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6. Indus Valley














Home | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilization | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World | 10. Persia and Greece | 11. Rome (1) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome (2) | 14. Byzantium | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (-1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. World War Two | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 36. | - | 38. | 39. | 40. | 41. | 42. | 43. | 44. | 45. | 46. | 47. | -- | --





Continued from previous page, 5




























 
 
 
Rivers of India
 
Drainage System of India
 
 
 
 

 

 

Indus Valley

 

 

 

Generally, academics place the Indus Valley civilization, i. e., the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, ca. 3,500 - 3,300 to 1,500 - 1,300 BC.

 

During and after the demise of this civilization the Indus River Valley was invaded by the Indo-European Aryans from the north and northwest (present-day Iran and Central Asia).

 

Civilization then developed in the west of India along the Ganges River.

 

 

 
 
The Lost Civilization of the Indus Valley
 
Lecture by Gregory Aldrete, # 6 of History of the Ancient World
 
 
 
 

 

Masters of the River

 

2006 episode about the the Indus Valley civilisation of India and Pakistan from the  documentary series Civilizations

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dIZWnwI47M

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTGC7-xN_XA

 

or

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnsatmxY7Kc  

 

 

India - The Empire of the Spirit

 

Episode about India from the 1991 documentary series Legacy on civilzation with Michael Wood

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Lex_eMC6wE

 

 

Meluhha 

 

The Indus Civilization and its contacts with Mesopotamia

 

Lecture by Mark Kenoyer, 2010

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zcGLlLEbmI&feature=relmfu

 

 

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

 

Two brief descriptions of the Indus Valley civilization (made in India)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvrE38HL0HM

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCYx-_WqcKc

 

 

Hinduism

 

Intro:

 

Timeline:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzLCIMKv17k&feature=related

 

 

 

Hinduism

 

Episode from the documentary series Religions of the World by National Geographic

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e72i4zzU4B8

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvcsY75HPpk

 

 

 

Hindu Mythology

 

 

The Story of the Swastika

 

BBC documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_reuMKpgow

 

 

The Vedas

 

Intro:  

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ugyrzr5Ds8o

 

 

The Upanishads

 

Discussion on the BBC's weekly radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, November 8, 2012

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b01nq7ct/In_Our_Time_The_Upanishads/

 

 

The Mahabharata

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13KdR1pVsdc

 

 

Ramayana

 

- The Legend of Prince Rama (1992)

 

Two animations

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyETrOnLDdU&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWZCmVOevZY&feature=related

 

 

 

Caste System

 

 

 

 

 

Jainism

 

Jains

 

Documentary

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPscKFV5yKU&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHMQRmRKh_U&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a96nz4DvRRE&feature=relmfu

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=670KFhISeUk&feature=relmfu

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbheKLJl8GI&feature=relmfu

 

 

The Buddha

 

Story of the Buddha

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFbjDcz_CbU

 

 

The Buddha

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dLMZNmxFUZU&feature=related

 

 

The Buddha

 

Discussion with Melvyn Bragg on In Our Time, BBC weekly radio program, March 14, 2002

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548br

 

 

Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World

 

2011 BBC-TV documentary with Bettany Hughes

 

Visit to famous Buddhist temples in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Hong Kong, Japan and the U. S.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7ZIpVKZaI4

 

 

 

 

The Ganges

 

Ganges

 

River of Life

 

3-part 2007 BBC documentary (2 hrs., 25 min., 5 sec.) 

 

1. Daughter of the Mountains

2. River of Life

3. Waterland

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TivVW67iSTs

 

or

 

1. Daughter of the Mountains

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM9aPy7H534

 

2. River of Life

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDKZSpDyn-Y

 

3. Waterland

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0NnJsEROU0

 

 

 

Ashoka Chakra

 

 

Ashoka

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTuNKCU0oLE 

 

 

A clip from Michael Wood's Story of India

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xH63aG1af5E&feature=fvwp&NR=1 

 

 

Ages of Gold

 

Episode # 4 from the 2007 6-part documentary series The Story of India with Michael Wood

 

