Make your own free website on Tripod.com








Oliver's Site

6. Indus Valley














Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World | 10. Persia and Greece | 11. Rome (1) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome (2) | 14. Byzantium | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (-1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. World War Two | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 36. | 37. | 38. | 39. | 40. | 41. | 42. | 43. | 44. | 45. | 46. | 47. | -- | --





Continued from previous page, 5. Egypt




























 
 
 
 
 
The History of India
 
Animated map of Inda 2800s BC from to AD 2016
 
 
 
 
 
------------------------------
 
 
 
 

 
 
India

Location, Weather, Sea & Himalayan Range

Class Teacher

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o9G0On1pZvg

 

                            ------------

 

Rivers of India
 
Class teacher
 
Drainage System of India
 
 
 
Rivers of India
 
JeethBharat
 
 
 
 

 

 

Indus Valley

 

 

 

Generally, academics place the Indus Valley civilisation, i. e., the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, ca. 3,500 - 3,300 to 1,500 - 1,300 BC.

 

During and after the demise of this civilisation, the Indus River Valley was invaded by the Indo-European Aryans from the north and northwest (present-day Iran and Central Asia).

 

Civilisation then developed in the east   -   along the Ganges River.

 

 

 

Ancient Indian History

Harappan (Indus Valley) Civilisation

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro Excavations

Class Teacher

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCYx-_WqcKc

 

Mohenjo-daro

Brief description

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uasE8pum8g8 

 

India

The First Civilisation

Episode from the documentary series Secrets in the Dust (2009) 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hQ4AtMuKC8

 

                               -------------------------------

 

 

Masters of the River

 

2006 episode about the the Indus Valley civilisation of India and Pakistan from the documentary series Civilisations (in English and French)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dIZWnwI47M

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTGC7-xN_XA

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnsatmxY7Kc  

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=joFlQItvc7Q

 

 

 

India

 

The Empire of the Spirit

 

Episode about India from the 1991 documentary series Legacy on civilsation with Michael Wood

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Lex_eMC6wE

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Lex_eMC6wE

 

 

 

Meluhha 

 

The Indus Civilisation and its contacts with Mesopotamia

 

Lecture by Mark Kenoyer, 2010

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zcGLlLEbmI&feature=relmfu 

 

 

 

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

 

Two brief descriptions of the Indus Valley civilisation 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvrE38HL0HM

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCYx-_WqcKc

 

 

 

                          -------------

 

 

 

 

The Aryan Issue

 

Five lectures by Michael Danino at Amrita U. on 9,10 and 11 September 2015

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RT4pUJMDV2Y

 

2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5lvl8GQmdc

 

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9sWwqdaj4o

 

4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZ2nC3QIuyc

 

5.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZoKnDEjCgB8

 

 

 

 

------------

 

 

 

 

Hinduism

 

Intro:

 

Timeline:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzLCIMKv17k&feature=related

 

 

 

Hinduism

 

Test Tube News

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmV2Wd8bOcc

 

 

 

Hinduism

 

Short lecture from the World Religions series

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVEhIE3Tb-w

 

 

 

Hinduism

 

Episode from the documentary series Religions of the World

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvcsY75HPpk

 

 

 

Hindu Mythology

 

 

The Story of the Swastika

 

BBC documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_reuMKpgow

 

 

 

The Vedas

 

 

 

On the Vedas

 

Excerpt from the documentary series Cosmos with Carl Sagan (1980) (15:07)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ugyrzr5Ds8o

 

 

 

Hindu Ideas of Creation 

 

Discussion on thr weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg (43 min.)

 

With guests Jessica Frazier, Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad and Gavin Flood


13 December 2005

BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03k289f

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BRHqD6PZymk

 

 

 

An Introduction to the Vedas

 

by Uttara Nerurkar

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcrZr6aNHfw

 

 

 

Hinduism

 

From the series Brief Histories

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bx9FcRfJZmo


 

 

The Gods of India

 

Part 1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJBGKcqtBXg

 

Part 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YldFSOmOms

 

 

 

Suriya

 

From the series The Gods of India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCk4XiE0mQ8

 

 

 

Indra

 

From the series The Gods of India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PS-D-RK-TuU

 

 

 

Agni

 

From the series The Gods of India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxyHgArrNsA

 

 

 

The Hindu Trinty (Trimurti)

 

