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4. Fertile Crescent














Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Reformation, Enlightenment (1300s -1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.





Continued from previous page, 3. Civilisation




























 

 

 

The Fertile Crescent

 

Cradle of Western Civilisation

 

 
 
 

Timeline

Source:

Mesopotamia - The Invention of the City by Gwendolyn Leick, 2001. The book presents ten cities

 

Sumer

 

Prehistoric Periods

 

Middle Palaeolithic  c. 78,000 – 28,000 BC

Upper Palaeolithic  c. 28,000 – 10,000 BC

Neolithic  c. 10,000 – 6000 BC

Calcolithic (Copper Age) c. 6000 – 5000 BC

   Hassuna  c. 5500 – 5000 BC

   Halaf/Ubaid  c. 5000 – 4000 BC

   Uruk  c. 4000 – 3200 BC

   Jemdir Nasir  c. 3200 – 3000 BC

 

Early Bronze Age (3500 – 2000 BC)

Middle Bronze Age (2000 – 1500 BC)

Early Iron Age (1000 – 500 BC)

 

Historical Periods

 

1. Southern Mesopotamia

 

Early Dynastic I  c. 3000 - 2750

Early Dynastic II  c. 2750 – 2600 BC

Early Dynastic III (Fara)  c. 2600 – 2350 BC

Dynasty of Akkad  c. 2350 – 2000 BC

  Sargon I King of Sumer and Akkad (2334 – 2279 BC) location of the city of Akkad unknown, sacked by Gutians from Iran after 100 years

Dynasties of Ur   -   Ur III  c. 2150 – 2000 BC     

Old Babylonian  c. 2000 – 1600 BC

   Isin Larsa Dynasties  c. 2000 – 1600 BC         

   First Dynasty of Babylon  c. 1800 – 1600 BC

          Hammurabi, King of Babylon 1792 – 1750

Kassite Dynasty  c. 1600 - 1155 BC

Second Dynasty of Isin 1155 – 1027 BC

Second Dynasty of Sealand 1026 – 1006 BC

Dynasty of E  979 – 732 BC

Assyrian Domination  732 – 626 BC

Neo-Babylonian Dynasty  626 – 539 BC

 

2. Northern Mesopotamia

 

Old Assyrian Period  c. 1900 – 1400 BC

Middle Assyrian Period  c. 1400 - 1050 BC

Neo-Assyrian Period Empire  c. 934 – 610 BC

 

Post-Mesopotamian

 

Achaemenid Empire  539 – 331 BC

Hellenistic Period  331 – 126 BC

   Seleucid Dynasty  311 – 126 BC

Parthian Period  126 BC – AD 227

Sassanian Period  AD 224 - 642

 

Islamic Era (AD 642 - )

 

Abbasid Dynasty  750 - 1258

Ottoman Period  1516 - 1914

British Occupation 1914 - 1921

Kingdom of Iraq  1921 - 1958

Republic of Iraq  1958 - 2005

 

 

 

The Fertile Crescent is the area from the Persian Gulf between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, to the Levant on the Mediterranean Sea coast, to the Nile Delta on the 

northeastern African coast

 

 

The British Museum website about Mesopotamia:

 

http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/menu.html

 

Timeline:

 

http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/time/explore/frame_mes.html

 

See also:

 

http://www.crystalinks.com/mesopotamia.html

 

 

 

 

 

Sumer

 

Sumer

 

 

 

 

Mesopotamia 

 

Mesopotamia and the Bible

 

Was there a Garden of Eden, a paradise as described in the Old Testament of the Bible?

 

This would have been a small area on the Persian Gulf between two rivers, the Tigris in the west and the Euphrates in the east. 

 

Several small cities appeared in the region between 4,500 and 3,500 B. C.

 

This civilisation was known as Sumer. Its culture gradually spread northward between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, 

and more cities developed.

 

The ancient Greeks called this region 'Mesopotamia' ('between the rivers').

 

This area is in Iraq today.

 

Many scholars believe Mesopotamia was the Garden of Eden, the 'cradle of civilisation', from which civilisation spread to the West.

 

 

 

Sumer and the Garden of Eden

 

 

What was the Garden of Eden? 

