

 



50 Centuries in 10 Minutes

 

Animation over a map  (00:13:42)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dp0tqdu7fH4

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ID9NelkURw

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86mDfZR6jsU   (13:41)

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ve3-qJw57q4

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXVLOshGWPA

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Cities, Civilizations, and Sources

 

History of the Ancient World 

 

48 lectures by Gregory Aldrete from the course offered by The Great Courses (The Teaching Company) 

 

Advertisement:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVzQMUrhBjI

 

 

 

 

--------------

 

 

 

 
 
 
River Valley Civilisations in the Old World


Image result for ancient civilisations timeline - tigris-euphrates, nile, indus, yangtze

When and where did civilisation first appear in the Old World? Scholars disagree.

Scholars dispute which civilisation appeared first and whether or not these four civilisations were in contact with one another - or the extent and nature of contact.

It is generally agreed that the first civilisation was called Sumer and appeared between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers [in the area that is today known as Iraq] and was followed shortly afterward by the appearance of civilisation along the Nile River in Egypt.

However, some scholars maintain that Egyptian civilisation is the oldest and that Sumer appeared shortly afterward.



Image result for ancient civilisations timeline - tigris euphrates and the nile


The area from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates is called the Fertile Crescent.



Image result for ancient civilisations timeline - indus - map

Civilisation along the Indus River in India followed shortly after Sumer and Egypt. Many scholars believe civilisation appeared along the Ganges River at the same time or spread to the Ganges from the Indus.  



Image result for river civilisations of the old world



 

Related image



Civilisation along the Yellow River in China is believed to be more recent.


  

River Valley Civilizations






Short description

 




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKCKgHVf1jI

 

 

 

 

Orientation and Introduction to the Ancient World

 

Lecture by Kenneth Harl

 

Ancient Cities, Modern Inquiries

 

2016 PIER Summer Institute for Educators

 

Yale U.

 

5 July 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0EKk_pjr2hw

 

 

 

             ------------

 

 

Origins of Great Ancient Civilisations

 

12 lectures by Kenneth W. Harl from The Great Courses

 

All lectures in order: 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7j2YddNq2g&list=PLpXbTvMbzG8xukIngI7rOV_u1jKCU9RQy

 

 

Introduction

 

1. Cradles of Civilization


- Earliest civilizations appear in river valleys (c. 3500 - 3000 B. C.)

 

- Tigris-Euphrates rivers

- Nile River

- Indus River 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7j2YddNq2g

 

 

Three-lecture survey of Mesopotamia

 

 

2. First Cities of Sumer

 

- Trade and Writing

 

- The Uruk Period (3100 - 2500 B. C.), Ur  

- The Proto-Literate Period (3100 - 2800 B. C.)

- Early Dynastic Period (2800 - 2300 B. C.)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZqZVIRStNQ

 

3. Mesopotamian Kings, Scribes and Soldiers

From city-states to regional kingdoms to territorial empires in the Early and Middle Bronze Age

- Sargon of Akkad and the first empire

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3El5pftOxkI 

 

4. Hammurabi’s Babylon

Middle Bronze Age

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lL0vsA6GU6A

 

Three-lecture survey of Egypt in the Bronze Age (3500 - 1200 B. C.)

 

5. Egypt in the Pyramid Age

Early Dynastic (Archaic) Period (31200 - 2700 B. C.)

Old Kingdom  (2700 - 2181 B. C.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=no8rtMkbCgk

 

6. The Middle Kingdom (2050 - 1674 B. C.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M35IFF61bZs

 

7. Imperial Egypt (The New Kingdom or Empire) (1570 - 1175 B. C.)

Regional dominance in the Late Bronze Age

To Ramses II

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RcqMBhO4e0s 

 

 8. New Peoples of the Bronze Age

The spread of populations through trade and . . .

The Fertile Crescent  -  from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, to the Levant, and to the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt

- Anatolia (Asia Minor)  -  The Hittites  

- The Aegean  -  central and southern Greece, Crete and the Cycladic islands

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZBuL-o9FV8

 

 9. The End (Collapse) of the Bronze Age / "The Dark Ages" (1200 - 900 B. C.)

Collapse of ruling orders

Migrations

Sea Peoples (1182 - 1150 B. C.) 

Iron Age

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUA0CYwuWwQ 

  

The Iron Age

 

10. From Hebrews to Jews (1000 B. C. - )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6fGEloKz2qY 

 

11. Imperial Assyria (911 - 612 B. C.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bKuQBPjS098

 

12. The Persian Empire (   - 500 B. C.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pr7B6SG26Cc 

 

 

 

 

  

-------------------

 

 

 

The First Cities

 

Episode from the 2001 British documentary series Secrets of the Ancient Empires

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idxZLKVpU7o 

 

or

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUZSrZntR4o

 

 

----------

 

 

 

On the Age of Metals

The Three Main Ages

 

From the

   Stone Age to the

      New Stone Age )Neolithic) to the

         Bronze Age to the 

            Iron Age  

 

 

 

Maps and chronologies of the spread of the use of stone, bronze and iron for making tools, weapons, ornaments, etc.

 

Note that different sources offer different models of chronologies or timelines

 

 

Stone Age


Diffusion of the Neolithic

Diffusion of the Neolithic 

Credit: Joey Roe (modified by Essential Humanities)

 

Bronze Age

Spread of the Bronze Age

Spread of the Bronze Age
Credit: Essential Humanities


What is bronze

Oxford English Dictionary (OED): Bronze is a yellowish-brown alloy of copper with up to one-third tin.

 

OED: An alloy is a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements, especially to give greater strength or resistance to corrosion.


Iron Age

Spread of the Iron Age

Spread of the Iron Age
Credit: Essential Humanities

  

What is iron?

 

OED: Iron is a strong, hard magnetic silvery-grey metal much used as a material for construction and manufacturing, especially in the form of steel.


 

Some charts show civilisations in Central and South America beginning around the same time as Old World civilisations.

 

The graph below offers current time-lines of the development of civilizations.

 

 

 

The Bronze Age Collapse

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


16 June 2016

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07fl5bh

 

The programme can be downloaded from the webpage.

 

 

The Iron Age

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


24 March 2011


http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00zm1ks

 

 

--------- 

 

 

The Age of Metal and the Evolution of European Civilization

 

Lecture by William A. Parkinson at the New Mexico History Museum in 2011

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7HStd26qJE

 

 

 

----------

 

 

 

The Origin of the Seven Days of the Week

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoCWAsIr_x8 

 

 

It's About Time


A Brief History of the Calendar and Time Keeping
 

A lecture by Donna Carroll at the Univeristy of Maastrict on 23 Fevruary 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OaYMK2n9Aow

 

 

The Calendar

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


19 December 2002

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548m9

 

 

 

 

------------------

 

 

On dating systems:

 

B. C. = Before Christ (or before the birth of Christ) = B. C. E. = Before the Common Era

 

All dates given as B. C. are the same as dates given as B. C. E.

 

For example: 300 B. C. is the same as 300 B. C. E.

 

A. D. = Anno Domini = "The Year of Our Lord" (or since the birth of Christ) = C. E. = Common Era 

 

For example: A. D. 400 is the same as 400 C. E.

 

The Anno Domini dating system was invented in A. D. 525 but was not in common use before A. D. 800 

 

Note that Jesus Christ is believed to have been born between 6 B. C. and 4 B. C. 

 

 

 
















Continue to next page, 4. Fertile Crescent
















 
 
 
 
 
 
Kindly direct comments and questions about this website or its contents to the webmaster. Please use the message sending facility on the home page (table of contents).