Brahma

                     Vishnu

                                          Shiva

 

 

Brahma, the God of Creation 

 

From the series The Gods of India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZh7QA4T0Js

 

 

 

Vishnu

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_js1UK04Im4

 

 

 

The Ten Aavatars of Vishnu

 

Matsya (fish)

 Kurma (tortoise)

  Varaha (boar)

   Narasimha (half-man half-lion)

    Vamana (dwarf)

     Parashurama (warrior)

      Rama (Prince of Ayodhya)

       Krishna (cowherd)

        Buddha (priest)

         Kalki (future, eternal) 

 

 

 

Parallels

 

10 Avatars of Vishnu and Darwin's Theory of Evolution

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L0X4dM1ve4g 

 

 

 

Origin of Goddess Lakshmi, Consort of Vishnu 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0h8HKtHg6w4

 

 

 

Lakshmi

 

Discussion on thr weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Jessica Frazier, Jacqueline Suthren-Hirst and Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad

 

6 October 2016

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07wtggv

 

 

 

Krishna   -   The Avatar of Vishnu

 

From the series The Gods of India 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYzUReJqxuQ

 

 

 

Krishna   -   History or Myth?

 

Documentary (34:25)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLQ9ijVTKcI

 

 

 

Shiva

 

From the series The Gods of India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S2I_Xjn0JyI

 

 

 

Shiva

 

A Traditonal Tale

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtvkTvoPjwY

 

 

 

Unlock the Mysteries of Shiva

 

Documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ev08hnIcV6U

 

 

 

Parvati

 

From the series The Gods of India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ih0KzO2ESgY

 

 

 

The Upanishads

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg (41:30)

 

With guests Jessica Frazier, Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad and Simon Brodbeck

 

8 November 2012

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01nq7ct

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxPKdf3z9j4

 

 

 

The Mahabharata

 

Episode from the documentary series Myths of Mankind (52:01)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13KdR1pVsdc

 

 

 

The Bhagavad Gita

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg 

 

With guests Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad, Julius Lipner and Jessica Frazier

 

31 March 2011

 

BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00zt235

 

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kuUP6Mz0K5o

 

 

 

The Ramayana

 

 

The Story of Rama

 

By Valmiki (22:05)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBiWDKuEalE

 

 

The Ramayana

 

The Legend of Prince Rama (of Ayodhya)

 

1992 animation (2:10:56)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J5B1wKHT_hY

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWZCmVOevZY&feature=related

 

 

 

The oldest known surviving texts of the Ramayana:

 

 

 

Caste System

 

 

 

 

Life in Ancient India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERxLSURibeQ

 

 

The Caste System Explained in Four Minutes

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16va-U3h8gI

 

 

 

The Caste System

 

From the lecture series World Religions

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvFou_lK7oo

 

 

 

Dailit Muslims of India

 

Al Jazeera World documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2XktzecBYo

 

 

 

The Ganges

 

Gangetic Plain

Drainage basins of the Ganges (yellow), Brahmaputra (violet) and Meghna (green)

 

Map by Pfly based on Natural Earth data

 

File:GangesValley&Plain.jpg

India: Orthographical Features from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 26, Atlas (Map Number 3) (1908)

 

 

Ganges

 

River of Life

 

3-part 2007 BBC documentary (2 hrs., 25 min., 5 sec.) 

 

1. Daughter of the Mountains

2. River of Life

3. Waterland

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TivVW67iSTs

 

or

 

1. Daughter of the Mountains

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM9aPy7H534

 

2. River of Life

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDKZSpDyn-Y

 

3. Waterland

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0NnJsEROU0

 

 

 

Jainism

 

 

Jains

 

Documentary

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPscKFV5yKU&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHMQRmRKh_U&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a96nz4DvRRE&feature=relmfu

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=670KFhISeUk&feature=relmfu

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbheKLJl8GI&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

The Buddha

 

 

The Story of the Buddha

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFbjDcz_CbU

 

 

 

The Buddha

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dLMZNmxFUZU&feature=related

 

 

 

Buddhism

 

Short lecture from the World Religions series

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nkTuM0dwLOY

 

 

 

Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha

 

From the series The Gods of India

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrwqMeUKU30

 

 

 

The Buddha

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Peter Harvey, Kate Crosby and Mahinda Deagallee

 

14 March 2002

 

BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548br

 

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65EerWhzI8g

 