About the Gupta empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNK2vIBTlPU

 

 

Ancient Rulers and Sects:

 

Unifiers of India - Chandragupta and Asoka

 

Lecture # 21 by Gregory Aldrete from History of the Ancient World

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwTCTvcmgHc&feature=relmfu (Removed from You Tube)

 

 

Chandragupta Maurya

 

The Mauryan Empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ISmwH6ShrE

 

 

Maurya

 

Warriors of the Elephant 

 

Episode from the documentary series Ancient Warriors

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sn6H7-Mrx2Y

 

 

The Indians

 

Episode from the BBC documentary series with Adam Hart-Davis What the Ancients did for us

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTn1iONBVD0

 

 

India

 

Episode from the 2007 documentary series

What the Ancients Knew

 

Ancient India and planned cities, houses with bathrooms and toilets, yoga, meditation, medicine, chess, science, maths, the numbers 1 to 9 and zero, plastic surgery, eye operations and inoculation

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMXXILYpGaQ

 

 

 

 

Continue to next page, 7






 

 

 

Dwarka

 

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of Modern Asia

 

About the ancient home city of Krishna

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KkDMBhrAD4

 

 

The Sunken City of Dwarka

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zc2dWngyZH4

 
 
Underworld

 

Episode from the documentary series Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age with Graham Hancock

 

About Dwarka, 12,000-year-old City of Krishna

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQZFS9Hij0M

 

 

Dwarka

 

Atlantis of the East

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVIsjx5X3QM

 

 

 

-------------------------

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

Ancient India

 

From the Indus Valley Civilisation to the Mughals

 

Documentary on Indian history (48:06)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywzVUEzmK6M

 

 

 

 

 

 
----------------
 
 
 
 
 
Indian Civilization
 
26-lecture course by Vinay Lal, Introduction to the History of India (History 9A), UCLA, Spring 2012
 
Lecture 1. Introductory lecture
 
- Course requirements
- Course requirements
- General discussion and questions about the interpretation of Indian history
- Religion in Indian history
- Indian civilization
- "India"
- Sources of study
- Problems with translation  
- rendering one culture into the terms familiar from another culture Hazards in studying Indian history
- "South Asia"
- Roland Barthes's "Empire of Signs"
 
 
Lecture 2.

- The problem of 'Orientalism'
- Problems in the interpretation of Indian history
- The relationship of knowledge to power
the politics of representation and the institutionalization of certain forms of representation, their relation to colonialism, etc.
- What is the nature of Orientalist discourse: the 'Black Hole of Calcutta' as an illustration
- Physical geography of India
- Different names for India (Aryavarta . . . )
- Indus Valley Civilization: an urban civilization with town planning
 
 
 
Lecture 3.
 
- Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization)
- Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
- Undeciphered script of the Indus Valley
- Seals and their figures
- Demise of Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans
- Import of the Aryan horse in India
- Creation of hierarchies with the horse
- The nature of the Rig Veda, its status in Indian thought and some comparisons with the Koran
 
 
 
Lecture 4.
 
- Aryans and the Rig Veda
- Changing nature of Indian texts
- Oral tradition
- Sir William Jones and Indo-European languages
- Three language families in India: Indo-European (I-E), Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic
- Importance of Sanskrit
- The Rig Veda's account of creation and a comparison with the account in Genesis
- The Aryan conception of four castes (caturvarna), four stages of life, and the four Vedas
- Varna, caste hierarchies, notions of pollution and purity
- Difference between varna and jati
- Aryan social organization
- Stages of life
- Distinction between sruti (revealed) and smriti (remembered)
- The four ends of life according to the Aryans: artha, kama, dharma, and moksha
- Indra as an Aryan God
- Other Aryan Gods
 
 
 
Lecture 5.
 
