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10. Greeks and Persians














Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Reformation, Enlightenment (1300s -1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.





Continued from previous page, 9. New World (Pre-Columban)

 
 
 

The Birth of Europe

 

Two-part 1991 BBC-TV documentary narrated by Nigel Anthony

 

Part 1. Out of the Ice

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRBsrPGTyus

 

Part 2. Colliding Continents and the Bronze Age

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_vc7w4066Q

 

 

 

 

                               ---------------------

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
Reflections on the study of Classics today
 
Lecture by Mary Beard
 
Reflections on the study of the Classics in the past, today and in the future
 
British Academy
 
4 November 2015
 
 
 
 
                                   -------------------------------
 
 
 

 
 
 
Summary of Ancient Greece
 
Description over a map (03:22)
 
 
 
 
The History of the Greeks
 
Description over a map
 
From 2540 BC to the present 
 
 
 
 
 
----------------
 
 
 
















 
 
 
 

Ancient Greece

 

 

 

Constructing a chronology -

 

For the purposes of study, academics divide the history of Greece into several periods:

 

 

Neolithic (New Stone Age)   -   6000 - 2900 BC 

 

   Greek Bronze Age

 

   Early Bronze Age  -   2900 - 2000 BC 

 

 

Helladic

 

 

Cycladic

 

    Middle Bronze Age

 

Minoan   -   3000 - 1450 BC

 

    Late Bronze Age

 

 

Mycenaean   -   1600 - 1100 BC 

 

 

 

Ancient Greece

 

    Iron Age

 

 

Dark Ages  1100 - 750 BC

 

 

Archaic   750 - 500 BC

 

 

Classical (Hellenic)  500 - 336 or 323 BC 

 

    Greco-Persian Wars   499  -  449 BC

 

    Peloponnesian Wars   431  -  404 BC

 

    Alexander the Great   336   -   323 BC

 

 

Hellenistic   336 or 323  -  146 BC 

 

(336 BC marks the start Alexander's campaign of conquest and 323 marks the year of his death) 

 

 

Roman   146 BC -  285 AD

 

 

Byzantine Greece   -   285 AD - 1453 AD

 

 

Medieval Greece

 

 

Ottoman   -   1453 - 1828   

 

 

Modern   -   1828 - present

 

 

 

 

                            --------------------------- 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
Introduction to Ancient Greek History
 
Donald Kagan, Yale U., Autumn 2007
 

24 lecture-course

 

Lecture # 1. Introduction - On the study of Ancient Greece

 

1. Ancient Greece as the foundation of western civilization

2. The Judeo-Christian tradition

3. Problems posed by the western tradition

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FrHGAd_yto&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/153/clcv-205

 
 
 
 
 
                                          ---------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 

 

Crete

 

 

The Sea of Crete

 

The Agean Sea
 
 

 

 

 

Crete

 

Minoan Crete and neighbouring civilisations

 

 

 

 

 

 

                Chronology

 

Early Minoan Period - 3000 - 2200 BC

 

Middle Minoan Period - 2200 - 1500 BC

 

    First Period of Palaces (temples) - 1900 - 1700 BC

 

    Palaces (temples) destroyed - 1700 BC

 

    Palaces (temples) rebuilt - 1700 BC

 

    Second Period of Palaces (temples) - 1700 - 1450 BC

 

Late Minoan Period 1500 - 1000 BC

 

    Second destruction of palaces - 1450 BC

 

    Mycenean domination  - 1450 BC

 

    Palaces inhabited by Myceneans - 1450 - 1375 BC

 

 

 

Minoan is a modern name or term applied to the Bronze Age inhabitants of Crete. It is derived from the name of the mythical Cretan king Minos.  

 

The Inhabitants of Crete in the Minoan Age (or Bronze Age) were in close contact with the other peoples of the eastern Mediterranean. They traded with Egyptians in the Nile River Delta and with the inhabitants of the Levant, the Peloponnese, the islands of the Aegean Sea, the island of Cyprus and the coast of Asia Minor (Anatolia).

 

According to recent DNA tests, the inhabitants of Bronze Age Crete were Indo-European.

  

 

 Image result for cretan hieroglyphs

Cretan hieroglyphs on seals

 

 

 

Cretan hieroglyphs are the oldest known writing system found on Crete.

 

Cretan hieroglyphs have yet to be deciphered. They were not Greek. They were in use before 1900 B. C. and used until 1450 B. C.

 

 

 

 

Transcription by British archaeologist Arthur Evans of Linear A script inside a Minoan cup.

 

 

 

Tablet with Linear A script found at the archaeological site of Zakro in eastern Crete

 

 

Tablet with Linear A script from Knossos

 

 

 

Linear A script was one of the two scripts used by the Minoans between 1900 and 1450 B. C.

 

Tablets with Linear A script have been found mostly on the Mesara Plain of central southern Crete.

 

Linear A script has yet to be deciphered. It is not a Greek language.

 

Some scholars believe that Linear A script resembles Indo-Iranian hieroglyphics.

 

Linear A script was replaced by an Archaic Greek script, Linear B, in 1450 B. C. when the Myceneans, who were Greeks from the Peloponnese, invaded Crete. The Myceneans 

developed their own script, Linear B, from the Linear A script. Linear B script is Archaic Greek.   

 

 

 

 

Minoans

 

Episode from the BBC documentary series Timewatch

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEBqJloMdwk

 

 

 

 

The Minotaur ("The Bull of Minos"), a mythical character. He was part-man and part-bull. The mythical story was created by Cretans after the Minoan period. He was the son of Minos's queen, who fell in love with Minos's bull.  

 

 

The Minotaur

Episode from the documentary series Clash of the Gods

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PGG4P7xZfA

 

 

 

 

The Minoan labyrinth (maze) on one side of an ancient coin from Crete. The labyrinth was built for King Minos to contain the Minotaur because he attacked and ate people.  

 

 

 

The Quest for the Minotaur's Labyrinth

 

Episode from the documentary series Myth Hunters

 

About Arthur Evans and his research on Crete

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xppHTAD_YuU

 

 

 

The Ancient Minoans

 

Documentary (23:57)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=39Rk3UQUNAY

 

 

 

Theseus, son of King Aegeus of Athens, 

entered the labyrinth and slayed the Minotaur. A jar from the 500s B. C.

 

 

 

Theseus and the Minotaur

 

"Upload by a student" 

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgLAz3HOg7I

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0W1VnONayvc

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7rogJaLfpU

 

 
 
Theseus and the Minotaur

 

Episode from the Canadian cartoon series Mythic Warriors   -   Guardians of the Legend

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CdHsC8NOfLA

 

 

 

Theseus

 

Lecture # 1 of 24 by J. Rufus Fears from the course on Famous Greeks

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QagkBQOwU0Y

 

 

 

 

The Minotaur's Island

 

2003 documentary with Bettany Hughes

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LZ6JzBcXjU  (1 hr. 34 min.)

 

 

 

The Minoans

 

2004 documentary with Bettany Hughes

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e47PjzY-wsA  (1 hr. 41 min.)

 

or, the same:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ev-WeyQjCWk

 

 

Meet the Minoans!

