POTASSIUM PHYSIOLOGY and NUTRITION

REFERENCES - Each chapter has references listed separately below.

REFERENCES - for Chapter I only, Introduction

-- Alexander DD 1977 Arthritis and Common Sense.Witkower Press, Hartford, Conn.
-- Allander E and Buelle A 1981 Developments in epidemiological studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatologt 10; 257-261
-- Arthritis Foundation 1978 Arthritis the Basic Facts. Arthritis Foundation, Georgia
-- Axford JS,. 2000 Glycosylation and rheumatic disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine's 5th Jenner Symposium (Glycobiology and Medicine conference),10-11, July 10-11, 2000. 2001
-- Bach TF editor 1947 Arthritis and Related Conditions. FA Davis Co., Philadelphia
-- Bazzichi L Ciompi ML Betti L Rossi A Melchiorre D Fiorini M Giannaccini G Lucacchini A 2002 Impaired glutathione reductase activity and levels of collagenase and elastase in synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 20; 761766.
-- Best CH & Taylor NB 1960 The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 5th ed. Williams & Wilkins Co. Baltimore
-- Blumberg BS et al 1961 A study of the prevalence of arthritis in Alaskan Eskimos. Arthritis and Rheumatism 4; 325
-- Buchan JF 1957 The biochemical changes in rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Phys. Med. 120; 196
-- Cantorna, M., Hayes, C. and DeLuca, H.,1998a, 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the progression of arthritis in murine models of human arthritis. Journal of Nutrition, v. 128, p. 68-72
-- Casatta L Ferraccioli GF & Bartoli E 1997 Hypokalaemic alkalosis, acquired Gitelman's and Barter's syndrome in chronic sialoadenitis. British Journal of Rheumatology 36;1125-1128
-- Charalampous FC 1971 Metabolic functions of myoinositol: VIIII - Role of inositol in Na+-K+ transport and in Na+ and K+ activated adenosine triphosphate of KB cells. Journal of Biol. Chem> 246; 455 & 461
-- Chen I 1995 The diagnostic significance of rheumatoid factors in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Chung Hua Nei Ko Tsq Chih 34 (7); 449-451 (from abstract)
-- Crain DC 1959 Help for Ten Million, 1st edition. JP Lippicott Co, NY
-- Das UN 2000 Newer uses of glucose-insulin-potassium regime. Med Sci. Monit. 6; 1053-1055.
-- DeCoti-Marsh C 1957 Rheumatism and Arthritis: the Conquest. Thorson's Publishers, London
-- Deessein PH Joffe BL Stanwic AE Moomal Z 2001 Hyposecretion of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and its relation to chemical variables in inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Resdearch 3; 183-188
-- Dong CH & Banks J 1975 New Hope for the Arthritic. Ballantine Books, NY
-- Eppinger H 1939 Einiges uber diatische therapie. Ztschr. F. Arztl. Fortbild36; 672-678 & 709-714
-- Folis RH 1942 Myocardial necrosis in rats on apotassium low diet prevented by thiamine deficiency. Bull. Johns-Hopkins Hospital. 71; 235-241.
-- Fujita A Hashimoto Y Nakahara K Tanaka T Okuda T & Koda M 1999 Effects of a low calorie vegan diet on disease activity and general conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rinsho Byori 47; 554-560
-- Helmick CG Lawrence RC Pollard RA Lloyd E Heyse S 1995 Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions: who is affected now and who will be affected later? Arthritis Care and Research
-- Holbrook AA 1944 The raw food diet: A therapeutic agent. Ann. Int. Med. 20; 512
-- Jarvis DC 1960 Arthritis and Folk Medicine. Pan Books Limited, London
-- Kellgren JH 1966 Epidemiology of RA. Arthritis and Rheumatism 9; 658-674
-- Khetagurova ZV 1982 Function of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal system in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Terapevticheskii Archiv 54; 92-95. (Russian).
-- LaCelle PL et al 1964 An investigation of total body potassium in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings Ann. Meeting of the Rheumatism Association, Arthritis & Rheumatism 7; 321
-- LaMont Havers RW 1963 Nutrition and the rheumatic diseases, part II, Collagen diseases. Borden's Review of Nutrition Research 24; 15-27
-- La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Pagano R 1998 Vegetable consumption and risk of chronic disease Epidemiology 9(2):208-210.
-- Linos A et al. Dietary factors in relation to rheumatoid arthritis: a role for olive oil and cooked vegetables? Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 1077-82.
-- Masoom-Yasinzai M 1996 Altered fatty acid, cholesterol. and Na/K ATPase activity in erythrocyte membrane of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, section C, Bioscience 51;401-403 (from the abstract)
-- Merlino LA JR Cerhan JR, LA Criswell LA, TR Mikuls TR, KG Saag KG 2004 Vitamin D is Associated With a Lower Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Older Women: Results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Arthritis and Rheum. 50; 72-77.
-- Mikosha, A.S.; Pushkarov, I.S.; Chelnakova, I.S.; Remennikov, G.Y.A. "Potassium Aided Regulation of Hormone Biosynthesis in Adrenals of Guinea Pigs Under Action of Dihydropyridines: Possible Mechanisms of Changes in Steroidogenesis Induced by 1,4, Dihydropyridines in Dispersed Adrenocorticytes." Fiziol. [Kiev] 37: 60, 1991.
-- Morgan SL Anderson AM Hood SM Mathews PA Lee JY & Alarcon GS 1997 Nutrient intake patterns, body mass index, and vitamin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Research 10; 9-17. (from abstract)
-- Osol A & Farrar GE United States Dispensatory, 25th edition, Part I. JP Lippencott & Co., Philadelphia
-- Phelps AE Your Arthritis: What You Can Do About It. Wm. Morrow & Co., NY
Rasch EK, Hirsch R, Paulose-Ram R, Hochberg MC.2003 Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in persons 60 years of age and older in the United States: effect of different methods of case classification. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Apr;48(4):917-26.
-- Riley JP 1961 Composition of mineral water from the hot spring at Bath. Journal of Applied Chemistry 11; 190-192
-- Ritchie G, Kerstan D, Dai LJ, Kang HS, Canaff L, Hendy GN, Quamme GA 2001 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates Mg2+ uptake into MDCT cells: modulation by extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 May;280(5):F868-78.
Roberts-Thomson RA, Roberts-Thomson PJ. 1999 Rheumatic disease and the Australian aborigine. Ann Rheum Dis. May;58(5):266-70.
-- Rodman GP editor. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, 7th edition. The Arthritis Foundation, NY
-- Ropes MW et al 1958 Revision of diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Bull. Rheum. Dis. 9; 175
-- Sambrook PN, Ansell BM, Foster S, Gumpel JM, Hesp R, Reeve J, Zanelli JM 1985 Bone turnover in early rheumatoid arthritis. 1. Biochemical and kinetic indexes.Ann Rheum Dis. Sep;44(9):575-9.
-- Sari I Astorga G Carvagal P & Gatica H 1993 Clinical usefulness of rheumatoid factor in synovial fluid, reevaluation. Rev. Med. Chil 121: 1374-1378 (from abstract).
Schoner W 1971 Active transport of Na+K+ through animal cell membranes. Angew. Chem. (Eng) 10; 882-889
-- Schubert J 1966 Chelation in medicine. Scientific American 214; 40
Siamopoulou A Mavridis AK Vasakos AK Benecos P Tzioufas AG Andonopoulos AP 1989 Sialochemistry in juvenile chronic arthritis. British Journal of Rheumatology 28; 383-385 (from the abstract)
-- Silman AJ, Ollier W, Holligan S, Birrell F, Adebajo A, Asuzu MC, Thomson W, Pepper L. 1993.Absence of rheumatoid arthritis in a rural Nigerian population. J Rheumatol. Apr;20(4):618-22.
-- Staub RH Pongratz G Scholmerick J Kees F Schaible TF Antoni C Kalden JR Lorenz H-M 2003 Long term anti tumor necrosis factor antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients sensitizes the pituitary gland and favors adrenal androgen secretion. Arthritis and Rheumatism 48; 1504-1512.
-- Stone J Doube A Dudson D Wallace J 1997 Inadequate calcium. folic acid. vitamin E zinc, and selenium intake in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results of a dietary survey. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheum. 27; 180-185
-- Strukov A 1964 General morphology of collagen diseases. Journal of Pathology 78; 409-420
-- Suarez-Almazor ME, Gonzalez-Lopez L, Gamez-Nava JI, Belseck E, Kendall CJ, Davis P. 1998 Utilization and predictive value of laboratory tests in patients referred to rheumatologists by primary care physicians. J Rheumatol. (10):1980-5.
-- Sukenik S Neumann L Buskila D Kleiner-Baumgarten A Zimlichman S Horowitz J 1990 Dead sea bath salts or the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Exp. Rheumatology 8; 353-357 (from the abstract)
-- Syrjanen S Lappalainen R Markkanen H 1986 Salivary and serum levels of electrolytes and immunomarkers in edentulous healthy subjects and in those with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Rheumatology 5; 49-55.
-- Testa I Rabini RA Corvetta A Danieli G 1987 Decreased sodium, potassium ATPase activity in erythrocyte membrane from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 16; 301-305.
-- Trujillo E Alvarez de la Rosa D Mobasheri A Gonzolez T Canessa CM Martin-Vasallo P 1999 Sodium transport systems in human chondrocytes II. Expression of ENaC, Na+/K+/2Cl cotransporter Na+/H+ exchangers in healthy and arthritic chondrocytes. Histol. Histopathol. 14; 1023-1031 (from the abstract)
-- Ueda Y, Honda M, Tsuchiya M, Watanabe H, Izumi Y, Shiratsuchi T, Inoue T, Hatano M. 1982 Response of plasma ACTH and adrenocortical hormones to potassium loading in essential hypertension. Jpn Circ J. 1982 Apr;46(4):317-22..
-- Veinpalu E Trink RF Veinpalu LE Pyder KhA 1992 The therapeutic actionof the low water bulk of sea mud. Vopr.Kurortol. Fizioter Lech Fiz. Kult. Sep.-Dec.;(5-6);54-57.
-- Waller 1971 Present status of rheumatoid factor. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab . Sci 2; 173-210
-- Wilkinson RJ Llewelyn M Toosi Z et al 2000 Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gyarati Asians in West London: a case controlled study. Lancet 355; 618-621.
-- Winegrad AT Reynold AE 1958 Effect of insulin on the metabolism of glucose, pyruvate, and acetate. Journal of Biol. Chem 233; 267.