 

Brief cartoon description (2 parts)

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQEPxpWpjv8&feature=relmfu

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GWgHvnufxIil

 

 

 

Mysteries of the Garden of Eden

 

Episode from the BBC documentary series Decoding the Past

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Z_YASKbY50

 

 

 

Mesopotamia   -   Return to Eden

 

Episode from the documentary series Lost Civilisations narrated by Sam Waterston

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h534FTPHQoY&feature=related

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=on3cdN3iZqc

 

 

 

The Garden of Eden

 

Documentary comparing the biblical story with a scientific study of Adam and Eve and the Garden of Eden

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6epLexw404

 

 

Eden and Eridu

Excerpt from 1991 BBC documentary Legacy: The Origins of Civilisation with Michael Wood

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Z1JLCe1RB0

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zx4xP6P-CFg

 

 

                      ------

 

 

 

The Appearance of Writing
 
WHAT WAS THE FERTILE CRESCENT? 
THE FERTILE CRESCENT 
WAS THE CIVILIZATIONS 
OF AN ANCIENT REGION 
OF THE MIDDLE EAST 

 
Writing first appeared in the Fertile Crescent - the geographical region between the Tigris River in the east and the Nile River in the west.
 
But which came first?
 
Mesopotamian Cuneiform or Egyptian Heiroglyphs?
 
Scholars disagree.
 
Many believe both first appeared at the same time.
 

kot37055_1106bta.jpg
Early Mesopotamian Cuneiform
 
Cuneiform writing
Late Mesopotamian Cuneiform
 
 

 

The Birth of Writing

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7JsfwAcCo0

 

 

Excerpt about ancient writing from a documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHOnhYCskd0

 

 

 

Ancient Mesopatamia

 

A Coronet film presentation (1953, 1976)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8v2vRlLL58&feature=related

 

 

 

The First Civilizations

 

Programs # 2 and # 3 of the 1989 lecture series The Western Tradition by Eugen Weber at UCLA

 

2. The Ancient Egyptians

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CItwOikzu68

3. Mesopotamia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=emm4ZC951gY

 

 

 

The Cradle of Civilisation 

 

1991 BBC documentary with Michael Wood 

about the ancient region of modern Iraq from the Legacy series on civilisation

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdBbo6TBLyw

 

 

 

The Gardens of Babel

Episode about Mesopotamia from the documentary series Civilisations (English and French)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MKs5Wvv1-14

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lESEb2-V1Sg

 

 

Ziggurat of Ur Tour

 

Nasiriyah, Iraq

 

Regular Friday tour by Dhiaf Muhsen (2007)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MB7i1h3whn4

 

 

 

Sumerians et Babylonians

 

Documentaire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=celYfehb5kQ

 

 

 

Babylon

 

Documentary about Nebuchadnezzar II (reigned c. 605  -  c. 562 BC 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sb6-bYR8iFo

 

or in 5 clips:

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQIWDPTIYGk

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvT56PJHPfQ&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5yEPWGUCQYE&feature=relmfu

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMV6tbnNGHc&feature=relmfu

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JwGZ6XRIRis&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HDRze962yFU&feature=related

 

 

 

The Kings 

 

From Babylon to Baghdad

 

Documentary

 

Part 1 ends with Cyrus; Part 2 begins with WW1; the history in between is not available

 

Part 1. 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnQGjmdUGCI 

 

 

                       --------------

 

 

 

Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations

 

Three-lecture survey of Mesopotamia

 

Lecture 2, 3 and 4 of the 12-lecture course

Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations by Kenneth W. Harl from The Great Courses

 

1. First Cities of Sumer

 

- Trade and Writing

- The Uruk Period (3100 - 2500 B. C.), Ur

- The Proto-Literate Period (3100 - 2800 B. C.)