 

Episode from Conversing the Classics

 

Interview with Christine Morris

 

Uploaded in 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CkeqU4sc_Lc

 

 

 

Crete and Atlantis

 

 

Secrets of the Island of Minos

 

Episode from the documentary series Secrets of Archeology

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=neaL_6CgQm4

 

or, the same:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7ijXS_q-mM

 

 

 

Mystery of the Minoans

 

Episode from the BBC documentary series Ancient Apocalypse

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRrgCSmONPE

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FaAfrrUrqTw

 

 

 

Sinking Atlantis

 

Episode from the documentary series Secrets of the Dead (2008 - 2009)

 

Santorini volcano in 1600 B. C. also destroyed Crete

 

Features Canadian archaeologist Alexander (Sandy) MacGillivray

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n-3no8SLOko  (52:12)

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIhhEaM-EGc (begins repeat at 51:00 mark)

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSsDmey1vQI (repeats at 54:50 mark)

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHQs5qkS0mk

 

 

 

 

                              --------

 

 

 

The Minoan Civilization

 

Discussion on the Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg 

 

With guests John Bennet, Ellen Adams and Yannis Hamilakis 

 

7 July 2011

 

A Flash player is required to listen to the programme. The programme can be quickly and easily downloaded from its webpage. Try Internet Explorer and Google Chrome.

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01292ts

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VzCQx5mofw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tablet with Linear B script found in Knossos, Crete

 

Linear B script was developed from Linear A script by Mycenean Greeks who invaded Crete in 1450 B. C. 

 

 

 

 

                                        --------------------- 

 

 

 

 

Minoan Palaces

 

Archeologists believe the Minoan palaces were religious temples, civic administrative centres and storage centres

 

 

 

The Knossos Palace and the Archeological Museum in Heraklion, Crete

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRkiayfQi3w 

 

 

 

Phaistos Palace

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FS2x8Y5uPu4

 

 

Malia Palace

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXy0Xmck5_8

 

 

 

Archeological Museum

 

Chania, Crete

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M37GX6QhKMA 

 

 

 

Historical Archives Museum

 

Chania, Crete

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_CC8WM49LnQ

 

 

 

                                      ---------

 

 

 

Crete Vacation Travel Video Guide

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zAW4LDoekWk

  

 

 

                          --------------------

 

 

 

Pavlopetri

 

City Beneath the Waves

 

2011 BBC documentary about the ruins of a city off the coast of southern Greece believed to have been inhabited since the Early Bronze Age (Middle Minoan Period) or 2800 BC and submerged in 1000 BC

 

Removed from You Tube

 

See instead:

 

Podcast

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f6vvBzAvN0w

 

 

Also:

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fD0SbWwHHuk

 

2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kepaQu4uerg

 

 

 

 

 

                             ------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

Gods

 

 

 

 

Chaos -

              Titans -

                            Olympians -

                                                  Heroes                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                          Source: https://ludios.org/greekgods/greek-tree-full.png

 

 

 

Mount Olympus, tallest mountain in Greece, home of the Gods

 

 

 

 

Greek Gods

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOL0oAAO9LA

 

or in 4 clips:

 

1.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRe389uQhmo&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9cojMxsgZY&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqiKUzkGC3g&feature=relmfu

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JR57FjeY_lk&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

Gods & Goddesses

 

Documentary from the History Channel

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MSEsh6jgHE

 

or the same with a different narrator in 6 clips:

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PzEKterwV9k

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_ipMAW5FfY

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oaHrsRSCLXc

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXY_p6IgWv0

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebhU1HtZZW4

 

6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGsY-8lrEhw

 

 

 

Zeus

 

 

 

Zeus

 

Episode from the documentary series Clash of the Gods

 

Faulty upload

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jOe6c20U8XU  (1:03:03)

 

 

 

                                -----------------

 

 

Hades

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBqYsvY_kmg&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

                               ------------------ 

 

 

 

Heroes

 

 

 

Greek Myths

 

Tales of Travelling Heroes

 

2010 BBC documentary with Robin Lane Fox

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hwfup7dpJdY  

 

 

 

Hercules

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watchv=tFQIIQ76OpU&feature=related

 

 

 

Hercules

 

Movie with Steeve Reeves

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVRPE5y34KQ&feature=fvsr

 

 

Hercules and Deianira, oil painting by Antonio del Pollaiuolo (ca. 1475 – 80)

 


Unintended Consequences: Antonio del Pollaiuolo’s Hercules and Deianira

 

Lecture # 2 of the lecture series Let This Be a Lesson: Heroes, Heroines, and Narrative in Paintings at Yale by John Walsh, Yale U. Art Gallery, Friday, Fall 2013

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MV91yeY2jQQ


Yale:

 

http://artgallery.yale.edu/education/lesson/lecture-2

 

 

 

Medusa (Gorgon)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eaQpsKGnyoQ

 

 

 

 

Bronze sculpture of Perseus and the Gorgon

by Benvenuto Cellini in 1545

 

 

Perseus and the Gorgon

 

by Jim Henson

 

(3 clips)

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vhpRU7Dvxjo&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8irbnrgaHlI&feature=related

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erETU14xkKc&feature=related

 

 

 

Orpheus and Urydice

 

 

Orpheus

 

Michael Köhlmeier (with English translation)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teJ_UkIQQQs

 

 

 

Orpheus en Eurydice

 

By Jim Hensen

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTJXUvfyFdk

 

2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WkztiqIQO4U

 

 

 

Orpheus

 

Documentary (44:04) 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IjA_07PPC7E

 

 

The Greek Myths

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme  In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

With guests Nick Lowe, Richard Buxton and Mary Beard

13 March 2008 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0093z1k

 

Thebes

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

With guests Edith Hall, Samuel Gartland and Paul Cartledge

23 November 2017
 


 

  

 
 
 
 

 

Hesiod

 

(ca. 750 - ca. 650 BC)

 

Hesiod

 

 

 

Hesiod's Theogony is about Greek myths and heroes

 

Aldus Manutius published the first printed edition of Theogony in 1495

 

videos go here

 

 

Hesiod's Works and Days  is about the life of the common

peasants

 

videos go here

 

Demetrius Chalcondyles published the first printed edition of Works and Days in 1493

 

 

 

Hesiod's Poetic Theology as Homeric Context

 

Lecture by Melissa Schubert

 

Uploaded in  2014

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FuKMRIf-XTM

 

 

 

 

 

 

                ------------------

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

Mycenean Greece

 

 

 

Map of Mycenaean Greece 1400-1200 BC: Palaces, main cities and other settlements.

 

Source: Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Εκδοτική Αθηνών, τ. Α' χάρτες σε σελ. 263-265, σελ. 290, 292-293

 

Source: Rita Roberts

 

 

 

Myceneans of the Peloponnese

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LdDUDU9qTj8&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

 

Mycenaeans

 

The Civilization of Heroes

 

Episode from of the documentary series Secrets of Archeology (00:00 - 23:10)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btg5B98Zb-Q

 

 

 

 

Introduction to Ancient Greek History
 
Donald Kagan, Yale U., Autumn 2007
 

24-lecture course

 
Lecture 2. The Dark Ages
 
1. The Minoan civilization (Crete)
2. Mycenaean language (Greek) and writing (Linear B script)
3. The citadel, farmland, burials and the oil trade
4. Cultural unity, agriculture, religious authority
5. Society and economy
6. Theories about the fall of the Mycenaean world

7. Results of the fall
 
 
 

 

 

 

The Mycenaeans and Minoans Today:

 

Revivals of Bronze Age Greece

 

Lecture by Bryan Burns at the University of New Hampshire on April 29, 2015

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUm-A1MYlYc

 

 

Idomeneo

 

Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante

 

(Idomeneus, King of Crete, or, Ilia and Idamante)

 

Opera seria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed in 1781

 

Overture

 

Bernard Haitink, Glyndebourne (1983)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16eKtH91Tes

 

Ilia's aria   -   Se il padre perdei

 

Yvonne Kenny, Glyndebourne (1983)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQXHQEgGwqw

 

 

 

Tavoletta PY An 657 (Pilo, Messenia, fine XIII sec. a.C.)  

