Make your own free website on Tripod.com








Oliver's Site

6. Indus Valley














Home | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilization | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World | 10. Persia and Greece | 11. Rome (1) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome (2) | 14. Byzantium | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (-1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. World War Two | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 36. | - | 38. | 39. | 40. | 41. | 42. | 43. | 44. | 45. | 46. | 47. | -- | --





Continued from previous page, 5




























 
 
 
Rivers of India
 
Drainage System of India
 
 
 
 

 

 

Indus Valley

 

 

 

Generally, academics place the Indus Valley civilization, i. e., the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, ca. 3,500 - 3,300 to 1,500 - 1,300 BC.

 

During and after the demise of this civilization the Indus River Valley was invaded by the Indo-European Aryans from the north and northwest (present-day Iran and Central Asia).

 

Civilization then developed in the west of India along the Ganges River.

 

 

 
 
The Lost Civilization of the Indus Valley
 
Lecture by Gregory Aldrete, # 6 of History of the Ancient World
 
 
 
 

 

Masters of the River

 

2006 episode about the the Indus Valley civilisation of India and Pakistan from the  documentary series Civilizations

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dIZWnwI47M

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTGC7-xN_XA

 

or

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnsatmxY7Kc  

 

 

India - The Empire of the Spirit

 

Episode about India from the 1991 documentary series Legacy on civilzation with Michael Wood

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Lex_eMC6wE

 

 

Meluhha 

 

The Indus Civilization and its contacts with Mesopotamia

 

Lecture by Mark Kenoyer, 2010

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zcGLlLEbmI&feature=relmfu

 

 

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

 

Two brief descriptions of the Indus Valley civilization (made in India)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvrE38HL0HM

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCYx-_WqcKc

 

 

Hinduism

 

Intro:

 

Timeline:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzLCIMKv17k&feature=related

 

 

 

Hinduism

 

Episode from the documentary series Religions of the World by National Geographic

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e72i4zzU4B8

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvcsY75HPpk

 

 

 

Hindu Mythology

 

 

The Story of the Swastika

 

BBC documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_reuMKpgow

 

 

The Vedas

 

Intro:  

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ugyrzr5Ds8o

 

 

The Upanishads

 

Discussion on the BBC's weekly radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, November 8, 2012

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b01nq7ct/In_Our_Time_The_Upanishads/

 

 

The Mahabharata

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13KdR1pVsdc

 

 

Ramayana

 

- The Legend of Prince Rama (1992)

 

Two animations

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyETrOnLDdU&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWZCmVOevZY&feature=related

 

 

 

Caste System

 

 

 

 

 

Jainism

 

Jains

 

Documentary

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPscKFV5yKU&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHMQRmRKh_U&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a96nz4DvRRE&feature=relmfu

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=670KFhISeUk&feature=relmfu

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbheKLJl8GI&feature=relmfu

 

 

The Buddha

 

Story of the Buddha

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFbjDcz_CbU

 

 

The Buddha

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dLMZNmxFUZU&feature=related

 

 

The Buddha

 

Discussion with Melvyn Bragg on In Our Time, BBC weekly radio program, March 14, 2002

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548br

 

 

Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World

 

2011 BBC-TV documentary with Bettany Hughes

 

Visit to famous Buddhist temples in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Hong Kong, Japan and the U. S.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7ZIpVKZaI4

 

 

 

 

The Ganges

 

Ganges

 

River of Life

 

3-part 2007 BBC documentary (2 hrs., 25 min., 5 sec.) 

 

1. Daughter of the Mountains

2. River of Life

3. Waterland

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TivVW67iSTs

 

or

 

1. Daughter of the Mountains

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM9aPy7H534

 

2. River of Life

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDKZSpDyn-Y

 

3. Waterland

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0NnJsEROU0

 

 

 

Ashoka Chakra

 

 

Ashoka

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTuNKCU0oLE 

 

 

A clip from Michael Wood's Story of India

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xH63aG1af5E&feature=fvwp&NR=1 

 

 

Ages of Gold

 

Episode # 4 from the 2007 6-part documentary series The Story of India with Michael Wood

 

About the Gupta empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNK2vIBTlPU