 

 

Siddhartha

 

1972 movie based on the 1922 novel Siddhartha by Herman Hesse

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0JqOzG9uYs

 

 

 

Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World

 

2011 BBC-TV documentary with Bettany Hughes

 

Visit to famous Buddhist temples in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Hong Kong, Japan and the U. S.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7ZIpVKZaI4

 

 

 

The Power of Ideas

 

Episode # 2 from the 2007 6-part documentary series The Story of India with Michael Wood

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OcT5J0l3HNU

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LL5KioTqBWY

 

 

 

Ages of Gold

 

Episode # 4 from the 2007 6-part documentary series The Story of India with Michael Wood

 

About the Gupta empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNK2vIBTlPU

 

 

 

Chandragupta Maurya

 

The Mauryan Empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ISmwH6ShrE

 

 

 

Maurya

 

Warriors of the Elephant 

 

Episode from the documentary series Ancient Warriors

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sn6H7-Mrx2Y

 

 

 

Ancient Rulers and Sects:

 

Unifiers of India - Chandragupta and Asoka

 

Lecture # 21 by Gregory Aldrete from History of the Ancient World

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwTCTvcmgHc&feature=relmfu (Removed from You Tube)

 

 

 

The Mauryan Empire

 

Class Teacher

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ISmwH6ShrE

 

 

 

Ashoka Chakra, one of the numerous pillars erected by Ashoka throughout the sub-continent. The edicts inscribed on the pillars are the oldest examples of writing in India. 

 

 

 

Ashoka

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTuNKCU0oLE 

 

 

 

A clip from Michael Wood's Story of India

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xH63aG1af5E&feature=fvwp&NR=1 

 

 

 

Ashoka the Great

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time with hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests

Jessica Frazier, Naomi Appleton and Richard Gombrich

5 February 2015

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0511tm1

 

 

 

The Indians

 

Episode from the BBC documentary series with Adam Hart-Davis What the Ancients did for us

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTn1iONBVD0

 

 

 

India

 

Episode from the 2007 documentary series What the Ancients Knew

 

Ancient India and planned cities, houses with bathrooms and toilets, yoga, meditation, medicine, chess, science, maths, the numbers 1 to 9 and zero, plastic surgery, eye operations and inoculation

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMXXILYpGaQ

 

 

 

The Kama Sutra

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Julius Lipner, Jessica Frazier and David Smith

 

2 February 2012

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01bb9c9

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wlSf_Us7v0

 

 

 

Continue to next page, 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho)






 

 

 

Dwarka

 

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of Modern Asia

 

About the ancient home city of Krishna

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KkDMBhrAD4

 

 

 

The Sunken City of Dwarka

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zc2dWngyZH4

 
 
 
Underworld

 

Episode, # 1, from the documentary series Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age with Graham Hancock

 

About Dwarka, 12,000-year-old City of Krishna

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Va0BIqfzpvo 

 

 

 

Dwarka

 

Atlantis of the East

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVIsjx5X3QM

 

 

 

 

-------------------------

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

Ancient India

 

From the Indus Valley Civilisation to the Mughals

 

Documentary on Indian history (48:06)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywzVUEzmK6M

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
-----------------
 
 
 
 
The History of Hindu India
 
Documentary by Hinduism Today with Raj Narayan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
----------------
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indian Civilisation
 
26-lecture course by Vinay Lal, Introduction to the History of India (History 9A), UCLA, Spring 2012
 
All 26 lectures:
 
 

Required reading (selections from): an history of early India by Romilla Popper; shortened versions of the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha (William Bucks); an introduction to Hinduism by Vinay Lal; and an history of India (from the beginning to the present) by Thomas and Barbara Metcalf

Other reading (selections from): The Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru, etc.

Website with additional details about South Asia: Manas: India and its Neighbours

https://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/index.html

 
 
Lecture 1.
 
Introductory lecture
 
- Course requirements and course overview
- General discussion about the interpretation of Indian history
 
- Religion in Indian history
- Indian civilisation
- 'India'
- Sources of study
- Problems with translation   
- rendering one culture into terms familiar to another culture
- Possible difficulties in studying Indian history
- South Asia as a field of study
- Roland Barthes's Empire of Signs (1970)

Note: T. A. = Teaching Assistant (Teaching Fellow)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93JMjX1XECo

 

Lecture 2.  