 

 

Tablet with Linear B script from the 1200s B. C. found in Messinia in the southwestern Peloponnese

 

 

Myceneans speaking Archaic Greek developed Linear B script from the Linear A script in Crete after 1450 B. C.  

  

Linear B is the oldest known script of the Greek language.

 

Linear B script has been deciphered.

 

Linear B script disappeared in the 1100s B. C.

 

 

 

 

                   ------------

 
 
 
 

 
 
 

 

Collapse of the Bronze Age

 

    The Sea Peoples

 

        The Dark Ages

 

The Collapse of the Bronze Age

Lecture # 9 of 12 of the course Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations by Kenneth W. Harl

Produced by The Great Courses (The Teaching Company)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUA0CYwuWwQ

 

Apocalypse

Secrets of the Aegean Apocalypse

Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-WufY2cpEGw

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YlViYeOLc5M

 

The Bronze Age Collapse

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg 

 

With guests John Bennet, Linda Hulin and Simon Stoddart

 

16 June 2016 

 

The programme can be downloaded from the webpage 

 

BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07fl5bh

 

 

 

Sea Peoples

 

 

The Invasions of the "Sea Peoples" and others from ca. 1250 to ca. 800 B. C.   

Source: Source: Alexikoua, after the Atlas of World History, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 019521921X, 9780195219210, page 37.

 

The End of the Bronze Age

By Luwian Studies

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oz5uFA9IWJ8

 

1177 B. C.

The Year Civilisation Collapsed

Lecture by Eric Cline

Bethesda, Maryland

8 October 2016 (01:10:17)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRcu-ysocX4

 

The Collapse of Cities and Civilisation at the End of the Late Bronze Age

Lecture by Eric Cline

Yale U.

7 July 2016 (1:01:35)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppzMdQqm_6M

 

 

The area occupied by the Philistines

The Philistines inhabited a pentapolis   -   five settlements or cities   -   in Canaan:

 

Three cities on the coast:

 

Gaza

  Ashkelon

    Ashdod

 

and two cities inland:

 

      Ekron 

        Gath

 

 

From the "Collapse of the Bronze Age" and a general upheaval in the eastern Mediterranean from 1300 to 1100 B. C.

 

to the conquest of Canaan by the Assyrians c. 600 B. C.  

 

 

 

Arch-Enemy: The Philistines

 
Episode from the A & E documentary series Mysteries of the Bible with Richard Kylie and Jeanne Simmons (1995)
 
 
or
 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6rem2GUidk

 

 

 

The Philistines

 

or

 

Last Days of the Philistines
 
Short documentary from the 1993 series Archaeology - Mysteries of the Holy Land with John Rhys-Davies
 
 
or
 
 
or
 

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zoQrZ6mN5eU

 


 

Ashkalon

 

Seaport of the Philistines

 

Lecture by Lawrence Stager at Harvard University in May 2012

 

(1 hr. 12 min.)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=viTTWG6wrHU

 

or (1 hr.)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Idm_bQUFXaI

 

 

 

New Light on the Biblical Philistines

 

Lecture by Aren Maeir at the U. of Chicago in April 2014

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAZPJRtdjmk

 

 

 

New Persepctives on the Philistines in Light of Recent Excavations at Tell-El Safi/Gath

 

Lecture by Aren Maeir at the College de France on 25 February 2015

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJC8OAhm1f4

 

 

 

New Light on the Biblical Philistines in Light of the Excavations at Philistine Gath
 
Excavations at the Philistine site of Gath and their significance for biblical history
 
Lecture by Aren M. Maeir at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah on May 17, 2013
 
 
 
 
Ekron of the Philistines
 
From Sea Peoples to Olive Oil Industrialists
 
Lecture by Sy Gitin at the Lanier Theological Library in Houston, Texas on March 17, 2012 (01:04:47)
 
Philistines in Canaan till 604 B. C.
 
 
Q. & A.
 
 
 
 
Archeologists discover Philistine cemetery
 
2016
 
 

 

 

The Eastern Mediterranean after the invasion of the Sea Peoples and the Dark Ages          Source: Ali Rezaian (website)

 

 

"Dark Ages" of the Eastern Mediterranean

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yz0VxXIaIg&feature=related

 

 

Was an inscription forged by an archeologist?

 

Kupanta-Kurunta, king of Mira, and Muksus, a prince of Wilusa, leaders of the "Sea People"

 

10_12_luwian_tablet

 

 

A copy of a copy of a Luwian inscription on a 95-foot-long limestone frieze found in Beykoy in Turkey by French archeologist Georges Perrot in 1878. Perrot made a copy of the inscription before the tablet was taken apart by villagers for building material. Perrot's copy was lost or destroyed but a copy of it was made before. Researchers translated the text in 1950. It was published in 1985.

 

A copy of the inscription, shown above, was given to the Luwian Studies Foundation in Switzerland in 2017.

 

 

The tablet, dated to 1190 B. C., was commissioned by King Kupanta-Kurunta, son of Mashuittas, king of Mira, a late bronze age kingdom in western Asia Minor. The Luwian inscription recounts how Kupanta-Kurunta conquered the tributaries of the Hittites to the east and how he built a fleet with other western Anatolians. The fleet, led by four princes, invaded coastal areas of the Levant. One of the four princes, Muksus of Wilusa (Troy), led a fleet, conquered Ashkelon and built a fortress there.   

 

There is some question about the authenticity of the inscription.

 

Was it forged by a famous British archeologist, James Melaart, renowned for his excavation of the 9,500-year-old site of Catal Huyuk in 

Anatolia from 1958 to 1965?

 

 

3,200-year old inscription reveals that the sea people were from Anatolia

 

Uploaded 11 October 2011

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pr7488Unmfs

 

 

 

 

 

 
             ------------

 

 

 

 

 

               The Trojan War

 

File:Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.jpg

Iliad, Odyssey, Epic Cycle . . .

 

Homer

 

Chios, Homer’s rock

Homer's Rock, above the sea on the east coast of the Aegean island of Chios, facing the Anatolian coastline. Homer sat here and composed.  

Chios (in circle)

 

The important people and places in the Iliad and the Odyssey

 

 

The Trojan War and Homeric Warfare

Lecture # 6 of 24 of the course Great Battles of the Ancient World by Garrett Fagan (The Great Courses)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6bYYvb7pag

 
 

 

Introduction to Ancient Greek History
 
Donald Kagan, Yale U., Autumn 2007
 
Lecture 3. The Dark Ages (continued)
 
1. The Importance of Homeric poems
2. The society described in Homer's poems
3. Political structures
4. Ethics and values
 
Yale U.:
 
 
You Tube:
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Olympian Gods and the Trojan War
 
 
 
 
The Olympian Goddesses and the Trojan War
 
 
 
 
Homer
 
The Iliad
 
Audio
 
Episode from IntelliQuest World 100 Greatest Books (1995)
 
 

 

The Iliad

Illustrated

Introduction by Carey Harrison
 
Part 1.
 