- Aryan Society
- Later Vedic period
- Idea of Varsnasrama Dharma
- Theory of Moksha
- Political and social organization of the Aryans   -   tribes, clans, rajahs, sabha, and samiti
- The illiterate Aryans and the oral tradition
- Transition from Vedas to the Upanishads
- Social context of the Upanishads and theory of moksha (liberation) and knowledge
- Story of Svetaketu in the Upanishads
- Meaning of the word 'Brahmin'
- Worldview of the Upanishads
- Problems in using European categories to understand Indian texts and philosophical traditions
- Upanishads as dialogic texts
- Shankaracharya's interpretation of the Upanishads
- Avidya (ignorance) and vidya (knowledge)
- The affinity of the atman and the Brahman, the individual and universal soul
- Distinction between real and unreal, permanent and transient - The story of the Buddha   -   birth, childhood, enlightenment, teachings, disciples and death
- Buddhism gives us the first concrete details of India
- The Buddha's conception of suffering and freedom from the trappings of life; his idea of the four noble truths and the eightfold path
 
 
 
Lecture 6.
 
- The Upanishads and the notion of individual moral responsibility
- Buddha and the Buddhism
- Mahavira and origins of Jainism   -   key ideas, including sangha, ahimsa, aparigraha
- Jains
- Jaina theory of syadvada
- John Godfrey Saxe's version of the parable of the six blind men and the elephant
- Indian mathematics (zero, use of letters to designate unknown quantities such as x, y ... ), astronomy, Panini's grammar of Sanskrit and surgery  
- Polity in India ca. 600 BCE - ca. 350 BCE
- Alexander the Great's invasion of India
- Alexander the Great's encoiunter with the gymnosophists
- Vikram Chandra's novel "Red Earth and Pouring Rain"
 
 
 
Lecture 7.
 
- Alexander the Great and the gymnosophists
- Mauryan empire
- Chandragupta, Bindusara and the Emperor Ashoka and Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism after the war in Kalinga
- Ashoka's edicts
- The spread of Buddhism
- The Arthasastra by Kautilya (the Machiavelli of the East) as a source for studying the Mauryan empire
- The Lion Capital at Sarnath
- Ashoka's life, his ecumenism, tolerance and commitment to nonviolence
- Ashoka's attempts to put together a corpus of Buddhist texts - A political unity in India
- South India and Tamil country
- Development of popular Hinduism   -   the trinity or trimurti (Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu)
- Iconography of gods and goddesses
- Example of Ardhnarisvara, Shiva as half-male and half-female - Vishnu has avatars (incarnations) but not Shiva
- Ten incarnations of Vishnu (dasavatara)
 
 
Lecture 8.
 
- Mauryan dynasty
- Political history of India   -   200 BCE
- Political turmoil
- South India and the Sangam period
- Tamil country
- Hindu myths
- The Ramkatha and the Ramayana
- Puranic literature   -   sectarian literature
- Vishnu Purana
- The myth of Narasimha and story of Prahlad
- Liminality
- Incarnation (avatar)
- Story of Vamana (the dwarf)
- The idea of many Ramayanas -- A. K. Ramanujan and a Kannada folktale
- Some differences between the Ramayana and Mahabharata
- Difficulties in viewing Ramayana as a work of history
- Tendency in recent years to historicize Rama and his story
- Distinctions between history and myth
- The dispute over the Ramjanmasthan/Babri Masjid in Ayodhya and the destruction of the Babri Masjid
 
 
 
Lecture 9.
 
- Ramayana
- Many versions of the Ramayana
- Gods, humans, demi-gods and asuras (demons)
- Hanuman
- A. K. Ramanujan's article about the many Ramayanas
- Hindu nationalist readings of the Ramayana
- Agnipariksha (the trial by fire) and dharma
- The two Krishnas of Indian tradition and the view of the Bengali writer Bankimcandra Chatterjee
- The Krishna of history and myth
- Krishna and the gopis
- Episode of the vastraharana (theft of the clothes)
- Nationalists and Indian history
- The British fascination with history
- Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
- Dialectic on freedom and discipline
- Yoga
- Cessation of thought
 
 
 
Lecture 10.
 