REFERENCES for chapter II only, History of Arthritis Research

-- Anderson EWN 1980 New fundamental discoveries in the causation and prevention of hay fever and colds. Dorrence & Co, Ardmore, Pennsylvania.
-- Balandraud N Meynard JB Sooran H Mugnier B Reviron D Reviron D Roudier J Roudier Chantal 2003 Epstein –Barr virus load in the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 48; 1223-1228.
-- Campbell IK O'Donnell K Lawlor KE Wicks IP 2001 Severe inflammatory arthritis and lymphadenoppathy in the absence of TNF. Journal of Clinical Investigation 107; 1519-1527,
-- Childers NF 1981 Childer's Diet to Stop Arthritis. Horticultural Publications, Somerset Press, Inc., Somerville, New Jersey
-- Cobb S 1962 Hostility and its control in rheumatoid diseases. Arth. & Rheum 5; 290
-- Cordain L. Toohey L. Smith MJ. Hickey MS. 2000 Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. [Review] [114 refs] Source British Journal of Nutrition. 83(3):207-17.
-- Das UN 2000 Newer uses of glucose-insulin-potassium regime. Med Sci. Monit. 6; 1053-1055.
-- Dong CH & Banks J 1975 New Hope for the Arthritic. Ballantine Books, New York
-- Espinosa-Morales R, Escalante A 1998 Diagnostic confusion caused by hepatitis C: hemochromatosis presenting as rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol Dec;25(12):2459-63.
-- Eyring H & Dougherty TF 1957 Molecular Mechanisms in Inflammation and Stress -"Science in Progress" 10 series p181-194, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
-- Forman R. 1981 Medical resistance to innovation.Med Hypotheses. 7(8):1009-17.
-- Gerson M 1977 A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases, 3rd ed, Totaity Books, Box 1035, Del Mar, California
-- Louro MO, Cocho JA, Mera A, Tutor JC. 2000 Immunochemical and enzymatic study of ceruloplasmin in rheumatoid arthritis. J Trace Elem Med Biol. Oct;14(3):174-8.
-- McCord JM 1974 Free radicals and inflammation: protection of synovial fluid by superoxide dismutase. Science 185; 529
-- Meyer MAA 1970 Laboratory findings in rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Medical Technology 36; 328
-- Mikkelsen WM Chairman 1981 Arthritis and Rheumatism 24; 159, 133-134
-- Mikosha, A.S.; Pushkarov, I.S.; Chelnakova, I.S.; Remennikov, G.Y.A. "Potassium Aided Regulation of Hormone Biosynthesis in Adrenals of Guinea Pigs Under Action of Dihydropyridines: Possible Mechanisms of Changes in Steroidogenesis Induced by 1,4, Dihydropyridines in Dispersed Adrenocorticytes." Fiziol. [Kiev] 37: 60, 1991.
-- Millman M 1972 An allergic concept of the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Allerg. 30; 135-140
-- Nalbandian RM et al 1981 Polymyalgia rheumatia and giant cell arteritis-Rational diagnosis and treatment predicated on disordered prostaglandin metabolism. Medical Hypotheses 7; 1169-1182
-- Nicolson, GL. Nasralla, MY, De Meirleir K, Gan, R., Haier J 2003 Evidence for Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 2003; 11(2):7-20.
-- Permin H. et al 1981 Possible role of histamine in rheumatoid arthritis. Allergy 36; 435-436
-- Phillips PE 1975 Virologic studies in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology vol. 6
-- Randolph TG 1976 Clinical Ecology (Dickey LD ed.) p201-212. CC Thomas, Springfield
-- Schuschke DA, Saari JT, West CA, Miller FN 1994 Dietary copper deficiency increases the mast cell population of the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. Dec;207(3): 274-7.
-- Selye H et al 1944 Hormonal production of arthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association 124; 201
-- Selye H 1949 Further studies concerning the participation of the adrenal cortex in the pathogenesis of arthritis. British Medical J Journal 2; 1129
-- Selye H 1950 The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress, 1st edition. Acta inc Montreal.
-- Sorenson JRJ 1980 Copper chelates as possible active metabolites of the antiarthritic and antiepiletic drugs. Journal of Applied Nutrition 32; 4-25
-- Staub RH Pongratz G Scholmerick J Kees F Schaible TF Antoni C Kalden JR Lorenz H-M 2003 Long term anti tumor necrosis factor antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients sensitizes the pituitary gland and favors adrenal androgen secretion. Arthritis and Rheumatism 48; 1504-1512.
-- Turnbull JA 1944 Study of 127 cases of arthritis. American Journal of Digestive Disease 11; 122-130
-- Turnbull JA 1944 Study of 127 cases of arthritis. American Journal of Digestive Disease 11; 122-130
-- Turner CD 1955 General Endocrinology, 2nd edition. WB Saunders Co. Philadelphia
-- Weismann G 1972 Lysosomal mechanisms of tissue injury in arthritis. New England Journal of Medicine 286; 141
-- Zeller M 1949 Rheumatoid Arthritis; Food Allergy as a Factor. Ann. Allerg. 7; 200-205
-- Zoli A, Altomonte L, Caricchio R, Galossi A, Mirone L, Ruffini MP, Magaro M. 1998 Serum zinc and copper in active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. Clin Rheumatol. ;17(5):378-82.
-- Zussman BM 1966 Food hypersensitivity simulating rheumatoid arthritis. South Med. J. 59; 935-939