Part 2.
 
Part 3.
 
Helen of Troy
 
1956 movie
 
Part 1.
 
 
Part 2.
 
 
 
Helen of Troy
 
2004 movie (2:47:14)
 
 
 
 
 
Helen of Troy 
 
2006 BBC documentary with Bettany Hughes
 
 

 

 

History of Trojan War

3 parts

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBMEYIOIF8k

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkIQT_mWWak

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5eKLRGUvDc

 

 

A transcript of a translation of The Iliad by Homer

http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Greek/Iliad1.htm

 

 

In Search of the Trojan War
 
BBC documentary series with Michael Wood(1985) 
 
6 episodes
 
1. The Age of Heroes
 
 
2. The Legend Under Siege
 
 
3. The Singer of Tales
 
 
4. The Women of Troy
 
 
5. Empire of the Hittites 
 
 
6. The Fall of Troy
 
 
Extra   -   Michael Wood Interview (2004)
 

 

The Truth of Troy

 

2004 BBC Horizon documentary  

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCP71_l3ihM

 

 

 

The True Story of Troy

 

2007 History Channel documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vj4CVdXkQ6Y

 

 

 

Siege of Troy

 

Documentary about the Trojan War from the Ancient Discoveries series

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru8khMGxS2s

 

 

 

The Odyssey of Troy

 

Documentary from the Ancient Histories series

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vksAumV6Rjg

 

 

 

The Trojan War - Myth or Fact

 

Lecture by Brian Rose, U. of Penn, 2009

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHD2hCx3-rU

 

 

Was there a Trojan War?

 
Recent Excavations at Troy
 
Lecture by Brian Rose
 
University of Pennsylvania Museum
 
5 December 2012
 

 

 

 

 

The Iliad

 

Book One

 

Read in Ancient Greek by Stanley Lombardo

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NssnanW93fI

 

 

 

The Iliad

 

Alexander Pope translation, recited

 

Book 1.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28RNGOCIzYI&feature=related

 

Book 2.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2shMTp8qkFg&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

The Trojan War 

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Edith Hall, Ellen Adams and Susan Sherratt

 

31 May 2012

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01j6srl

 

 

The Iliad

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Paul Cartledge, Edith Hall and Barbara Graziosi

 

13 September 2018

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/play/b0bh5x1y

 

 

Achilles and Agamemnon

 

Lecture by J. Rufus Fears, # 2 of the course on Famous Greeks

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2560XBiEuB4

 

 

Hector                  

 

Lecture by J. Rufus Fears, # 3 of the course on Famous Greeks

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7DcdV7PR4U

 

  

Fury of Achilles
 
Movie (1962) 
 
 

 

Achilles and Hector fight

 

 

The Greatest Fight of All Time  - 

 

Achilles challenges Hector

 

The Wrath of Achilles

 

After a feud with Agamemnon over slave girls, Achilles quit the war. He refused to lead his army of Myrmidons back into battle against the Trojans.

 

The Trojans, led by Hector, son of Priam, King of Troy, drove the Greeks back to the sea. 

 

Achilles' comrade, Patroclus, took Achilles' armour and led the Myrmidons and other Greeks against the Trojans and pursued them back to Troy. But Patroclus was wounded. And

Hector finished him off.

 

Enraged, Achilles returned to the war. He led his men after the Trojans. He chased Hector around the walls of Troy. Eventually, Hector turned to fight and was killed by Achilles.

 

 

Here is a Hollywood version:

 

Excerpt from the 2004 Hollywood movie Troy with Brad Pitt as Achilles

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQ62frK74u0

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hf4IoxEUmHM

 

 

Troy

 

Entire movie (2004) (3:05:49)

 

With Brad Pitt as Achilles and Peter O'Toole as Priam, King of Troy

 

https://vimeo.com/208085259

 

 

Achilles' Heel

 

The death of Achilles

 

Homer's epic of the Trojan War, the Iliad, did not include the death of Achilles. In another ancient epic, Paris killed Achilles. In yet another epic, Achilles was shot and killed by an arrow while attempting to storm the walls of Troy.

 

Excerpt from the same Hollywood movie, Troy (2004)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGW4cVmp4F4

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGW4cVmp4F4

 

 

In an ancient Greek myth, when Achilles was born his mother dipped him in the magic waters of the River Styx to make him immortal. She held him by one heel and it remained dry. Thus, that heel was his only vulnerable spot.

 

Oxford English Dictionary

 

Achilles heel (noun)
 

- weak spot, weak point, weakness, vulnerable spot, soft underbelly, shortcoming, failing, imperfection, flaw, defect, deficiency, fault, foible, chink in one's armour; downfall, undoing, nemesis, Waterloo

 

‘the cost of the process may prove to be its Achilles heel’

 

[Antonyms] strength . . .


Origin: early 19th century: alluding to the vulnerability of Achilles

 

 

Medical term  -  Achilles' Heel

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2e6LmQsJps

 

 

 

Monsieur Schliemann découvre Troie

 

Alain Decaux raconte

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPILkOvvhYI

 

 

The Luwians

 

A Lost Civilization Comes Back to Life


Lecture by Eberhard Zangger in Klosters, Switzerland on 18 January 2015

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1DNyA90f_aw

 

 

 

Earliest papyrus fragment of a text of Homer from Egypt in the 2nd cent. (100s) B.C.

 

Papyrus, Homer's Iliad
Papyrus fragment of Homer's Iliad from the 100s to 200s AD.



 

Pisistratus

 

Episode 13 of the series Famous Men of Greece 101online

 

Homer's epics was only a bardic tradition until Peisistratus, tyrant of Athens from 561 to 527 B. C., ordered them put into writing in an

ordered form.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xULWfcuJxKs

 

 

Venetus A

 

Page with the beginning of the Iliad from the Venetus A (Marcianus Graecus 454), a manuscript of 645 parchment pages from the 900s A. D. It is the oldest surviving manuscript of the Iliad. It is in the public library of St. Mark in Venice, Italy.