- Hindu gods and goddesses
- Iconography of the deities
- Krishna as cowherd with a flute
- Iconography of Rama and masculinization of the God
- Shiva, Narasimha and traditions of Indian miniature painting
- The episode of the vastraharana, the theft of the clothes
- the idea of nakedness, being shorn of your ego (ahamkara)
- Rasleela
- Dasavatara
- Scenes from the Mahabharata   -   the sermon called the
   Bhagavad Gita
- Patanjali's Yoga Sutras
- Different conceptions of yoga   -   eight limbs of yoga,
   including asanas, pranayama and the cosmology of breath
- Yoga and abstentions and affirmations.
- Yoga and the understanding and attainment of freedom
- Gita and yoga
- Schools of yoga espoused by the Gita
- Transition from Vedas to Upanishads and Buddhism to the 
   Gita
- Bhakti yoga, karma yoga, jnana yoga
- Krishna's status
- Importance of devotion (bhakti)
- Krishna's Universal form (Vishwarupa).
- Mahabharata, Draupadi and allegorical reading of polyandry
 
 
 
Lecture 11.
 

- Mahabharata, its structure; a story within a story

- Bhagavad Gita

- The wager

- Draupadi at the Assembly Hall

- Aswatthama and the death of Drona

- Krishna and the death of Jayadratha

- Yaksha Prasna

- Yudisthira and his reputation for truthfulness

- Importance of vows and meaning of a promise

- The supreme question of dharma

- The deception of Krishna

- So-called 'dark ages' of India

- Significance of the 2nd cent. AD  -  Manusmriti (Laws of Manu)Arthasastra

- End of the Mauryan empire

- Central Asians in India and Indians in SE Asia

- Indianization of Southeast Asia

- The poetry in stone created by Satavahanas

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRupnfB3gbk

 

 

Lecture 12.

 

- Political history of India to ca. 300 - 400 AD  --  Shungas, Gandhara school, Indo-Greek dynasties

- Classes of Indian literature - dharmasastras, arthasastra, nitisastras and kamasastras

- Indian writers' obsession with classification

- Vatsyayana's Kamasutra, Panchatantra and secular literature

- The marga and the desi, high-brow and low-brow Indian culture

- The Hindu tradition of the Goddess: Indian folktales and Thomas Mann's "Transposed Heads"-- the notion of identity

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAC01R1QWmE

 

 

Lecture 13.

 

- Niti Sastras; contrast with Dharma Sastras

- Niti Sastras deal with 'conduct'

- Indian folktales, the Pancatantra and the Kathasaritsagara

- The story of Solomon's justice; the story of the four Brahmins and the lion

- History of Indian art and architecture -- images of the Buddha, Gandhara sculpture, Ajanta, Ellora

- Boddhisattva painting of Ajanta

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVdVGcuDKPk

 

 

Lecture 14.


- Problems with the periodization of Indian history
- James Mill's History of British India
- Indian history before the Guptas: Indo-Greeks, Shakas, Kushanas, and the reign of Kanishka
- Indian calendrical systems and the Vikrama era
- Evidence from Pliny about Indian trade with Rome; the Sanskrit Cosmopolis
- The Guptas, the so-called "Golden" or "Classical" age of India
- Astronomy
- Chess
- Kalidasa and Indian literature
- Reigns of Chandgraupta I, Samudragupta, and Samudragupta II
- The political system - "Rajamandala"
- Cultural capital
- Gradual shift from Buddhism to Hinduism
- Fa-hien's observations on India around 400 AD

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfx1YcMiE2s

 

 

Lecture 15.

 
- Disappearance of Buddhism from India and competing narratives
- Shankaracharya, his establishment of maths and his attempt
to consolidate Hinduism
- Political history of India   -   the Rajputs, the Pratiharas, the
Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Palas in Bengal and the political fragmentation of India
- History of South India, the relationship of Tamil and Sanskrit
and loan words from Sanskrit
- Indian Ocean trading network
- The coming of Islam to India
- Elementary aspects of Islam
- Early Islamic invasions of Sind
- Theory of communalism and problems with the communalist
interpretations of Indian history
- Mahmud of Ghazni
- Hegel on India
- Attack on Somnath
- The politics of conquest
 
 
 
 
Continued on Page 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors
 
 
 
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