REFERENCES for chapter III only, Arthritis as a Potassium Deficiency

-- Abbrecht PH & Vander AJ 1970 Effects of chronic potassium deficiency on plasma renin activity. Journal of Clinical Investigation 49; 1510-1516
-- Abbrecht PH 1972 Cardiovascular effects of chronic potassium deficiency in the dog. American Journal of Physiology 223; 555-560
-- Adler S Fraley DS 1977 Potassium and intracellular pH. Kidney International, 11; 433-442.
-- American Medical Association 1951 Handbook of Nutrition, 2nd Ed. Blakiston Co., NY
-- Amlal H Wang Z & Soleimani M 1998 Potassium depletion down regulates chloride - absorbing transporters in rat kidney. Journal of Clinical Investigation 101; 1045-1054
-- Batuman V Maesaka JK Landy E Haddad B Wedeen P Tepper E 1981 The role of lead in gout nephropathy. New England Journal of Medicine 304; 520-3
 -- Baumann K & Muller J !972 Effect of potassium intake on the final steps of aldosterone biosynthesis in the rat. Acta Endocrinol. 69; 701 & 718
-- Blau LW. Cherry diet control for gout and arthritis. Tex Rep Biol Med 1950;8:309-11
-- Brown MR et al 1944 Muscular paralysis and electrocardiographic abnormalities resulting from potassium loss in chronic nephritis. Journal of the American Medical association 124; 545
-- Cannon PR et al 1951 Influence of potassium on tissue protein synthesis. Metabolism 1; 49-57
-- Cannon PR et al 1953 Sodium as a toxic ion in potassium deficiency. Metabolism 2; 297-312
-- Clark WS et al 1956 The relationship of alterations in mineral and nitrogen metabolism to disease activity in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Rheum. Scand. 2;193
-- Cope CL 1964 Adrenal Steroids and Disease. JB Lippincott Co., Philadelphia
-- Davis WH 1970 Does potassium deficiency hold a clue to metabolic disorders associated with liability to heart disease?. South African Med. Journal 44; 1297
-- Eckel RE et al 1954 Lysine as a muscle cation in potassium deficiency. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 52; 293
-- Evans BM et al 1957 Alkalosis in sodium and potassium depletion. Clinical Science 16; 53
-- Folis RM et al 1942 The production of cardiac and renal lesions in rats by a diet extremely deficient in potassium. American Journal of Pathology 18; 29
-- Galvez OG; Bay WH; Roberts BW; Ferris TF Source Circ Res, 40(5 Suppl 1):I11-6 1977
--Ganballa SE Robinson TG Fotherby MD 2001 Low plasma potassium on admission associated with increased death independant of age, severity, blood pressure, history of hypertension, or smoking. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 45; (from the abstract)
-- Gann DS et al 1964 Control of aldosterone secretion by change of body potassium in normal man. American Journal of Physiology 207; 104
-- Gardner LI et al 1950 The effect of potassium deficiency on carbohydrate metabolism. Journal Lab & Clin. Med. 35; 592-602
-- Gardner LI et al 1952 Effect of potassium deficiency on carbon dioxide, cation, and phosphate content of muscle. Journal of General Physiology 36; 153-159
-- Gardner LI 1953 Experimental potassium depletion. Journal Lancet 7 i3; 190
-- Garella S et al 1970 Saline - resistant metabolic alkalosis or chloride - wasting nephropathy. Ann. Internal Medicine 73; 31-38
-- Gonzalez JJ et al 1979 Renin aldosterone systemand potassium levels in chronic lead intoxication. South Med. Journal 72; 433436.
-- Grissmer S, Hanson DC, Natoli EJ, Cahalan MD, Chandy KG. 1990 CD4-CD8- T cells from mice with collagen arthritis display aberrant expression of type l K+ channels. J Immunol. Oct 1;145(7):2105-9.
-- Hollander W Blythe WB 1971 Nephropathy of potassium depletion. in; Diseases of the Kidney, II, (Strauss MB & Welt LG, editors) p933 Little Brown & Co., Boston
-- Holman RL et al Arterioscelerosis - the lesion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 8; 85-94
-- Iacobellis M et al 1956 Free amino acid patterns of certain tissues from potassium and/or protein - deficient rats. Amer. Journal Physiology 185 ;275
-- Ifudu O Markell MS Friedman EA 1992 Unrecognized pseudohyperkalemia as a cause of elevated potassium in patients with renal disease. American Journal of Nephrology 12; 102-104.
-- Jasani BM & Edmond CJ 1971 Kinetics of potassium distribution in men using isotope dilution and whole body counting. Metabolism 20; 10991106
-- Jacob RA, Spinozzi GM, Simon VA, Kelley DS, Prior RL, Hess-Pierce B, Kader AA. 2003 Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003 Jun;133(6); 1826-9.
-- Jones NF et al Inappropriate production of vasopressin, potassium deficiency and heart disease. American Journal of Medicine 45; 474-479
-- Judge TG & Cowan NR 1971 Dietary potassium intake and grip strength in older people. Gerontol. Clin. 13; 221
-- Kark RM 1958 Some aspects of nutrition and the kidney. American Journal of Nutrition 25; 698-707
-- Kohvakka A Luurila O Gordin A & Sundberg S 1989 Magnesium. Magnesium 8; 71-76
-- Kotchen TA Guthrie GP Jr. Galla JH Luke RG Welch WJ 1983 Effects of NaCl on renin and aldosterone responses to potassium depletion. American Journal of Physiology 244; (2) E164-169.
-- LaCelle PL et al 1964 An investigation of total body potassium in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Rheumatism Association, Arthritis and Rheumatism 7; 321
-- Ladefoged K Hagen K 1986 Correlation between concentrations of magnesium, Zinc, and potassium in plasma, erythrocytes and muscles. Clin. Chim. Acta 177; 157-166.
-- Lambie AT 1964 Renal mechanisms of potassium depletion. Proceedings Nutr. Soc. 24; 63-73
-- Lin JL, Yu CC, Lin-Tan DT, Ho HH 2001 Lead chelation therapy and urate excretion in patients with chronic renal diseases and gout. Kidney Int. Jul;60(1):266-71.
-- Lin JL, Tan DT, Ho HH, Yu CC 2002 Environmental lead exposure and urate excretion in the general population. Am J Med. 2002 Nov;113(7):563-8.
-- Lowman MD 1971 The potassium depletion states and post - operative ileus - editorial. Rad. 98; 691
-- Luke RG Wright FS Fowler N Kashgarian M & Giebisch GH 1978 Effect of potassium depletion on renal tubular chloride transport in the rat. Kidney International 14; 414-427
-- Marcus DF et al 1968 A comparative study of various hyperglycemic agents in potassium deficient rats. Proceedings of the Society Experimental Biol. Med. 127; 533-538
-- Mawson AR 1985 Are rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythmatosis inversely related diseases? Medical Hypotheses 18; 377-386
-- Molnar Z et al 1962 Cardiac changes in the potassium depleted rat. Arch. Pathol. 74; 339-347
-- Muehrcke RC & McMillan JC 1963 The relationship of chronic pyelonephritis of chronic potassium deficiency. Ann Int. Med 59; 427
 -- Naslund PH & Hultin T 1971 Structural and functional defects in mammalian ribosomes after potassium deficiency. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 254; 104
-- NHANES-III, Catalog #77560, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). National Center for Health Statistics. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, NHANES III Laboratory Data File (CD-ROM). Public Use Data File Documentation Number 76200. Hyattsville, MD.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1996. Available from; National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, VA. Acrobat. PDF format; includes access software: Adobe Systems, Inc. Acrobat Reader 2.1.
-- Nickel JF et al 1953 Renal function during sodium deprivation. Journal of Clinical Investigation 32; 68-79
-- Nuki G et al 1975 Potassium metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - effects of treatment with depot tetracosactrin spirono-lactone and oral supplements of potassium chloride. Annals of the Rheumatic Dis. 34; 506-514
-- Ono I Hukuoka T & Onodera I 1964 The effects of varying dietary potassium on the electrocardiogram and blood electrolytes in young dogs. Jap. Heart Journal 5; 272
-- Patrick J & Bradford b 1971 A comparison of leucocyte potassium content with other measurements in potassium - depleted rabbits. Clinical Science 42; 415-421
-- Rector FC Jr. et al 1955 The mechanism of ammonia excretion during ammonium chloride acidosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 34; 20
-- Rhodin JAG 1971 Structure of the kidney. in; Diseases of the Kidney (Strauss MB & Welt LG, editors) Little Brown & Co., Boston
 Robinson CH & Lawler MR 1972 Normal and therapeutic nutrition, Macmillan & Co. New York
 -- Romanski SA, McMahon MM. 1999 Metabolic acidosis and thiamine deficiency. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Mar;74(3):259-63.
-- Rowe JW et al 1980 Effect of experimental potassium deficiency on glucose and insulin metabolism. Metabolism 29; 448-502
-- Rowinski P 1960 Potassium in the animal organism - Proceedings of the 6th Congress of the International Potash Institute, Amsterdam, p381-433
-- Rubini ME 1961 Water excretion in potassium - deficient man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 40; 2215-2224
-- Rubini ME & Chojnacki RE 1972 Principles of parenteral therapy. Am. Clin. Nutr. 25; 96-113
-- Sambrook PN Ansell BM Foster S Gumpbell JM Hesp R Reeve J Zanelle JM 1985 Bone turnover in early rheumatoid arthritis: Biochemical and kinetic indexes. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 44; 575-579.
-- Saruta T Suzuki A Hayashi M Yasui T Eguchi T Kato E 1980 Mechanism of age-related changes in renin and adrenocortical steroids. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 28; 210-214
-- Schrader GA et al 1937 Symptomology and pathology of potassium and magnesium deficiencies in the rat. Journal of Nutrition. 14; 85-109
-- Scribner BH & Burnell JM 1956 . Metabolism 5; 468-479.
-- Sealey JE et al 1970 Potassium balance and the control of renin secretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation 49; 2119-2127
-- Seekles L 1960 Potassium in the animal organism. Proceedings of the 6th Congress of the Intl. Potash Institute, Amsterdam 349-379
-- Shekarriz B, Stoller ML 2002 Uric acid nephrolithiasis: current concepts and controversies. J Urol. 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 1):1307-14.
-- Shick RM 1957 Periarteritis nedosa and temporal arteritis. Collected Papers of the Mayo Clinic 49; 381
-- Smith SG & Lasater TE 1950 Diabetes insipidus like condition produced in dogs with potassium deficient diet. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 74; 427-431
-- Sokolov EI 1966 Disorders of electrolyte metabolism in cases of rheumatic valvular heart disease (Russian). VOP. Revmatizma 1; 55-58 from; Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Abstracts 3; 526, 96
-- Southon S Heaton FW 1981 Changes in cellular and subcellular coposition during potassium deficiency. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 72a; 415-419
-- Spergel et al 1967 Potassium on the impaired glucose tolerance in chronic uremia metabolism. Metabol. Clin. Ex. 16; 581-585
-- Strauss MB & Welt LG, editors 1971 Diseases of the kidney, Vol II, Little Brown & Co., Boston
-- Surawicz B 1968 The role of potassium in cardiovascular therapy. Med. Clins. N. Am. 52; 1103-1113
-- Syrjanen S, Lappalainen R, Markkanen H 1986 Salivary and serum levels of electrolytes and immunomarkers in edentulous healthy subjects and in those with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. Jan;5(1):49-55.
-- Tannen RL 1977 Relationships of renal ammonia production and potassium homeostasis. Kidney International 11; 453-465.
--Rinehart KE et al 1968 Effect of dietary deficiency of potassium on protein synthsis in the young chick. Journal of Nutrition 95; 627-632
-- Tate CL Bagdon WJ & Bokelman DVM 1978 Morphological abnormalities in potassium - deficient dogs. American Journal Pathology 93; 103-116
-- Tobian L MacNeill D Johnson MA Gagul MC & Iwai J 1984 Potassium protection against lesions of the renal tubules, arteries, and nephron loss in salt loaded hypertensive dahl S rats. Hypertension, supplement I 6: 170-176
--Truong L et al 1973 Influence of dietary protein on skeletal muscle growth of normal and potassium - chloride depleted young rats. Nutr. Reports Int. 7; 655-664
-- Welt LG et al 1958 The prediction of muscle potassium from blood electrolytes in potassium depleted rats. Tr. A. Am Physicians 71; 750
-- Welt LG et al 1960 Consequences of potassium depletion. Journal of Chronic Dis. 11; 213-254
-- Winegrad AT Reynold AE 1958 Effects of insulin on the metabolism of glucose, pyruvate, and acetate. Journal of Biol. Chem. 233; 267.