 

 

Imaging the Iliad

 

A Digital Renaissance

 

Documentary about the scanning of the Venetus A in 2007

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri6X1Dz4Ycg

 

 

 

                                   -----------------

 

 

Guido de Columnis

 

The Trojan War

 

A Talk by Eberhard Zangger

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FfJWnW2QZgw

 

 

 

                                 ----------------

 

 

Demetrius Chalcondyles published the first printed editions of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey in Florence, Italy in 1488

 

 

                           --------------

 

 

 

                  The Odyssey

 

 

The wanderings of Odysseus

 

 

 

Homer - The Odyssey

 

A description of Ulysses/Odysseus and the Odyssey

 

From IntelliQuest World's 100 Greatest Books (1995)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfRqxMuq4LI

 

 

 

Odysseus and the Gods

 

Clash of the Gods - The Odyssey

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lO1lGPwf_w

 

 

Homer's Odyssey

 

Summary

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCXRxD85Xc0

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kj0K8OpuK0I

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d8XKXsnmqS4

 

 

Ulysses

 

Movie (1954) (by Mario Camerini and Mario 

Bava) (1 hr. 57 min. long when released)

 

1 hr. 42 min. 36 sec. 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dsa_MKwyp0

In ten clips (without the ending) (auto):

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7NA55h0Edo&list=PL05F269B22840C294

and part of the ending:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkWthM8pf-M 

In French:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GoA9fnMk8bs  (1:39:33)

Entire film dubbed in German (1:37:39)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RQPKmZPCgs

 

L'ODYSSEE

Franco Rossi (1968)

avec Bekim Fehmiu et Irene Papas

Version francaise

1° épisode

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjN_merCA0Q

2° épisode

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mKcH8ZvqzZw

3° épisode

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ww3291Av4hE

4° épisode

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xK5eTjQB6MM

 

The Odyssey

Movie with Armand Assante, Greta Scacchi, Irene Papas and Vanessa Williams (1997) (2 hrs. 53 min. 25 sec.)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-7_8y-McLo&feature=related

 

or

 

https://vimeo.com/104506614

  

 

 

Odysseus

 

Lecture by J. Rufus Fears, # 4 of the course on Famous Greeks

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5-bR-7sSnU

 

 

 

                     ---------------

 

 

Greek Mythology 3500 B. C. to A. D. 2014

Lecture by Ken Dowden at the University of Birmingham

2014

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCaDjvcaWpo

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
Greece in the Archaic Period ca. 750 B. C.     Source: National Geographic
 
 
 
The Archaic Period 
 
Greece and Greek colonies
Phoenicia and Phoenician colonies
Etruria
 
 
 

 
 
 

 

Greek, Phoenician and Etruscan colonies in the Mediterranean in 650 B. C. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22-letter Phoenician alphabet

 

 

ancient greek alphabet

 

Ancient Greek alphabet   Source: Hellenism.Net

 
The oldest example of writing is Ancient or Archaic Greek,
is displayed above, It has been dated to circa 800 B. C.
It was derived from an inscription found on Crete.

 

Archaic Greek was written from right to left on a horizontal
line.

 

The Greek letters appear on the top line of the chart above.
Their names in Greek script appear on the second line. Their
names and letters in modern Latin script appear on the third
and fourth lines.
 

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6b5DtbR_6CM&feature=related 

 

 

 

 

Phoenician and Early Greek compared in the chart above

 

 

 

 

                                                       ---------------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

The Greek City-State

 

 

 

Greek City-States

 

Brief description

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ohncOaHfF48

 

 

 

Introduction to Ancient Greek History

 

24-lecture course by Donald Kagan, Yale U., Fall 2007

 

Lecture 4. The Rise of the Polis (city-state)

 
1. Defining "Arête" (prowess, excellence)
2. Impacts on western civilization
---------------- 
3. The rise of the "polis" (city-state) [00:36:02]
4. The features and importance of the "polis"
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

5. The Rise of the Polis (continued)

 

- The "polis" (city-state) in Hesiod's work

- The citizen

- Greek farmers and the function of the "polis"

- Property holding and internal colonization

- The new farm

- politics

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BB-i7hZadLc

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-5#transcript

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/156/clcv-205

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

On Ancient Civilization and War

Early Greek hoplites

 

 

First Blood

 

Episode 1 of 8 from a documentary series War and Civilization with Walter Cronkite and John Keegan (1998)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8WdLLfkbXJQ

 

  

Ancient Greek History

 

24 lectures from the course, Introduction to Ancient Greek History (CLCV 205), by Donald Kagan, Yale U., Fall 2007

 

Lecture 6. The Greek "Renaissance" - Colonization and Tyranny

 

- An Introduction to the Hoplite Phalanx
- The Hoplite
- The Phalanx Fighting Style, Casualties, Winning and Losing
- Question and Answer on the Hoplite Phalanx

- Closing Remarks and Critiques of Orthodox Interpretation

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HMs9mema--Q

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-6

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/157/clcv-205

 

 

 

 

                    ---------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

Sparta

 

 

Sketch of Sparta reconstructed 

 

 

Ruins of Sparta today

 

 

Spartan warriors

 

 

 

Rise and Fall of the Spartans

 

Documentary

 

Part 1.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3T_86X_uUo

 

Part 2.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=osEn7RRs_2A&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

Sparta

 

Documentary with Bettany Hughes 

 

3 episodes

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZKT1R89VDY&feature=relmfu 

 

or

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGHlp8g7I0M

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7Zw46G5rsI&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MU6Qxf4pRAc&feature=relmfu

 

All 3 episodes on one clip:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uq1T-y0SIno

 

 

 

Sparta

 

Three lectures (# 8, # 9 and # 10) from the course Introduction to Ancient Greek History (CLCV 205), by Donald Kagan, Yale U., Fall 2007

 

# 8. Sparta

 

- Theorizing why the hoplite phalanx was not adopted by others
- How Greeks understood tyranny
- The rise of Greek tyranny
- Herodotus's story of Orthagoras at Sicyon
- The story of Gyges and unconventional power
- Features of tyrannies
- Consequences of tyranny to Greek life

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuJ7lGZVUl4&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-8

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/159/clcv-205

 

 

9. Sparta (cont.)

 

- Introduction to Sparta and its roots

- Understanding Spartan slavery and Its implications
- Training and education of a Spartan boy
- Sameness, contradiction and inequality

- Women's roles in Spartan society
- Importance of the polis and its needs
- Formal Spartan constitution

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wP1POpsqin4&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-9

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/160/clcv-205 

 

 

Lycurgus 

 

Lecture # 5 from the course Famous Greeks by J. Rufus Fears

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXvLmbtiZ3I

 

Sparta

Episode 6 of Conversing the Classics

Interview with Paul Cartedge (61 min.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kx3JGN58SmM

 

# 10. The Rise of Athens

Third of three lectures on Sparta from the 24-lecture course 

 

Introduction to Ancient Greek History (CLCV 205) by Donald Kagan, Yale U., Fall 2007

 

- The Spartan Assembly

- The Spartan Alliance

- Motivations for Sparta's foreign policy

                     ------------------------

- The rise of Athens

- Early Athenian society

- Cyclon's failed coup d'état


You Tube:
 

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-10

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/161/clcv-205

 

 

 

 

                                      ---------------------------

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

Olympic Games

 

776 B. C.  -  A. D. 394

 

Discus

 

Modern map of Greece with Olympia indicated

 

Ruins of Olympia today

 

 

Plan of Ancient Olympia

 

 

Games were held every Olympiad, or every four years, between athletes of the many Greek city-states, in honor of Zeus.