- The problem of 'Orientalism'
- Problems in the interpretation of Indian history
- The relationship of knowledge to power
- the politics of representation and the institutionalisation of certain forms of representation, their relation to colonialism, etc.
- The nature of Orientalist discourse: 'The Black Hole of Calcutta' (1756) as an illustration 

- Physical geography of India
- Different names for India (Bharat, Aryavarta, Hindustan . . . )

- Indus Valley Civilisation: an urban civilisation with town planning (3300 BC - 1300 BC)

 
 
Lecture 3.
 
- Indus Valley Civilisation (Harappan Civilisation) (3300 BC - 1300 BC)
- Harappa and Mohenjo-daro (2600 BC - 1300 BC)
- Undeciphered script of the Indus Valley
- Seals and their figures
- Demise of Indus Valley Civilisation and the coming of the Aryans (c. 2000 BC)
- Import of the Aryan horse in India
- Creation of hierarchies with the horse and chariot
- The nature of the Rig Veda (1700/1500 BC - 1200/1100 BC), its status in Indian thought and some comparisons with the Koran
 
 
Note: The Four Vedas: Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda
 
The Rig-Veda is the oldest known text in an Indo-European language
 
 
Lecture 4.
 
- Aryans and the Rig Veda (1700/1500 BC - 1200/1100 BC)
- Changing nature of Indian texts
- Oral tradition

- Sir William Jones and Indo-European languages (1786) 
- Three language families in India: Indo-European (I-E), Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic
- Importance of Sanskrit

- The Rig Veda's account of creation and a comparison with the Biblical account in
Genesis
- The Aryan conception of four social castes
(caturvarna)   -   Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaishyas (merchants), and Shudras (laborers)
- four stages of life   -   Brahmacharya (student), Grihastha (householder), Vanaprastha (retirement) and Sannyasa (renunciation);
- and the four Vedas   -   Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda
- Varna, caste hierarchies, notions of pollution and purity
- Difference between varna (literal meaning of caste) and jati (actual significance of caste)
- Aryan social organisation
- Stages of life
- Distinction between sruti (revealed) and smriti (remembered)
- The four ends of life according to the Aryans: artha (money and material well-being), kama (sexual gratification), dharma (righteousness, virtue), and moksha (liberation, spiritual emancipation) 
   
- Indra as an Aryan God   -   chief god, destroyer of cities, god with the thunderbolt, god of rain, god of weather . . .
- Other Aryan Gods   -   Agni, god of fire; Vayu, god of wind; Varuna, god of rivers and seas . .
 
Note: Arya = fair-skinned, noble; dasa = slave, servant
 
 
 
Lecture 5.
 
- Aryan Society
- Early Vedic Period (c. 1800/1700 BC - c. 800 BC)
- Later Vedic period (c. 1100 BC - c. 500 BC)
- Idea of Varsnasrama Dharma
- Theory of Moksha (liberation)
- Political and social organisation of the Aryans   -   tribes, clans, rajahs (chief), sabha (assembly), and samiti
- The illiterate Aryans and the oral tradition

- Transition from Vedas to the Upanishads (vedanta) (c. 800 - 200 BC )

- Social context of the Upanishads and theory of moksha (spiritual liberation) and knowledge
- Story of Svetaketu in the Upanishads
- Meaning of the word Brahmin
- Worldview of the Upanishads
- Problems in using European categories to understand Indian texts and philosophical traditions
- Upanishads as dialogic texts
- Shankaracharya's interpretation of the Upanishads (600s AD)
- Avidya (ignorance) and vidya (knowledge)
- The affinity of the atman (individual soul) and the Brahman (universal soul)
- Distinction between real and unreal, permanent
and transient
 
- The story of the Buddha  (563 BC - 483 BC)   -   Siddhārtha Gautama/Shakyamuni Buddha   -   birth, childhood, enlightenment, teachings, disciples and death
- Buddhism gives us the first concrete details of India
- The Buddha's conception of suffering and freedom from the trappings of life;
- his idea of the four noble truths and the eightfold path
- The four noble truths: 1. all existence is suffering, 2. the cause of suffering is ignorance, 3. if there is suffering there is a cause for it, 4. to alleviate suffering one must follow the eightfold path
- The eightfold path: 1. right beliefs, 2. right speech, 3. right conduct, 4. right mode of livelihood, 5. right effort, 6. right mindedness, 7. right meditation, 8. right aspirations 
 
Note:
 
Vedic Period: 1500 BC - 800/500 BC
Early Vedic Period: 1500 BC - 1100 BC 
Late Vedic Period: 1100 BC - 800/500 BC
 
Upanishads: c. 800 - 200 BC
 
 
 
Lecture 6.
 