 

 

Ancient Rulers and Sects:

 

Unifiers of India - Chandragupta and Asoka

 

Lecture # 21 by Gregory Aldrete from History of the Ancient World

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwTCTvcmgHc&feature=relmfu (Removed from You Tube)

 

 

Chandragupta Maurya

 

The Mauryan Empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ISmwH6ShrE

 

 

Maurya

 

Warriors of the Elephant 

 

Episode from the documentary series Ancient Warriors

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sn6H7-Mrx2Y

 

 

The Indians

 

Episode from the BBC documentary series with Adam Hart-Davis What the Ancients did for us

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTn1iONBVD0

 

 

India

 

Episode from the 2007 documentary series

What the Ancients Knew

 

Ancient India and planned cities, houses with bathrooms and toilets, yoga, meditation, medicine, chess, science, maths, the numbers 1 to 9 and zero, plastic surgery, eye operations and inoculation

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMXXILYpGaQ

 

 

 

 

Continue to next page, 7






 

 

 

Dwarka

 

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of Modern Asia

 

About the ancient home city of Krishna

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KkDMBhrAD4

 

 

The Sunken City of Dwarka

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zc2dWngyZH4

 
 
Underworld

 

Episode from the documentary series Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age with Graham Hancock

 

About Dwarka, 12,000-year-old City of Krishna

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQZFS9Hij0M

 

 

Dwarka

 

Atlantis of the East

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVIsjx5X3QM

 

 

 

-------------------------

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

Ancient India

 

From the Indus Valley Civilisation to the Mughals

 

Documentary on Indian history (48:06)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywzVUEzmK6M

 

 

 

 

 

 
----------------
 
 
 
 
 
Indian Civilization
 
26-lecture course by Vinay Lal, Introduction to the History of India (History 9A), UCLA, Spring 2012
 
Lecture 1. Introductory lecture
 
- Course requirements
- Course requirements
- General discussion and questions about the interpretation of Indian history
- Religion in Indian history
- Indian civilization
- "India"
- Sources of study
- Problems with translation  
- rendering one culture into the terms familiar from another culture Hazards in studying Indian history
- "South Asia"
- Roland Barthes's "Empire of Signs"
 
 
Lecture 2.

- The problem of 'Orientalism'
- Problems in the interpretation of Indian history
- The relationship of knowledge to power
the politics of representation and the institutionalization of certain forms of representation, their relation to colonialism, etc.
- What is the nature of Orientalist discourse: the 'Black Hole of Calcutta' as an illustration
- Physical geography of India
- Different names for India (Aryavarta . . . )
- Indus Valley Civilization: an urban civilization with town planning
 
 
 
Lecture 3.
 
- Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization)
- Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
- Undeciphered script of the Indus Valley
- Seals and their figures
- Demise of Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans
- Import of the Aryan horse in India
- Creation of hierarchies with the horse
- The nature of the Rig Veda, its status in Indian thought and some comparisons with the Koran
 
 
 
Lecture 4.
 
- Aryans and the Rig Veda
- Changing nature of Indian texts
- Oral tradition
- Sir William Jones and Indo-European languages
- Three language families in India: Indo-European (I-E), Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic
- Importance of Sanskrit
- The Rig Veda's account of creation and a comparison with the account in Genesis
- The Aryan conception of four castes (caturvarna), four stages of life, and the four Vedas
- Varna, caste hierarchies, notions of pollution and purity
- Difference between varna and jati
- Aryan social organization
- Stages of life
- Distinction between sruti (revealed) and smriti (remembered)
- The four ends of life according to the Aryans: artha, kama, dharma, and moksha
- Indra as an Aryan God
- Other Aryan Gods
 
 
 
Lecture 5.
 