 

 

 

Ancient Olympic Games History

 

 

Olympic Games in Ancient Greece 

 

(by a blogger)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2j2DGdAfxjs&feature=related

 

 

 

Ancient Olympia/3D Tour

 

with Brian Blessed

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bv0OCj9LMLI

 

 

 

Ruins of Ancient Olympia today

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5CySi8rM3-M&feature=fvwrel

 

 

 

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

 

Seven Wonders of the World  

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQI58xjcNVg

 

 

 

 

The Temple of Zeus in ancient Olympia

 

The statue of Zeus in ancient Olympia 

  

 

 

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

 

Lecture by Tom Tartaron

 

Penn Museum, April 1, 2015

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ngny7zfrTU

 

 

 

Olympic Games revived, Athens, 1896

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3Uq5amGfBg&feature=related

 

 

 

The Story of Ancient Olympia

 

Lecture # 8 from Great Tours: Greece and Turkey, from Athens to Istanbul by John R. Hale

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35qtBe6F-iw

 

or

 

http://www.thegreatcourses.com/tgc/courses/AncientOriginsSummerGames.aspx?freeCatid=4&ai=69667&cm_mmc=youtube-_-nonbrand-_-olympics-_-na

 

 

 

Ancient Olympics

 

Let The Games Begin

 

History Channel documentary 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MM_ng8yuUQI

 

 

 

 

Wrestling

 

Boxing

 

Foot race

 

 

 

 

 

---------------

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

Oracle of Delphi

 

Circa 800 B. C. - 600s A. D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oracle of Delphi

 

On Ancient Secrets - Mysteries

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ilz8kYYjKwM

 

 

 

Delphi: Bellybutton of the Ancient World

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=En25VkbXE8E&feature=related

 

 

 

The Oracle of Delphi

 

Documentary

 

(4 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_US9tSBJFE&feature=relmfu

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f6YPTo47i8E&feature=relmfu

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t4gGacT7qzA&feature=relmfu

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDhW8hdcf24&feature=relmfu

 

Secrets at Delphi

Documentary with Leonard Nimoy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EV5eeeGfcc&feature=related

 

The Delphic Oracle

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme 

In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Paul Cartledge, Edith Hall and Nick Lowe

 

30 September 2010

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/ioth/all#playepisode15

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzZW4xe23Xo

 

 

 

 

 

------------------------

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
Sappho
 
c. 630 - c. 570 B. C
 
Poetess from Mytilene on the island of Lesbos in Archaic Greece
 
 
Alcaeus and Sappho on an Attic red-figure kalathos (vase in the shape of a basket) from Akragas (Agrigentum in Latin and Agrigento n Italian) in Sicily circa 470 B. C.
 
 
Sappho
 
Love and Life on Lesbos
 
2015 BBC documentary with Margaret Mountford
 
 
 
Sappho sings Poetic Fragment 2 in original Archaic Greek
 
 
 
A Song of Sappho
 
New York Greek Drama Company (1987)
 
 
Final scene (of perfromance)
 
 
 
Sappho's Ode to Aphrodite
 
 
 
Sappho
 
The Venus of Lesbos
 
1960 French-Italian movie (1:29:12)
 
 
 
 
 
--------------------
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

Persia

 

Timeline

 

8,000 BC - present

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9thMnTy_ik

 

 

 

Iran (Persia) - 7000 years

 

Documentary about the history of the region about Persia from the Ancient Civilization series

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SqdZ3lHmRI

 

 

 

The Persian Empire

 

Advertisement for the course of 36 lectures by John Lee on The Great Courses

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03zQ-P7Nrxo

 

For details about the course:

 

http://www.thegreatcourses.com/tgc/courses/course_detail.aspx?cid=3117&ai=58096&cm_mmc=youtube-_-brand-_-video-_-3117

 

3 lectures by John Lee from The Great Courses:

 

1. Rethinking the Persian Empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9TEz-wfV2vs

 

2. Questioning the Sources

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jCSrog0zcxM 

 

3. The World before Cyrus

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJaKqt

 

 

 

----------------------

 

 

 

Zorastria

 

 

 

Zoroastrianism

 

A clip from the BBC series The Story of God

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGRgzFLcMMQ&feature=related

 

 

Zorastrianism

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Farrokh Vajifdar and Alan Williams

 

11 November 2004 

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p005bc5v

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUglGHtm5Ms

 

 

 

The Persians

 

Documentary with Peter Weller from the series Engineering an Empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQcEmiGCaCo

 

 

 

Greek and Persian Wars
 
24 lectures by John R. Hale
 
Great Courses
 
Details about the course:
 
 
2. Empire Builders - The Persians

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nfqIidSxIMw

 

3. Intrepid Voyagers - The Greeks

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgDcecea4to

 

 

                ------------

 

 

Cyrus the Great

 

559 - 530 B. C.

 

 

In Search of Cyrus the Great

 

Brief advertisement about an unfinished documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YebB4nVw_Mg

 

 

 

The Persian Empire

 

Lecture # 4 of the course by John Lee

 

Cyrus and Cambyses, Founders of the Empire

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-DX05fniI8

 

 

 

Persopolis

 

 

Persopolis

 

Documentary film

 

(2 clips) 

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zSgmDhappc

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmv3lmCtIBw

 

 

 

Persopolis Recreated

 

2004 documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIN-3WmfBWM&feature=related

 

 

Persopolis

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg.

 

With Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and Lindsay Allen

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0b4z075

 

 

 

From Mesopotamia, Akkadia, Babylonia, Assyria, Chaldea to Persia

 

 

 

 

 

Persian Empire c. 500 BC

 

 

 

King Darius I (Darius the Great) of Persia

 

550 - 486 BC

 

Darius I

 

 

The Persian Empire

 

Five lectures from the course by John Lee

 

5. Darius I, Creator of the Imperial System

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=af2I9OHWZPY

 

6. Persian Capitals and Royal Palaces

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgngEPCyheg

 

7. The Great King - Images and Realities

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S8EvA0OrKIM  

 

8. Royal Roads and Provinces

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dOrxxmNxF4k

 

9. East of Persopolis

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZ08bYl2dvg

 

 

 

 

 

-------------------

 

 

 

 

 

Greco-Persian Wars

 

492 - 449 B. C.

 

Ionian revolt against Persian rule aided by Athens

 

 

 

Greek colonization toward the end of the Greek Archaic Period (800 - 480 B. C.) 

 

 

 

Herodotus

 

c. 484 – 425 BC

 

Herodotus of Halicarnassus

("Father of History")

 

 

 

Overview of Herodotus

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3xVdkLbHKg

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H_J5SpWlczI&feature=relmfu

 

 

Introduction to Ancient Greek History

 

Yale. U., Autumn 2007

 

Two lectures on the Greco-Persian Wars by Donald Kagan from the 24-lecture course

 

12. The Persian Wars

 

- Consequences of Tyranny to Greek Life
- Cleisthenes's Coup d'État
- Establishing a New Constitution
- Key Democratic Elements
- Ostracism as a Constitutional Device

You Tube:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E28PaeQQQC0&feature=relmfu

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-12

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/163/clcv-205

 

 

13. The Athenian Empire

 

- The Rise of the Persian Empire

- Clashes with the Persian Empire

- The Beginning of the Persian Wars

- Further Developments Leading to the War with Persia

- The Battle of Marathon

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuvkY7l8w-Y&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-13

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/164/clcv-205

 

 

 

The Persian Empire

 

Two lectures from the course by John Lee

 

10. Challenges in the West, 513 - 494 BC

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mqtfz38nrdA

 

11. Across the Bitter Sea, 493 - 490 BC

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lf-JsWQAl8M

 

 

 

                                -----------------------

 

 

 

Battle of Marathon (490 B. C.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battle of Marathon 

 

Episode from the documentary series Decisive Battles 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgijJ-zdHow

 

Or 3 clips: 

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ot4PusEalnA

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wPinrH-akvc&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ng5diP1VISY&feature=relmfu 

 

 

 

Who were the Greeks?