REFERENCES for chapter IV only, Roles of Potassium in the Body.

-- [*] I can not find my references to back up star statements, but I am fairly certain that I report them accurately.

-- Albers RW 1967 Biochemical aspects of active transport. Ann. Rev. Biochem 36; 727
-- Baker PF 1966 The nerve axon. Sxcientific American 214; 74
-- Bennett CM et al 1968 Micropuncture study of nephron function in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Clinical Investigation 47; 203
-- Berliner RW et al`1951 Relationship between acidification of the urine and potassium metabolism. American Journal Med. 11;274
-- Kilburn KH 1966 Movements of potassiu during acute respiratory acidosus and recovery. Journal of Applied Physiology 21; 679
-- Charalampous FC 1971 Metabolic functions of myoinositol: VIIII - Role of inositol in Na+-K+ transport and in Na+ and K+ activated adenosine triphosphate of KB cells. Journal of Biol. Chem> 246; 455 & 461
-- Davis BB Jr. Knox FG 1970 Current concepts of the regulation of urinary sodium excretion - a review. Amer. J Med. 259; 373;
-- Davis WH 1970 Does potassium deficiency hold a clue to metabolic disorders associated wit liability to coronary heart disease? South African Medical Journal 44; 1297
-- Dean RB 1941 Theories of electrolyte equilibrium in muscle. Biol. Symp 3; 331-348
-- Eckel RE et al 1954 Lysine as a muscle cation in potassium deficiency. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 52; 293
-- Fourman P 1952 The ability of the normal kidney to conserve potassium. Lancet 262; 1042
-- Fuhrman FA 1967 Tetrodotoxin. Scientific American 217; 60-71
-- Halla JT & Ball GV 1982 Seminars Arth. Rheum. _ Saturnine Gout: A review of 42 patients - 11, #3
-- Hendricks SB 1964 Salt transport across cell membranes. American Scient. 52; 318
-- Harper HA 1957 Review of Physiological Chemistry, 6th ed, Lange Med. Pub., Los Allos, California
-- Holliday MA 1955 Acute metabolic alkalosis: its effect on -- potassium and acid excretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation 34; 428
-- Kernan RP 1965 Cell K. Butterworth, Baltimore
-- Lamont-Havers RW 1963 Nutrition and the rheumatic diseases - part II, Collagen Diseases, Review of Nutrition Research, Bordons 24; 15-27
-- Lans HS et al 1952 The relation of serum potassium to erythrocyte potassium in normal subjects and patients with potassium deficiency. American Journal Med. Sci 223; 65-74
-- Lev AA 1968 Determination of activity and activity coefficients of potassium and sodium ions in frog muscle fibres. Nature, London 201; 1132
-- -- Meneely GR Ball COT 1958 American Journal of Medicine 25; 713-725.
-- Mills JH & Stanbury SW 1954 A reciprocal relationship between K+ and H+ excretion in the diurnal excretory rhythm in man. Cinical Sci. 13; 172
-- Orent-Keiles E & McCollum EV 1941 Potassium in animal nutrition. Journal Biol. Chen. 140; 337
-- Post RL et al 1960 Membrane adenosine triphosphatase as a participant in the active transport of sodiu and potassium in the human erythrocyte. Journal of Biological Chemistry 235; 1796-1802
-- Potts WTW & Parry G 1969 Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals. MacMillan Co., New York
-- Rector FC Jr. et al 1955 The mechanism of ammonia excretion during ammonium chloride acidosis Journal of Clinical Investigation 34; 20
-- Robinson JD 1968 Regulating ion pumps to control cell volume. Journal of Theoretical Biology 19; 90
-- Rubini ME & Chojnacki RE 1972 Principals of parenteral therapy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25; 96-113
-- Schoner W 1971 Active transport of Na+K+ through animal cell membranes. Angew. Chem. (Eng) 10; 882-889
-- Sharp GUG & Leaf A 1966 Mechanism of action of aldosterone. Phys. Rev. 46; 593
-- Shohl AT 1939 Mineral Metabolism. Reinhold Pub. Co., New York
-- Solomon AK 1962 Pumps in the living cell. Scientific American 207; 100-108
-- Suelter CH 1970 Enzymes activated by monovalent cations. Science 168; 789-795
-- Tannen RL 1977 Relationships of renal ammonia production and potassium homeostasis. Kidney International 11; 453-465
-- Tarail R 1953 The role of the potassium depletion. Journal Lancet 73; 182-183
-- Ulrich F 1959 Ion transport by heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria. American Journal of Physiology 197; 997-1059
-- Wohl MG Goodhart RS 1968 Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 4th edition. Lea & Febiger
-- Yellen G 2002 The voltage gated potassium channels and their relatives. Nature 419; 35-42.
 Zusman RM Keiser HR 1980 Regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis by angiotensin II, potassium, osmolality, and dexamethasone. Kidney International 17; 277-283.

REFERENCES for chapter V only, Regulation of Potassium and Sodium by Steroids

A star [*] indicates that I have lost the reference.