- The Upanishads and the notion of individual moral responsibility

- Buddha (The Enlightened One) (563 BC - 483 BC) and Buddhism 
- Mahavira (The Great Hero) (599 BC - 527 BC) and origins of Jainism
- key ideas, including dharma (law), sangha (community), ahimsa (non-violence), aparigraha (non-possession)  
- Jains
- Jaina theory of
syadvada (perspective)
- John Godfrey Saxe's version of the parable of the six blind men and the elephant (1872)
 
- Polity in India c. 600 BC - c. 350 BC
 
- Patna (Pataliputra), centre of the Magadha Empire (from 400s BC)
 
- Taxila (a university) (400s BC)
 
- Indian mathematics (zero, use of letters to designate unknown quantities such as x, y ... ), astronomy, Panini's grammar of Sanskrit (300s BC) and surgery 
 
- Alexander the Great's invasion of India (326 BC - 324 BC)
- Alexander the Great's encounter with the gymnosophists (sadhu, fakir) in
Vikram Chandra's novel Red Earth and Pouring Rain (Love and Longing in Bombay) (1997)
 
 
 
Lecture 7.
 
- Alexander the Great (326 BC - 324 BC) and the gymnosophists (naked sage or holy man) (sadhu, fakir)
- Mauryan empire (322 - 185 BC); unites the Indus and Gangetic civilisations for the first time
- Chandra Gupta Maurya (ruled 324  -  c. 297 BC), a Brahman (Hindu), becomes a Jain;  
 
- The Arthasastra (Science of Material Wealth) by Kautilya (aka Chanakya and Vishnugupta) (The Machiavelli of the East) (100s - 200s AD), chief minister of Chandra Gupta, one of two 
sources for studying the Mauryan empire
 
- Bindusara (ruled c. 297 - 273 BC), son of Chandra Gupta, remains a Brahman (Hindu) (Brahmanism), extends empire east and south, and
 
- Emperor Ashoka (ruled c. 268/273 to 232 BC), son of Bindusara, extends empire to the east and south, doubling its size  
- Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism after the war in Kalinga (in Orissa) (c. 262 - 261 BC)
- Ashoka's edicts

- Ashoka's rock pillar edicts in India (19 survive) - in Pakrit (vernacular language) in Brahmi script, one edict in Aramaic and Greek and one edict in Greek;  
- The Lion Capital on top of the pillar at Sarnath
- Ashoka's life, ecumenism, tolerance and non-violence
- Ashoka's attempts to put together a corpus of Buddhist texts
- A political unity in India

- The spread of Buddhism to East Asia and Southeast Asia

- South India   -   The Tamil country in South India at the time of Ashoka (Tamil inscriptions); the god Murugan (Karthikeya), son of Shiva, worshipped by Tamils;

- Development of popular Hinduism; the trinity or trimurti   -   Brahma the creator, Shiva the preserver and Vishnu the destroyer; disappearance of Brahma 
- Iconography of gods and consorts/goddesses

- Example of Ardhnarisvara (half-woman-god), Shiva as half-male and half-female; Vishnu has avatars (incarnations) but Shiva does not

- Ten incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu (dasavatara): Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narasimha (half-man and half-lion), Vamana (dwarf), Parashurama (warrior), Rama (main character of the Ramayana), Krishna (main character of the Mahabharata), Buddha and Kalki (the furture and eternal god)

Note: Vedas - Upanishads - Shramanic (heterodox) religions (Buddhism, Jainism) - Classical Hinduism - Trimurti (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) 

Note: Rama and Krishna are the most important avatars of Vishnu in India today

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqpYe-bHScg

 
Lecture 8.
 