 

Two-part BBC documentary with Michael Scott (2013)

 

Part 1.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQGlBAnmGn0

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XU5TJoiJ0w

 

Part 2.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_SbWagumGSo

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zmyvz9GrtO0

 

 

 

                     ------------

 

 

 

Xerxes the Great of Persia

 

519 - 465 B. C.

 

 

Xerxes I (Xerxes the Great)

 

 

Xerxes

 

Lecture by J. Rufus Fears, # 8 from the course on Famous Greeks

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=odwCbgQIGsk

 

 

                        ----------------

 

 

 

        Battle of Thermopylae

 

                      480 B. C.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thermopylae

 

Episode from the documentary series Decisive Battles

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhgMn9rvn_Y

 

 

 

Last Stand of the 300

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NHmOG11vLQ&feature=related

 

 

300   -   Rise of an Empire

 

Excerpt from the 2006 Hollywood movie 300   -   Rise of an Empire 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdNn5TZu6R8

 

 

History Buffs: 300

 

Review of the film 300 Rise of an Empire by Nick Hodges

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXZt-IlClhs

 

 

 

                      ----------------

 

 

 

          Battle of Salamis

 

                480 B. C.

 

Route of the Persian navy

 

 

Straights of Salamis

 

 

 

 

 

Battle of Salamis

 

Documentary from the series History's Turning Points

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwEBTcM2kFE

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KijaUpcQysQ

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3R0_dZVl3h0

 

 

 

The Battle of Salamis

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Paul Cartledge, Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Lindsay Allen

 

23 March 2017

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08j99jl

 

 

 

The Battle of Salamis

 

Excerpt from The Histories of Herodotus

 

Audio

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQ59EZyIC-w

 

 

 

 

                          ----------------

 

 

 

           The Battle of Plataea

 

                       479 BC

 

 

The Oath of Plataea

 

Revisiting the Persian Wars Again - and Again - and Again . . .

 

Lecture by Paul Cartledge, author of After Thermopylae: The Oath of Plataea and the End of the Graeco-Persian Wars

 

The Hellenic Centre, London

 

12 November 2013

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U_Ui9uHMoVc

 

 

Introduction to Ancient Greek History (CLCV 205)

 

Yale U. (Fall 2007)

 

A lecture on the Greco-Persian Wars by Donald Kagan

 

Lecture 14. The Athenian Empire (continued)

 

1. Consequences of Greek victory over the Persians (479 BC)
2. The Athenian-Spartan Alliance and Pan-Hellenism
3. Athens as an independent player
4. Resentment in Sparta
5. Understanding the formation of the Delian League

6. The rise of the Athenian Empire

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMD_evdcMUA&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U:

 

Transcript:

 

 

 

                           ----------------------------

 

 

 

    The Golden Age of Greece

 

                c. 500 - c. 300 B. C.

 

 

Map of Classical Greece ca. 450 B. C.

 

 

 

The Greeks

 

Crucible of Civilisation

 

Three-part 2000 PBS documentary of the Empires Special series

 

Narrated by Liam Neeson

 

1. The Revolution

 

508 BC

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G2tFoTa-i6w 

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dwWocwd160

 

2. The Golden Age

 

490 BC

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GZN_qCmARs

 

3. The Empire of the Mind

 

399 BC

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08UtxuyI9ok

 

 

All three parts in one (2:20:09):

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hz7ebSkY2_8

 

 

 

Athens

 

Modern map of Greece

 

 

Map with ancient sites

 

 

Athens and the port of Pireaus and walls

 

 

Athens

 

The Dawn of Democracy

 

Episode 6 of 7 of the BBC documentary series The Ancient Worlds with Bettany Hughes

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPnUK176AR0

 

 

Athens

 

The Dawn of Democracy

 

Documentary with Bettany Hughes

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xtn-BZH_xU0&list=PLC173FBD874991F7A

 

 

 

"The Age of Pericles"

 

Pericles

 

 

Athens and Pericles

 

Documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AR84c-kr0f4

 

 

Pericles

 

Lecture # 12 by J. Rufus Fears from the course Famous Greeks

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRZSY2VoVFs

 

 

The Parthenon on the Acropolis, Athens

 

 

The Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens

 

 

The Mystery of the Parthenon

Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eT1gCwl9H74

or  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8REn9vL0D5w

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUuJ4QwvN4s

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWnkQSBCJms

 

Secrets of the Parthenon

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ghbae-FzAAg

 

Parthenon (Acropolis)

Steven Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tWDflkBZC6U

 

Parthenon Frieze

Steve Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzZF1lP4Rbk

 

East Pediment sculptures of the Parthenon, including Helios, Horses and Dionysus (Heracles?)

Steve Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ip6hmC2KIug

 

Parthenon Metopes

Steven Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXl5h257iBA

 

Victory (Nike) Adjusting Her Sandal, Temple of Athena Nike

Acropolis

Steven Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4HXrb8cPQI

 

Anavysos Kouros

Steven Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1_pCZBVWuY

 

Peplos Kore from the Acropolis

Steven Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RjpT4Apgda8

 

The Erechtheion

Steve Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ebYvMC12HI

 

Caryatid and column from the Erechtheion

Steven Zucker and Beth Harris

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X872rmThCF8

 

In Focus: The Elgin Marbles

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKZ_ilKcsEM 

 

The Elgin Marbles

2004 BBC documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJwdfi3pRwM

 

The "Cleaning" of the Elgin Marbles

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZfmRjVeCZ9s

 

 

---------------------------------

 

 

 

 

Peloponnesian War

 

        431 - 404 B. C.

 

 

Thucydides (460 - 395 BC)

 

Thucydides

 

 

Thucydides

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Paul Cartledge, Katherine Harloe and Neville Morley

 

29 January 2015

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b050bcf1 

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNpBCKWnMHI

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbu6PQ-Moh8

 

 

The Peloponnesian War

 

Four lectures on the Peloponnesian War by Donald Kagan from the course, Introduction to Ancient Greek History (CLCV 205), at Yale. U., Fall 2007

 

Lecture 17.

 

The Peloponnesian War, Part I

 

The importance of the Peloponnesian War and Its continuing value - The origins of the war - Athens faces a critical decision - Multiple battles - Reversal of fortune - The Four Months Truce and subsequent Thirty Years Peace

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-17

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMlkvfFJYPo

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/168/clcv-205

 

Hand-out:

Thucydides, The Revisionist Historian of the Peloponnesian War

http://oyc.yale.edu/sites/default/files/10peloponnesianwari_1.pdfhttp://oyc.yale.edu/sites/default/files/10peloponnesianwari_1.pdf

 

Lecture 18.

 

The Peloponnesian War, Part I (cont.)

 

Preserving the Thirty Years Peace - The Pan-Hellenic colony of Thurii - Testing the peace - Civil War at Epidamnus and the question of honor - Athens votes on a defensive alliance

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7xOLKKcm2s&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-18#transcript

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/169/clcv-205

 

 

Lecture 19.