-- Abernethy JD 1979 Fd. Technol. 33; 57
-- Abraham GE. 1983 Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. J. Reprod. Med. 7; 446-64.
-- Asboe-Hansen G, ed 1966 Hormones and connective tissue. Williams and Wilkens Co. Baltimore 313
-- Battarbee HD et al 1979 The effect of dietary sodium and potassium upon blood pressure and catecholamine excretion in the rat. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 161; 32-37
-- Bauer JH & Gauntner WC 1974 Effect of potassium chloride on plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone during sodium restriction in normal man. Kidney International 15; Kidney Int. 15; 286.
-- Biglieri EG & Lopez JM 1977 Adrenocorticotropin & plasma aldo-sterone concentration and deoxycorticosterone in man. Ann. New York Academy of science 297;361-372
-- Bonner G Autenreith R Mari-Grez M Rascher W & Gross F 1981 Horm. Res. 14; 87.
-- Braley LM Williams GH 1977 Rat adrenal cell sensitivity to angiotensin II, ACTH alpha 1-24 and potassium. American Journal of Physiology Endo. 233; E402.
-- Brown RD & Strott CA Liddle GW 1972 Site of stimulation of aldosterone biosynthesis by angiotensin and potassium. Journal of Clinical Investgation 51; 1413-1418
-- Clark WS et al 1956 The relationshp of alterations in mineral and nitrogen metabolism to disease activity in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Rheum. Scand. 2; 193-212
-- Cope CL & Llaurado JG 1954 The occurence of electrocortin in human urine. British Med. J. 1; 1290
-- Cox RH 1977 Carotid artery mechanics and composition in renal and DOCA hypertension in the rat. Cardiovascular Medicine 2; 761-768
-- Dahl LK et al 1972 Influence of dietary potassium and sodium-potassium molar ratio on the development of salt hypertension. Journal of Experimental Medicine 136; 318320
-- Davis JO et al 1964 An extra-adrenal factor essential for chronic renal sodium retention in presence of increased sodium-retaining hormone. Circ. Res. 14; 17-31
-- Desaulles P 1958 Comparison of the effects of aldosterone, cortexone and cortisol on adrenalectomized rats under various salt loads. in; International Symposium on Aldosterone (Muller AF & O'Conner, eds.) pp 29-38. Little Brown Co., Boston.
-- Dluhy RG Axelrod L Underwood RH & Williams GH 1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation 51; 1950.
-- Dolman D, Edmonds CJ. The effect of aldosterone and the renin-angiotensin system on sodium, potassium and chloride transport by proximal and distal rat colon in vivo. J. Physiol.1975 Sep;250(3):597-611.
-- Douglas J Mansen J & Catt KJ 1978 Relationships between plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone in the rat after dietary electrolyte changes. Endocrinology 103; 60.
-- Ellinghaus K 1971 Sodium and potassium balance during the administration of desoxycorticosterone in dogs with differing intakes. Pfluegers Arch. 322; 347-354
-- Eppinger A 1939 Z. Artzl. Fortbild 36;672, 709.
-- Ershoff BH 1981 Effects of the dietary sodium: potassium ratio in the treatment of hypertension. Journal of Applied Nutrition
-- Farrell G 1958 Regulation of aldosterone secretion. Phys. Rev. 38; 709
-- Flatman JA & Clausen T 1979 Combied effects of adrenaline and insulin on active electrogenic Na+ and K= transport in rat soleus muscle. Nature 281 ; 580-581.
-- Forscher BK et al 1972 Shock in low and high flow states. International Congress Series #247, Excerpta Medica.
-- Fraser R 1971 Effect of steroids on the transport of electrolytes. Biochem. Society Symposium 32; 101-1212.
-- Fuller PJ Pressley L Adam WF Funder JW 1976 16, 18-dihydroxydeoxycorticosterone and the binding of aldosterone to mineralocorticoid receptors in kidney of adrenalectomized rats. Journal Steroid Biochemistry 7: 387-390
-- Gann DS Cruz JF Casper AGT Bartter FC 1962 Mechanism by which potassium increases aldosterone secretion in the dog. American Journal Phys. 202; 991
-- Gann DS Mills IH Bartter 1960 On the hemodynamic parameter mediating increase in aldosterone secretion in the dog. Fed. Proceedings 19; 605-610
-- Giebisch G 1979 Membrane support in biology in transport organs. Giebisch G, ed. Springer Verlag, Berlin, NY
Schumer W & Nyhus LM eds 1970 Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Shock. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill.
-- Glaz E & Vecsei P 1971 Aldosterone, Pergamon Press, NY
Rauschkolb EW & Farrell GL 1956 Evidence for diencephatic regulation of aldosterone secretion. Endocrinology 59; 526-531
-- Goldberger E 1970 A primer of water , electrolyte, and acid-base syndromes. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 113
-- Gornall AC et al 1960 The influence of estrogen and progesterone on urinary sodium and aldosterone excretion. Acta Endocrin. 35 Suppl. 51; 157
-- Grekin RJ Terris JM Bohr DF 1980 Electrolyte and hormonal effects of deoxycorticosterone acetate in young pigs. Hypertension 2; 326-332
-- Grim CE, Luft FC, Miller JZ, Meneely GR, Battarbee HD, Hames CG, Dahl LK 1980 Racial differences in blood pressure in Evans County, Georgia: relationship to sodium and potassium intake and plasma renin activity. J Chronic Dis. 33(2):87-94.
-- Haddy FJ Scott JB 1965 In : Electrolytes and Cardiovascular Diseases (Bajusz E, ed) Vol 1, pp121-134. Williams and Wilkins
-- Hauger-Klevene JH Vecsei P 1978 Acta Physiol. Latinoam 27; 87.
-- Helman SI & I'Neil RG 1977 transport characteristics of renal collecting tubules:- Influence of DOCA and diet. American Journal of Physiology293; F544-558
-- Hiatt N et al 1972 The effect of potassium chloride infusion on insulin secretion in vivo. Hormone Metabolism Research 4; 64
-- Kadaner VY Solonitsyna OP 1965 Bio. Abstr. 47;52531.
-- Kassirer JP & Harrington JT 1977 Diuretics and potassium metabolism: reassessment of the need, effectiveness and safety of potassium therapy. Kidney International 11; 505-515
-- Keith NM et al 1943 Serum concentration and renal clearance of potassium in severe renal insufficiency in man. Arch. Int. Med. 71; 675
-- Kernan RP 1980 Cell Potassium. John Wiley & Sons, NY
-- Kilburn KH 1966 Movements of potassium during acute respiratory acidosus and recovery. Journal of Aplied Physiology 21; 679
-- LaCelle PL Morgan ES Atwater EC 1964 Arthritis Rheum. 7;321.
-- Lans HS et al 1952 The relation of serum potassium to erythrocyte potassium in normal subjects and patients with potassium deficiency. American Journal Med. Sci. 223; 65-74
-- Libretti A 1965 in; Electrolytes and Cardiovascular Diseases (Bajusz E, ed.) Vol. 1, pp. 121-134.