- Aryan Society
- Later Vedic period
- Idea of Varsnasrama Dharma
- Theory of Moksha
- Political and social organization of the Aryans   -   tribes, clans, rajahs, sabha, and samiti
- The illiterate Aryans and the oral tradition
- Transition from Vedas to the Upanishads
- Social context of the Upanishads and theory of moksha (liberation) and knowledge
- Story of Svetaketu in the Upanishads
- Meaning of the word 'Brahmin'
- Worldview of the Upanishads
- Problems in using European categories to understand Indian texts and philosophical traditions
- Upanishads as dialogic texts
- Shankaracharya's interpretation of the Upanishads
- Avidya (ignorance) and vidya (knowledge)
- The affinity of the atman and the Brahman, the individual and universal soul
- Distinction between real and unreal, permanent and transient - The story of the Buddha   -   birth, childhood, enlightenment, teachings, disciples and death
- Buddhism gives us the first concrete details of India
- The Buddha's conception of suffering and freedom from the trappings of life; his idea of the four noble truths and the eightfold path
 
 
 
Lecture 6.
 
- The Upanishads and the notion of individual moral responsibility
- Buddha and the Buddhism
- Mahavira and origins of Jainism   -   key ideas, including sangha, ahimsa, aparigraha
- Jains
- Jaina theory of syadvada
- John Godfrey Saxe's version of the parable of the six blind men and the elephant
- Indian mathematics (zero, use of letters to designate unknown quantities such as x, y ... ), astronomy, Panini's grammar of Sanskrit and surgery  
- Polity in India ca. 600 BCE - ca. 350 BCE
- Alexander the Great's invasion of India
- Alexander the Great's encoiunter with the gymnosophists
- Vikram Chandra's novel "Red Earth and Pouring Rain"
 
 
 
Lecture 7.
 
- Alexander the Great and the gymnosophists
- Mauryan empire
- Chandragupta, Bindusara and the Emperor Ashoka and Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism after the war in Kalinga
- Ashoka's edicts
- The spread of Buddhism
- The Arthasastra by Kautilya (the Machiavelli of the East) as a source for studying the Mauryan empire
- The Lion Capital at Sarnath
- Ashoka's life, his ecumenism, tolerance and commitment to nonviolence
- Ashoka's attempts to put together a corpus of Buddhist texts - A political unity in India
- South India and Tamil country
- Development of popular Hinduism   -   the trinity or trimurti (Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu)
- Iconography of gods and goddesses
- Example of Ardhnarisvara, Shiva as half-male and half-female - Vishnu has avatars (incarnations) but not Shiva
- Ten incarnations of Vishnu (dasavatara)
 
 
Lecture 8.
 
- Mauryan dynasty
- Political history of India   -   200 BCE
- Political turmoil
- South India and the Sangam period
- Tamil country
- Hindu myths
- The Ramkatha and the Ramayana
- Puranic literature   -   sectarian literature
- Vishnu Purana
- The myth of Narasimha and story of Prahlad
- Liminality
- Incarnation (avatar)
- Story of Vamana (the dwarf)
- The idea of many Ramayanas -- A. K. Ramanujan and a Kannada folktale
- Some differences between the Ramayana and Mahabharata
- Difficulties in viewing Ramayana as a work of history
- Tendency in recent years to historicize Rama and his story
- Distinctions between history and myth
- The dispute over the Ramjanmasthan/Babri Masjid in Ayodhya and the destruction of the Babri Masjid
 
 
 
Lecture 9.
 
- Ramayana
- Many versions of the Ramayana
- Gods, humans, demi-gods and asuras (demons)
- Hanuman
- A. K. Ramanujan's article about the many Ramayanas
- Hindu nationalist readings of the Ramayana
- Agnipariksha (the trial by fire) and dharma
- The two Krishnas of Indian tradition and the view of the Bengali writer Bankimcandra Chatterjee
- The Krishna of history and myth
- Krishna and the gopis
- Episode of the vastraharana (theft of the clothes)
- Nationalists and Indian history
- The British fascination with history
- Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
- Dialectic on freedom and discipline
- Yoga
- Cessation of thought
 
 
 
Lecture 10.
 