- Mauryan dynasty after the death of Asoka (322 - 185 BC)
- Political history of India   -   200 BC
- Political turmoil (200 BC -  )
 
- History of South India and the Sangam period (c. 300 BC - c. 300s/400 AD)
- Tamil country (c. 300 BC -  ), inscriptions
- Sangam literature (poems   -   main source on the Tamils for the period) (c. 300 BC - c. AD 400)

- Hindu myths
- Vishnu and Shiva; Followers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavite and of followers of Shiva ae called Shivaite; Vaishnavite and Shivaite sects and conflict. 
- The Ramkatha or Ramayana is the story of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, and Ravana, a devotee of Shiva  
- The Puranas   -   Puranic literature   -   sectarian literature
- Vishnu Purana (Vishnu) and Shiva Purana (Shiva) and Shaktu Purana (Shakti)  
- The myth of Nara-simha (the man-lion) and story of Prahlad (story of sectarian Vaishnavite and Shivaite conflict)
- Gods and demons (asuras)
- Liminality
 
- Incarnation (avatar)
- Story of Vamana (the dwarf), an avatar of Vishnu
- The idea of many Ramayanas   -   A. K. Ramanujan and a Kannada (the language of Karnataka) folktale
- Valmiki, a sage, composed the original 
Ramayana c. 500 - c. 100 BC
- Some differences between the Ramayana (a poem) and
Mahabharata (a history)
- Difficulties in viewing Ramayana as a work of history
- Tendency in recent years to historicise Rama and his story
- Rama is an avatar of Vishnu
- Distinctions between history and myth
- The dispute over the Ramjanmasthan/Babri Masjid in Ayodhya and the destruction of the Babri Masjid by Hindu nationalists (1992)
- Babur, Mughal emperor (ruled 1526 – 1530), destroyed a Hindu temple to Rama in Ayodhya, birthplace of Rama in the Ramayana, and built a mosque on the spot (1528)
 
Note: Samgam literature is a collection of secular literature by literary asembies of Tamil poets from c. 300 BC to c. AD 400
 
Note: Ramkatha is another name for Ramayana
 
 
 
Lecture 9.
 
- Ramayana (the story of Rama)
- Many versions of the Ramayana
- Gods, humans, demi-gods and asuras (demons)
- Hanuman
- A. K. Ramanujan's article about the many Ramayanas
- Hindu nationalist readings of the Ramayana
- Agnipariksha (the trial by fire) and dharma
- The two Krishnas of Indian tradition and the view of the Bengali writer Bankimcandra Chatterjee
- The Krishna of history and myth
- Krishna and the gopis
- Episode of the vastraharana (theft of the clothes)
- Nationalists and Indian history
- The British fascination with history

- Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (c. AD 200)
- Dialectic on freedom and discipline
- Yoga
- Cessation of thought
 
 
 
Lecture 10.
 
- Hindu gods and goddesses
- Iconography of the deities
- Krishna as a cowherd with a flute to lure gopis (milk maidens)
- Iconography of Rama and the masculinisation of the god by Hindu nationalsists
- Shiva, Nara-simha (lion king) and traditions of Indian miniature painting
- Shiva and his consort Parvati
- The episode of the vastraharana, the theft of the clothes of the gopis (female cowherds) by Krishna
- the idea of nakedness, being shorn of one's ego
(ahamkara)
- Krishna's Rasleela (Rasa lila or Ras Leela) 
- Dasavatara (the ten avatars of Vishnu)

- Scenes from the Mahabharata   -   the sermon called the
Bhagavad Gita
- Patanjali's Yoga Sutras
- Different conceptions of yoga   -   eight limbs of yoga,
including asanas (postures), pranayama (control of breath) and the cosmology of breath; yama, ahimsa, celibacy
- Yoga and abstentions and affirmations.
- Yoga and the understanding and attainment of freedom
- Gita and
yoga
- Schools of yoga espoused by the
Gita
- Transition from Vedas to Upanishads and Buddhism to the 
Gita
- Bhakti yoga, karma yoga, jnana yoga
- Krishna's status   -   counselor to Arjuna
- Importance of devotion (bhakti)
- Krishna's universal form (Vishwarupa).
- Mahabharata, the story of Draupadi and the allegorical reading of polyandry (a woman having more than one husband)
 
 
 
Lecture 11. 
 