-- Linas SL Peterson LN Anderson RJ Aisenbrey GA Simon FR Berl T 1979 Mechanism of renal potassium conservation in the rat. Kidney International 15; 601-611
-- Matsuoka Y et al 1981 Studies of death in autopsied cases with rheumatoid arthritis. from; New Horizons in rheumatoid arthritis (Shiokawa Y Abe T & Yamauchi Y, eds.) Exerpta Medica International Cong. Series #535
-- May CN Lewis PS Horth CE 1979 Radioimmunoessay of plasma 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and its response to ACTH. Clin. Endocrinol. 11; 399-412.
-- Melby JC et al 1971 18 hydroxy-deoxycorticosterone in human hypertension. Circ. Res. 18; Suppl. II, 143
-- Melby JC et al 1972 18-hydroxy 11 deoxycorticosterone (18 OH-DOC) secretion in experimental and human hypertension. Recent Progress in Hormone Resarch. 28; 287-351
-- Melby JC & Dale SL 1976 New mineralocorticoids and adrenocorticoids in hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 38; 805-813
-- Melby JC, Dale SL. Role of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and 16 alpha, 18-dihydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone in hypertension. Mayo. Clin. Proc.1977 May;52(5):317-22.
-- Messerli PT Wojciech N Masanobu H Genest J Boucher R Kuchel O Rojoortega JM 1977 Effects of angiotensin II on steroid metabolism and hepatic blood flow in man.. Circ. Res 40; 204-207.
-- Millican RC et al 1952 Traumatic shock in mice, comparison of survival rates following therapy. American Journal of Physiology 170; 179-186
-- Moore TJ Braley LM & Williams GH Stimulation of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone secretion by angiotensin II and potassium. Endocrinology 103; 152-155
-- Nicholls MG Fraser R Hay G Mason P Torsney B 1966 Urine electrolyte response to 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone in normal man. Clinical Science Mol. Med. 53; 493-498
-- Oddie CJ et al 1972 Plasma deoxycorticosterone levels in man with simultaneous measurement of aldosterone corticosterone, cortisol and eoxyotisol. Journal of Clinical Endocrinol. Metab. 34; 1039-54
-- Ojima M & Kambegawa A 1979 In vivo and in vitro studies on 18 hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and 18 hydroxycorticosterone in normal subjects and in those with various adrenocortical disorders. Folia Endocrinol. Jpn. 55/8; 994-1006
-- O'Neil RG & Helmans SI 1977 Transport characteristics of renal collecting tubules: influence of DOCA and diet. American Journal of Physiology 233; 544-558
-- Parker CR Jr. et al 1980 Hormone production during pregnancy in the primigravid patient. American Journal of Obstet. Gynecol. 58; 26-30
-- Parker CR Jr. et al 1981 Plasma concentrations of 11-deoxycorticosterone in women during menstrual cycle. Obstet. Gynecol 58; 26-30
-- Pattah DI et al 1979 Control of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone secretion in the rat. Journal Physiol. London 291
-- Pearce JW et al 1969 Evidence for a humoral factor modifying the renal response to blood volume expansion in the rat. Can. Journal of Physiological Pharm. 47; 377-386
-- Peterson CG 1972 Perspectives in Surgery Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
-- Peterson L & Wright FS 1977 Effect of sodium intake on renal potassium excretion. American Journal of Physiology 233; 225-234
-- Pospisilova J 1970 Influence of mineralocorticoids on collagen synthesis in subcutaneous granuloma in adrenalectomized and non-adrenalectomized mice. Physiol. Bohemoslov. 19; 539-543
-- Potts WTW Perry G 1964 Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals. MacMillan, NY
-- Pratt JH 1982 Journal of Clin. Invest. 70; 667.
-- Prioreschi P 1967 Can. Med. Ass. J.96;1221.
Relman AS & Schwartz WB 1952 The effect of DOCA on electrolyte balance in normal man and its relation to sodium chloride intake. Yale Journal of Biol. Med. 24; 540
-- Rubini ME Chojnocki RF 1972 J. Clin. Nutr. 25;96.
-- Ross R & Bernstein P 1971 Elastic fibers in the body. Scientific American 224; 44-59
-- Saruta T et al 1980 Mechanism of age-related changes in renin and adrenocortical steroids. Journal of Ameican Geriatrics Society 28; 210-214
-- Schacht RG et al 1971 Renal mechanism for DOCA escape in man BulL. N.ew York Academy of Medicine 47; 1233
-- Schambelan M & Biglieri EC 1972 Deoxycorticosterone production and regulation in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 34; 695-703
-- Scribner BH & Burnell JM 1956 . Metabolism 5; 468-479.
-- Selye H Sylvester O Hall CE Leblond CP 1944 J. Am. Med. Assoc 124;201.
-- Sharp GUG Leaf A 1966 in; Recent Progress in Hormone Research.(Pincus G, ed.
-- Sheridan PJ et al 1979 Exp. Mol. Pathol. 30; 315-324
-- Silva P et al 1977 Adaptation to potassium. Kidney International 11; 466-475
-- Sparano F et al 1978 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone response to insulin in normal man. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 9; 1061-1063
-- Squires RD Huth EJ 1959 J. Clin. Invest. 38; 1134.
-- Turner CD 1955 General Endocrinology. WB Saunders Co., Phila.
-- Stanbury SW Gowenlock AH Mahler RF 1958 Aldosterone (Muller AF O'Connor CM eds) pp 155-166 Little Brown & Co, Boston.
-- Venning EH Dyrenfurthen JC Beck J 1957Effect of anxiety upon aldosterone excretion in man. J.Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 17;10
-- Wambach G & Higgins JR 1979 Effect of progesterone on serum and tissue electrolyte concentration in DOCA-treated rats. Hormone Metabolism Research 11; 258-259
-- Weber CE 1974 Potassium in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and heart infarction. J. Appl Nutr. 26; 41.
-- Weber CE 1998 Cortisol's purpose Medical Hypotheses 51; 289-292.
-- Wehling M, Armanini D, Strasser T, Weber PC. 1987 Effect of aldosterone on sodium and potassium concentrations in human mononuclear leukocytes. Am J Physiol. 1987 Apr;252(4 Pt 1):E505-8.
-- Williams GH Braley LM Underwood RH 1976 The regulation of plasma 18 hydroxy 11-deoxycorticosterone in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 58; 221-231
-- Williams GH Dluhy RG 1972 Am. J. Med. 53; 595
-- Williams RJ & Lansford EM, eds. Encyclopedia of Biochemistry. Reinhold Pub. Co., NY
-- Winkler et al 1962 Hypoaldosteronism; relation between hypophysical and adrenal function, clinical features. International Congress on Hormonal Steroids, Abstacts of papers. Exerpta Medica Foundation
-- World Health Organization 1960 Epidemiological and Vital Statistics Report. WHO 13
-- Wright FS 1977 Sites and mechanisms of potassium transport along the renal tubule. Kidney International 11; 415-432,