- Hindu gods and goddesses
- Iconography of the deities
- Krishna as cowherd with a flute
- Iconography of Rama and masculinization of the God
- Shiva, Narasimha and traditions of Indian miniature painting
- The episode of the vastraharana, the theft of the clothes
- the idea of nakedness, being shorn of your ego (ahamkara)
- Rasleela
- Dasavatara
- Scenes from the Mahabharata   -   the sermon called the
   Bhagavad Gita
- Patanjali's Yoga Sutras
- Different conceptions of yoga   -   eight limbs of yoga,
   including asanas, pranayama and the cosmology of breath
- Yoga and abstentions and affirmations.
- Yoga and the understanding and attainment of freedom
- Gita and yoga
- Schools of yoga espoused by the Gita
- Transition from Vedas to Upanishads and Buddhism to the 
   Gita
- Bhakti yoga, karma yoga, jnana yoga
- Krishna's status
- Importance of devotion (bhakti)
- Krishna's Universal form (Vishwarupa).
- Mahabharata, Draupadi and allegorical reading of polyandry
 
 
 
Lecture 11.
 

- Mahabharata, its structure; a story within a story

- Bhagavad Gita

- The wager

- Draupadi at the Assembly Hall

- Aswatthama and the death of Drona

- Krishna and the death of Jayadratha

- Yaksha Prasna

- Yudisthira and his reputation for truthfulness

- Importance of vows and meaning of a promise

- The supreme question of dharma

- The deception of Krishna

- So-called 'dark ages' of India

- Significance of the 2nd cent. AD  -  Manusmriti (Laws of Manu)Arthasastra

- End of the Mauryan empire

- Central Asians in India and Indians in SE Asia

- Indianization of Southeast Asia

- The poetry in stone created by Satavahanas

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRupnfB3gbk

 

 

Lecture 12.

 

- Political history of India to ca. 300 - 400 AD  --  Shungas, Gandhara school, Indo-Greek dynasties

- Classes of Indian literature - dharmasastras, arthasastra, nitisastras and kamasastras

- Indian writers' obsession with classification

- Vatsyayana's Kamasutra, Panchatantra and secular literature

- The marga and the desi, high-brow and low-brow Indian culture

- The Hindu tradition of the Goddess: Indian folktales and Thomas Mann's "Transposed Heads"-- the notion of identity

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAC01R1QWmE

 

 

Lecture 13.

 

- Niti Sastras; contrast with Dharma Sastras

- Niti Sastras deal with 'conduct'

- Indian folktales, the Pancatantra and the Kathasaritsagara

- The story of Solomon's justice; the story of the four Brahmins and the lion

- History of Indian art and architecture -- images of the Buddha, Gandhara sculpture, Ajanta, Ellora

- Boddhisattva painting of Ajanta

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVdVGcuDKPk

 

 

Lecture 14.


- Problems with the periodization of Indian history
- James Mill's History of British India
- Indian history before the Guptas: Indo-Greeks, Shakas, Kushanas, and the reign of Kanishka
- Indian calendrical systems and the Vikrama era
- Evidence from Pliny about Indian trade with Rome; the Sanskrit Cosmopolis
- The Guptas, the so-called "Golden" or "Classical" age of India
- Astronomy
- Chess
- Kalidasa and Indian literature
- Reigns of Chandgraupta I, Samudragupta, and Samudragupta II
- The political system - "Rajamandala"
- Cultural capital
- Gradual shift from Buddhism to Hinduism
- Fa-hien's observations on India around 400 AD

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfx1YcMiE2s

 

 

Lecture 15.

 
- Disappearance of Buddhism from India and competing narratives
- Shankaracharya, his establishment of maths and his attempt
to consolidate Hinduism
- Political history of India   -   the Rajputs, the Pratiharas, the
Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Palas in Bengal and the political fragmentation of India
- History of South India, the relationship of Tamil and Sanskrit
and loan words from Sanskrit
- Indian Ocean trading network
- The coming of Islam to India
- Elementary aspects of Islam
- Early Islamic invasions of Sind
- Theory of communalism and problems with the communalist
interpretations of Indian history
- Mahmud of Ghazni
- Hegel on India
- Attack on Somnath
- The politics of conquest
 
 
 
 
Continued on Page 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors
 
 
 
                     -----------------
 
 
 
 

Enter content here




























 
 
 
 
 
 
Kindly direct any comments or questions about the website or content to the webmaster. Please use the message sending facility on the home page.      

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE ACTUAL TOTAL IS THE FIGURE BELOW PLUS 30,000