- Early Dynastic Period (2800 - 2300 B. C.)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZqZVIRStNQ

 

2. Mesopotamian Kings, Scribes and Soldiers

From city-states to regional kingdoms to territorial empires in the Early and Middle Bronze Age

- Sargon of Akkad and the first empire

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3El5pftOxkI

 

3. Hammurabi’s Babylon 

1792 - 1750 BC

Middle Bronze Age

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lL0vsA6GU6A

 

 

Hammurabi's Law Code

 

Basalt stele with the code

of Hammurabi (1792 - 1750

BC) in the Akkadian language

in cuneiform script excavated

in Susa, Iran in 1901.

 

 

Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi

 

(1792 - 1750 B. C.)

 

Beth Harris and Steven Zucker visiting Le Louvre, Paris

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_w5NGOHbgTw

 

 

 

Hammurabi and the Earliest Written Laws

 

Excerpt from a lecture by Gregory Aldrete from The Great Courses

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QIJZN4N8bnQ

 

 

 

The Code of Hammurabi

 

Audio (75:06)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zHP3J4Bdts

 


Hammurabi's Babylon

 

Lecture # 4 of 12 by Kenneth W. Harl from the course Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations (from The Great Courses)

 

Hammurabi's Code of Law; Ziusudra, Atrahasis, Gilgamesh; Babylon

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lL0vsA6GU6A

 

 

 

                       -------

 

 

From out of the Mesopotamian Mud

 

Lecture # 2 by Gregory Aldrete from the course History of the Ancient World (Removed from You Tube)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwLlFmK8_9o&feature=relmfu

 

 

Cultures of the Ancient Near East 

 

Lecture # 3 by Gregory Aldrete from History of the Ancient World (Removed from You Tube)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQ_78_iG-ig&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

File:Metal production in Ancient Middle East.svg

Metal production in Ancient Middle East   

 

Source: Regs productoras de metales en la Edad Antigua en Oriente Medio.svg with modifications by Phirosiberia

 

 

 

Bronze Age Transformations of the Mediterranean World

  

A Perspective from the Countryside 

Lecture from Steven R. Falconer at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia in 2013 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ5RhZBOEGM 

 

 

 

Enuma Elish

 

The Sumerian/Mesopotamian/Babylonian Story of the Creation

 

 

The Parts of the Whole

 

Lecture # 1. of a 24-lecture course, Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible), by Christine Hayes, Yale U.,  Fall 2006

 

- Introduction to the Hebrew Bible and Its radical ideas

- Common myths about the Bible

- An overview of the structure of the Bible

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mo-YL-lv3RY

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-145/lecture-1

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/968/rlst-145

 

 

Entire text of the seven tablets

 

http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/enuma.htm

 

 

 

                        -----------------

 

 

 

The Epic of Gilgamesh

 

A tablet with the Epic of Gilgamesh written in cuneiform

 

Tablet_V_of_the_Epic_of_Gligamesh._Newly_discovered._The_Sulaymaniyah_Museum,_Iraq.

Tablet V of the epic

 

Overview

 

(2 clips)

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O2TYgCytbLY&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aI7hR3HghIs&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

Poem

 

(12 clips)

 

Prologue

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6KfBf7MiFw&feature=relmfu

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHInCYIGq3E

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxauXl43eG4&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sT1OufYJnoU&feature=relmfu

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zwVo-sZXig&feature=relmfu

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DN3GztjYfQc&feature=relmfu

 

6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8R00X_Tdacw&feature=relmfu 

 

7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CRbFzV8kdM&feature=relmfu 

 

8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cGKm7maHgw&feature=relmfu 

 

9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxy_SJ6RCFw&feature=relmfu 

 

10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHJvM36RvIs&feature=relmfu 

 

11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSxHO_RUjT8&feature=relmfu

 

 

Le fantôme d'Uruk

 

À la recherche du roi Gilgamesh

 

Terra X Doku (2007)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DW2IvsZg7X0

 

ou

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4KBCQ24Dgc

 

Gilgamesh

 

Journeys to the End of the World

 

Lecture by Steve Tinney at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, January 8, 2014 

 

Great Voyages Lecture Series

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=46Xst2do8p4

 

Epic of Gilgamesh

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Andrew George, Frances Reynolds and Martin Worthington

3 November 2016

BBC:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b080wbrq 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AVh9WwnvAM 

 

 

 