REFERENCES for chapter VI only, The Purpose of Cortisol and Corticosterone

1. Davies E. Keyon, C.J.; Fraser, R. "The Role of Calcium Ions in the Mechanism of ACTH Stimulation of Cortisol Synthesis." Steroids 45: 557, 1985.
2. Plotsky, P.M.; Sapolsky, Otto S., RM. "Inhibition of Immunoreactive Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Secretion into the Hypophysial Portal Circulation by Delayed Glucocorticoid Feedback." Endocrinology 119: 1126, 1986.
3. Nishida, S.; Matsumuru, S.; Horino, M.; Ogama, H.; Tenku, A. "The Variations of Plasma Corticosterone/Cortisol Ratios Following ACTH Stimulation or Dexamethasone Administration in Normal Men." Journal of Clinical Endocrinol. Metab.. 45: 585, 1977.
4. Palacios, R.; Sugawara, I. "Hydrocortisone Abrogates Proliferation of T-Cells in Autologous Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction by Rendering the Interleukin-2 Producer Cells Unresponsive to Interleukin-1 and unable to synthesize the T-Cell Growth Factor." Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 15: 25, 1982.
5. Besedovsky, H.O.; Del Rey, A.; Sorkin, E. "Integration of Activated Immune Cell Products in Immune Endocrine Feedback Circuits." p. 200 in Leukocytes and Host Defense Vol. 5 [Oppenheim, J.J.; Jacobs, D.M., eds]. Alan R. Liss, New York, 1984.
6. Fairchild, S.L.; Shannon, K.; Kwan, E.; Mishell, R.I. "T-Cells Derived Glucocorticosteroid Lymphocytes and a T-Cell Hybridoma." Journal of Immunology 132: 821, 1984.
7. Dvorak, M.; "Plasma 17-Hydroxycorticosteroid Levels in Healthy and Diarrheic Calves." British Veterinarian Journal 127: 372, 1971.
8. Newsholme, E.A., Leech, A.R. "Biochemistry for the Medical Sciences." John Wiley & Sons, New York.
9. Mach, R.S.; Fabre, J. "Clinical and Metabolic Effects of Aldosterone." p. 736 in CIBA Foundation Colloquia on Endocrinology, VIII, 16: 361, 1955.
10. Mekalanos, J.J.; Swartz, D.J.; Pearson, GDN; Hartford, N.; Groyne, F.; Wilde, M.; "Cholera Toxin Genes: Nucleotide Sequence, Deletion Analysis and Vaccine Development." Nature 306: 551, 1983.
11. Kernan, R.P. "Cell Potassium". John Wiley, New York. 1980.
12. Govan, C.D., Jr.; Darrow, D.C. "The Use of Potassium Chloride in the Treatment of Diarrhea in Infants." Journal of Pediatrics 38: 541, 1946.
12a. Colwell RR 1996 "Global climate and the infectious disease: the cholera paradigm." Science 274; 2125-2031.
13. Donowitz, M.; Binder, H.J. "Effect of Enterotoxins of Vibrio Cholerae, Escherichia coli, & Shigella Dienteriae Type 1 on Fluid and Electrolyte Transport in Colon." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 134: 135, 1976.
14. Hornyck, A.; Meyer, P.; Milliez, P. "Angiotensin, Vasopressin, and Cyclic AMP: Effects on Sodium and Water Fluxes in Rate Colon." American Journal of Physiology. 224: 1223, 1973.
15. Knight, R.P., Jr.; Kornfield, D.S.; Glaser, G.H. & Bondy, P.K. "Effects of Intravenous Hydrocortisone on Electrolytes in Serum and Urine in Man." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 15: 176, 1955.
16. Bia, M.J.; Tyler, K.; Deronzo, R. "The Effect of Dexamethasone on Renal Potassium Excretion and Acute Potassium Tolerance." Endocrinology 113: 1690, 1983.
17. Weber, C.E. "Corticosteroid Regulation of Electrolytes." Journal of Theor. Biology 104: 443, 1983.
18. Gardner, L.I. "Experimental Potassium Depletion." Journal of Lancet 73: 190, 1953.
19. Barger, A.C.; Berlin, R.D.; Tulenko, J.F. "Infusion of Aldosterone, 9 Alpha Fluorohydrocortisone, and Antidiuretic Hormone into the Renal Artery of Normal and Adrenalectomized Unanesthetized Dogs: Effect on Electrolyte and Water Excretion." Endocrine. 62: 804, 1958.
20. Schneider, E.G.; Radke, K.J.; Ulderich, D.A.; Taylor, R.E., Jr. "Effect of Osmolality on Aldosterone Secretion." Endocrinology 116: 1621, 1985.
21. Dollman, D.; Edmonds, C.J. "The Effect of Aldosterone on Chloride Transport by Proximal and Distal Rat Volon in Vivo." Journal of Physiology. London, 250: 597, 1975.
22. Adler, S. "An Extrarenal Action of Aldosterone on Mammalian Skeletal Muscle." American Journal of Physiology 218: 616, 1970.
23. Mikosha, A.S.; Pushkarov, I.S.; Chelnakova, I.S.; Remennikov, G.Y.A. "Potassium Aided Regulation of Hormone Biosynthesis in Adrenals of Guinea Pigs Under Action of Dihydropyridines: Possible Mechanisms of Changes in Steroidogenesis Induced by 1,4, Dihydropyridines in Dispersed Adrenocorticytes." Fiziol. [Kiev] 37: 60, 1991.
24. Mendelsohn, F.A.; Mackie, C. "Relation of Intracellular K+ and Steroidogenesis in Isolated Adrenal Zona Glomerulosa and Fasciculata Cells." Clinical Sci. Mol. Medical 49: 13, 1975.
25. Scholer, D.; Birkhauser, M.; Pyetremann, A.; Riondel, A.M.; Vallotton, M.B.; Muller, A.F. "Response of Plasma Aldosterone to Angiotensin II, ACTH, and Potassium in Man." Act. Endocrinol. 72: 293, 1973.
26. Gorbman, A.; Dickhoff, W.W.; Vigna, S.R.; Clark, N.B.; Muller, A.F. Comparative Endocrinology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
27. Sandle, G.I.; Keir, M.G.; Record, CO. "The Effect of Hydrocortisone on the Transport of Water, Sodium, and Glucose in the Jejunum." Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterol. 16: 667, 1981.
28. Mason, P.A.; Fraser, R.; Morton, J.J. "The Effect of Sodium Deprivation and of Angiotensin II Infusion on the Peripheral Plasma Concentration of 18 Hydroxycorticosterone, Aldosterone, and Other Corticosteoids in Man." Steroid Biochemistry 8: 799, 1977.