 

The Peloponnesian War, Part II

 

Lead-up to the war: Corcyra and Potidaea - Lead-up to the war: The Megarian Decree - The Spartan Assembly votes and the course of war is set - The start of the war - Thucydides as revisionist historian

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5NcR-fU3QM&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-19

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/170/clcv-205

 

Hand-out: The Origins of the Peloponnesian War II:

The Final Crisis

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/sites/default/files/11peloponnesianwarii_1.pdf

 

 

Lecture 20.

 

The Peloponnesian War, Part II (cont.)

 

Pericles and his strategy - Modern scholars' views on Pericles - Criticism of Pericles as a military leader - Pericles' other obstacles - question and answer (Q & A)

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjunpZz2EhU&feature=relmfu

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-20

 

Transcript:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/171/clcv-205

 

Sources for Thucydides:

 

The eight oldest manuscripts are from the 900s to the 1300s A. D.

 

Papyrus fragments are from the 200s BC to the 500s A. D.

 

 

The Mytilenaean Debate

 

Discussion on the BBC weekly radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

20 June 2019

 

With guests: Paul Cartledge, Angela Hobbs and Lisa Irene Hau

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000614s

 

 

Thucydides

 

Lecture 15 by J. Rufus Fears of the course Famous Greeks

 

The Great Courses (The Teaching Company)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ird_uEAA9f4

 

 

 

Pericles' Funeral Oration

 

 

Alcibiades

 

Lecture 16. by J. Rufus Fears from the course Famous Greeks for The Teaching Company/The Great Courses

 

The Sicilian Expedition (415 - 413 B. C.)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2NHkXyEfEo

 

 

The Sicilian Expedition

 

Excerpt from a documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H_ogvg7PiKw

 

 

Nicias

 

Lecture 17. by J. Rufus Fears from the course Famous Greeks for The Teaching Company/The Great Courses

 

The Siege of Syracuse (415 - 413 B. C.)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmFbNv0fJCs

 

 

Alcibiades and the Peloponnesian War

 

Lecture 18. by J. Rufus Fears from the course Famous Greeks for The Teaching Company/The Great Courses

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7iOCt0MZ_8

 

 

 

 

----------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philosophy

 

 

Philia (Greek): Love

 

+

 

Sophia (Greek): Wisdom

 

= The Love of Wisdom

 

 

 

Influence of Babylon on Greece

 

 

 

 

The Greek and Babylonian Traditions of Mathematics

 

Excerpt from a lecture by Richard Feynman

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaUlqXRPMmY

 

 

 

                           ----------------------

 

 

 

Chart indicating the main Greek philosophers from 600 BC to AD 450

 

 

 

The Pre-Socratic Philosophers

 

The Pre-Socratics

 

Ionia, Thrace and Magna Graecia

 

 

Pre-Socratic (before Socrates) Philosophers

 

   Milesian school (Miletus, Ionia, Anatolia)

 

      Thales (624 - 546 BC)

      Anaximander (610 - 546 BC)

      Anaximenes (585 - 525 BC)

 

   Pythagoreanism

 

      Pythagoras of Samos (582 - 496 BC) 

 

   Pythagorean school of Croton, Magna Graecia (southern Italian peninsula)

 

      Philolaus (470 - 380 BC)

      Alcmaeon of Croton

      Archytas (428 - 347 BC)

 

   Ephesian school (Ephesis, Anatolia)

 

      Heraclitus of Ephesus (535 - 475 BC)

 

   Eleatic school (from Elea, today’s Velia in

southern Italian peninsula)

 

      Xenophanes of Colophon (570 - 470 BC)

      Parmenides of Elea (510 - 440 BC)

      Zeno of Elea (490 - 430 BC)

      Melissus of Samos (ca. 470 -   BC)

 

   Pluralist school

 

      Empedocles of Akragas (Latin, Agrigentum; today, Agrigento) in Sicily (490 - 430 BC)

      Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (500 - 428 BC) in Anatolia

 

   Atomist school

 

      Leucippus (5th cent. BC)

      Democritus of Abdera in Thrace (460 - 370 BC)

 

   Sophists

 

      Protagoras of Abdera (c. 490 - c. 420 BC)

 

 

 

Bertrand Russell

 

 

 

The Rise of Greek Civilization

 

A reading of Bertrand Russell's History of Western Philosophy (1945)

 

Book 1. Ancient Philosophy 

Part I. The Pre-Socratics

Chaprer !. The Rise of Greek Civilisation

 

Audio:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dz6pLYla8Uo

 

Text (start at page 21):

 

https://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n19/mode/2up

 

or

 

Text (Start at page 20):

 

https://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp/westernphilosoph035502mbp_djvu.txt

 

 

 

Carl Sagan on the Pre-Socratic Philosophers

 

The Backbone of Night

 

Episode # 7 of 13 from the Cosmos series with Carl Sagan (1980)

 

Discusses scientific methods and discoveries in Ionia, their suppression, and their rediscovery two millenia later

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKlcG4l9ba0

 

Script:

 

 

 

The Beginning of Greek Philosophy

 

Lecture 1 of 81 of the course A History of Philosophy by Arthur Holmes

 

Wheaton College, Massachusetts

 

1990 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4fVRiJtubY

 

 

 

                          ----------------------

 

 

 

The Ionian Rationalists

 

Ionia

 

Ionia

 

 

                  --------------

 

 

The Influence of Persia on Ionia

 

 

Miletus

 

600 BC -   

 

Miletus

 

 

The Milesian School 

 

Book 1. Ancient Philosophy

Part I. The Pre-Socratics

Chaprer 2. The Milesian School

 

Reading of chapter 2 of The History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell (1945)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UbGdD8kxmYI

 

Text (start at page 42):

 

https://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp/westernphilosoph035502mbp_djvu.txt

 

 

                   --------------

 

 

 

Thales of Miletus

 

c. 624 - c. 546 BC

 

Thales

 

 

What is the Thales Theorem?

 

Basic Proportionality Theorem (BPT) of Triangle

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-6yYsuGLoc&feature=related

 

 

 

Thales' Theorem

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oev4-mZNUNg&feature=related

 

 

 

               ---------------

 

 

 

Anaximander of Miletus

 

c. 610 – c. 546 BC 

 

Anaximander

 

 

 

                 -------------

 

 

 

Anaximenes of Miletus

 

585 - 528 BC

 

 

 

                   -------

 

 

 

Xenophanes of Colophon

 

c. 570   -   c. 475/6 BC

 

Xenophanes

 

 

 

              --------------

 

 

 

Pythagoras of Samos

 

570 – c. 495 BC

 

Pythagoras 

 

 

 

The Genius of Pythagoras

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6k-fpCAp9mU

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jz3uICRDPBU

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mHihN_XDD4

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction to the Pythagorean Theorem

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9t7rNhaBp8&feature=relmfu

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AA6RfgP-AHU&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

Pythagoras 

 

Book 1. Ancient Philosophy

Part I. The Pre-Socratics

Chaprer III. Pythagoras

 

Bertrand Russell's The History of Western Philosophy

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvRCCDlN1Ok

 

Text (start at page 47):

 

https://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp/westernphilosoph035502mbp_djvu.txt

 

 

 

 

 

Pythagoras

 

Discussion on weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Serafina Cuomo, John O'Connor and Ian Stewart

 

10 December 2009

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00p693b

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Omv8LbBuR0M

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Lvg08ca0dA