Entire text of the Epic of Gilgamesh

 

http://www.aina.org/books/eog/eog.pdf

 

http://king-of-heroes.co.uk/the-epic-of-gilgamesh/reginald-campbell-thompson-translation/

 

http://www.civ.strangegirl.com/fullgilgamesh.html

 

Online audio reading of Tablet V in Old Akkadian:

 

http://www.openculture.com/2015/10/hear-the-epic-of-gilgamesh-read-in-the-original-akkadian-language.html

 

About the recently discovered Tablet V in Kurdistan:  

 

http://www.openculture.com/2015/10/20-new-lines-from-the-epic-of-gilgamesh-discovered-in-iraq-adding-new-dimensions-to-the-story.html

 

 

From the latest published page of the Wikipedia entry (021116):

 

'The earliest Sumerian poems are distinct stories, rather than parts of a single epic, dating from circa 2100 BC.

 

'The Old Babylonian tablets (circa 1800 BC) are the earliest surviving tablets for a single Epic of Gilgamesh narrative.

 

'The older Old Babylonian tablets and later Akkadian version are important sources for modern translations, with the earlier texts mainly used to fill in gaps (lacunae) in the later texts.

 

'Although several revised versions based on new discoveries have been published, the epic remains incomplete.

 

'Analysis of the Old Babylonian text has been used to reconstruct possible earlier forms of the Epic of Gilgamesh.

 

'The most recent Akkadian version (circa 1200 BC), also referred to as the 'standard' version, consisting of twelve tablets, was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni and was found in the Library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh.'

 

Note: Wikipedia is a public Online encyclopaedia; anyone can add or remove details from an entry. The accuracy of the details posted cannot be taken for granted and must be thoroughly checked.

 

 

 

                           ------------------------

 

 

 

Cyrus the Great

 

 

The Cyrus Cylinder

The Cyrus Cylinder (front side shown in the above photo) is a barrel-shaped cylinder made from baked clay and measures a maximum 8.9 inches by a maximum 3.9 inches. Photo Source: Prioryman

 

The cylinder is covered with a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script on behalf of the Persian ruler Cyrus II the Great (ruled 559 - 530 BC), founder of the Achaemenid Empire (559 - 330 BC), and dates from Cyrus' conquest of the Neo- (New) Babylonian Empire c. 539 BC.

 

It was discovered in Babylon in 1871 and is today in the British Museum.


The Cyrus Cylinder

The Discovery and Creation of an Icon

 

A Lecture by John E. Curtis at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C.

 

12 April 2012

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2qKQngMszM

 

 

 

The Cyrus Cylinder from Ancient Babylon and the Beginning of the Persian Empire

 

Lecture by John E. Curtis at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, New York

 

20 June 2013

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qIoEevJ6qE

 

Full text:

 

Full text read aloud (audio):

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S4ZC-5GwMY

 

 

 

Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great spread from the Aegean Sea to Central Asia

 

 

 

                 ------------------

 

 

 

The Bisotun (Behistun) Inscription

 

The Bisotun (Behistun) Inscription - texts and low reliefs carved from a cliff face of Mount Bisotun (Behistun) in present-day Iran.

 

The three separate inscriptions, each in a different languages - Old Persian, Elamite and Late Babylonian Akkadian - were written in cuneiform script and recount the conquests of King Darius I (the Great) of Persia (ruled 522 BC - 486 BC).

 

The eventual decipherment of Old Persian in the mid-1800s simplified the translation of the Late Babylonian Akkadian.

 

 

Cracking the Code

 

An excerpt from a lecture by David Neiman from the course Cradles of Civilization, Los Angeles, California (2000)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEow07oohUo

 

 

 

 

----------

 






 
 
 
 
Hamoukar
 
A 7,000-year-old city in northern Mesopotamia
 
Hamoukar is located in Syria
 
 
An archeolgical site in the Jazira in northeastern Syria near the Iraqi border contemporary with the Ubaid and the early Uruk civilisations
 
 
Hamoukar
 
Redrawing the map of the World's Earliest Cities
 
Clemens Reichel, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago (2007)
 
 
 
 
 




























Continued on next page, 5, Egypt

 
 
 
 
 
 
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