- Mahabharata, its structure; a story within a story

- Bhagavad Gita

- The wager

- Draupadi at the Assembly Hall

- Aswatthama and the death of Drona

- Krishna and the death of Jayadratha

- Yaksha Prasna

- Yudisthira and his reputation for truthfulness

- Importance of vows and meaning of a promise

- The supreme question of dharma

- The deception of Krishna

- So-called 'Dark Ages' of India (232 BC -  AD 320) (from the death of Asoka to the establishment of the Gupta empire)

- Significance of the 2nd cent. AD  -  Manusmriti (Laws of Manu)Arthasastra

- End of the Mauryan empire (AD 185)

- Central Asians in India and Indians in SE Asia

- Indianisation of Southeast Asia (begins in first cent. AD)

 

- The poetry in stone created by Satavahanas

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRupnfB3gbk 

 

 

Lecture 12. 

 

- Political history of India to c. AD 300 - 400   -   Shungas (187 - 78 BC), Gandhara school, Indo-Greek dynasties

- Classes of Indian literature - dharmasastras, arthasastra, nitisastras and kamasastras

- Indian writers' obsession with classification

- Vatsyayana's Kamasutra, Panchatantra and secular literature

- The marga and the desi, high-brow and low-brow Indian culture

- The Hindu tradition of the Goddess: Indian folktales and Thomas Mann's 'Transposed Heads' (1941) - the notion of identity

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAC01R1QWmE


 

 Lecture 13.

 

- Niti Sastras (1200s AD); contrast with Dharma Sastras

- Niti Sastras deal with 'conduct'

- Indian folktales, the Pancatantra and the Kathasaritsagara

- The story of Solomon's justice; the story of the four Brahmins and the lion

- History of Indian art and architecture   -   images of the Buddha, Gandhara sculpture, Ajanta, Ellora

- Boddhisattva painting of Ajanta

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVdVGcuDKPk

 

 

Lecture 14.


- Problems with the periodisation of Indian history
- James Mill's History of British India (first published in 1818) (division of Indian history into three periods: ancient, medieval and modern or Hindu, Mohammedan and British)
- Indian history before the Guptas: Indo-Greeks (c. 2nd.  cent. BC - 1st. cent. AD), Shakas, Kushanas (AD 30 - 375), and the reign of Kanishka (AD 120 - 144)
- Indian calendrical systems and the Vikrama era (began in 58 BC)
- Evidence from Pliny the
Elder
of Indian trade with Rome (Naturalis Historia [c. AD 79]); the Sanskrit Cosmopolis
- The Guptas (c. AD 320 - 550), the so-called "Golden" or "Classical" age of India
- Astronomy
- Chess
- Kalidasa and Indian literature
- Reigns of Chandra
Gupta I (c. 320 - c. 335), Samudra Gupta (c. 335 - c. 380
), and Samudra Gupta II
- The political system Rajamandala
- Cultural capital
- Gradual shift from Buddhism to Hinduism
- Fa-hien's observations of India (c. AD 400)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfx1YcMiE2s

 

 

Lecture 15.

 

- the Guptas (c. 320 - 550); The Golden or Classical Age of Indian History

- Kalidasa (court poet) (perhaps in the early 5th century);

- reign of Chandragupta II (380 - 413)  

- the consolidation of Puranic literature.

 

- The Hun repelled by Harsha

 

- Rajamandala

 

- the Indianisation of SE Asia: Borubodor, Prambanan, Angkor, Pagan;

- various theories on the spread of Indian influence to South East Asia

 

- reasons for the disappearance of Buddhism from India:

- sectariansim,

- Importance of Shankaracharya (788 - 820) and his revival of Advaita Vedanta;

- Buddhism and Brahminism;

- synthesis of Hinduism under Shankara (AD 788 - 820)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HzY4GqrEzLM

 

 

Lecture 16.

 
- Disappearance of Buddhism from India and competing narratives
- Shankaracharya, his establishment of maths and his attempt
to consolidate Hinduism
- Political history of India   -   the Rajputs, the Pratiharas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Palas in Bengal and the political fragmentation of India
- History of South India, the relationship of Tamil and Sanskrit
and loan words from Sanskrit
- Indian Ocean trading network
- The coming of Islam to India
- Elementary aspects of Islam
- Early Islamic invasions of Sind
- Theory of communalism and problems with the communalist
interpretations of Indian history
- Mahmud
of Ghazni (ruled 998 - 1030)
- Hegel (1770 - 1831) on India

- Attack on Somnath (1024)
- The politics of conquest
 
 
 
 
Continued at the bottom of Page 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors
 
 
 
 
 
 




























 
 
 
 
 
 
Kindly direct comments and questions about this website or its contents to the webmaster. Please use the message sending facility on the home page (table of contents).