29. Tan, S.Y.; Murrow, P.J. "Regulation of 18 Hydroxydeoxy- Corticosterone in the Rate." Endocrinology 102: 1113, 1978.
30. Doyle, M.P. "Campylobacter in Foods." Campylobacter Infection in Man and Animals. CRC, Boca Raton.
31. Relman, A.S>; Schwartz, W.B. "The Effect of DOCA on Electrolyte Balance in Normal Man and Its Relation to sodium Chloride Intake." Yale Journal of Biological Medicine 24:540, 1952.
32. Wilson, D.L. "Direct Effects of Adrenal Corticosteroids on the Electrolyte Content of Rabbit Leucocytes." American Journal of Physiology. 190: 104, 1957.
33. Tobian, L., Jr.; Binion, J.T. "Artery Wall Electrolytes in Renal and DCA Hypertension." Journal of Clinical Investigation 23: 1407, 1954.
34. Boykin, J.; de Torrent, A.; Erickson, A.; Robertson, G.; Schrier, R.W. "Role of Plasma Vasopressin in Impaired Water Excretion of Glucocorticoid Deficiency." Journal of Clinical Investigation 62: 738, 1978.
35. Dingman, J.F.; Gonzalez-Auvert Ahmed, A.B.J.; Akinura, A. "Antidiuretic Hormone in Adrenal Insufficiency." Journal of Clinical Investigation 44: 1041, 1965.
36a. -Gutenbrunner C, Schreiber U. Circadian variations of urine excretion and adrenocortical function in different states of hydration in man. Prog Clin Biol Res. ;227A:309-16, 1987.
36. Aguilera, G.; Lightman, S.L.; Kiss, A. "Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis During Water Deprivation." Endocrinology 132: 241, 1993.
37. Barseghian, G.; Levine, R. "Effect of Corticosterone on Insulin and Glucagon Secretion by the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas." Endocrinology 106: 547, 1980.
38. Barseghian, G.; Rachmiel, L.; Epps, P. "Direct Effect of Cortisol and Cortisone on Insulin and Glucagon Secretion." Endocrinology 111: 1648, 1982.
39. Knochel, J.P. "Role of Glucoregulatory Hormones in Potassium Homeostasis." Kidney International 11:443, 1977.
40. Curry, D.L.; Bennett, L.L. "Dynamics of Insulin Release by Perfused Rate Pancreas: Effects of Hypophysectomy, Growth Hormone, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Hydrocortisone." Endocrinology 93: 602, 1973.
41. Bartlett, G.R>; MacKay, E.M. "Insulin Stimulation of Glycogen Formation in Rate Abdominal Muscle." Proc. Exp. Biological Medicine 71: 493, 1949.
42. Yeh, K.Y.; Moog, F. "Influence of the Thyroid and Adrenal Glands on the Growth of the Phosphatase and Disaccharidase Activities." Journal of Exp. 200: 337, 1977.
43. Finklestein, R.A. "Cholera." CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology 2: 553, 1973.
44. Manchester, K.L. "Sites of Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism." p. 229, Mammalian Protein [Munro, H.N., Ed.]. Academic Press, New York.
45. Houck, J.C.; Sharma, V.K.; Patel, Y.M.; Gladner, J.A. "Induction of Collagenolytic and Proteolytic Activities by AntiInflammatory Drugs in the Skin and Fibroblasts." Biochemical Pharmacology 17: 2081, 1968.
46. Pospisilova, J.; Pospisil, M. "Influence of Mineralocorticoids on collagen Synthesis in Subcutaneous Granuloma in Adrenalectomized and Nonadrenalectomized Mice." Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 19: 539, 1970.
47. Newby, T.J.; Stokes, C.R. "Local Immune Response of the Gut." CRC, Boca Raton.
48. Husband, A.J.; Brandon, M.R.; Dascelles, A.K. "The Effect of Corticosteroid on Absorption and Endogenous Production of Immunoglobulins in Calves." Aust. Journal of Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 55: 707, 1973.
49. Posey, W.C.; Nelson, H.S.; Branch, B. and Pearlman, D.S. "The Effects of Acute Corticosteroid Therapy for Asthma on Serum Immunoglobulin Levels." J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 62: 340, 1978.
50. Soffer, L.J.; Dorfman, R.I.; Gabrilove, J.L. "The Human Adrenal Gland." Febiger, Phil.
51. Welt, L.G.; Hollander, W., Jr.; Blythe, W.B. "Consequences of Potassium Depletion." Journal of Chronic Diseases 11: 213, 1960.
52/ Damasco, M.C.; Diaz, F.; Anal, J.P.; Lantos, C.P. "Acute Effects of Three Natural Corticosteroids on the Acid Base and Electrolyte Composition of Urine in Adrenalectomized Rats." Acta. Physiol. Latino Am. 29: 305, 1979.
53. Oelkers, W.; Boelke, T.; Bahr, V.; Exner, P.; Faust, B.; Harendt, H. "Dose Response Relationships Between Plasma Adrenocorticotropin [ACTH], Cortisol, Aldosterone, and 18Hydroxycorticosterone after Injection of ACTH or Human Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Man." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 66: 181, 1988.
54. Kokshchuk, G.I.; Pakhmurnyi, B.A. "Role of Glucocorticoids in Regulation of the Acid-Excreting Function of the Kidneys." Fiziol. Z H SSR I.M.I.M. Sechenova 65: 751, 1979.
55. Luke, R.G.; Wright, F.S.; Fowler, N.; Kashgarian, M.; Giebisch, G.H. "Effects of Potassium Depletion on Renal Tubular Chloride Transport in the Rat." Kidney Int. 14: 414.
56. Tai, Y.; Decker, R.A.; Marnane, W.G.; Charney, A.N.; Donowitz, M. "Effects of Methylprednisolone on Electrolyte Transport by Rat Ileum in Vitro." American Journal of Physiology 240-G346: 70, 1981.
57. Field, M.; Fromm, D.; Wallace, D.K.; Greenough, W.B., III. "Stimulation of Active Chloride Secretion in Small Intestine by Cholera Exotoxin." Journal of Clinical Invest. 48: 24a, 1969.
58. Charnes, A.N.; Donowitz, M.J. "Prevention and Reversal of Cholera Enterotoxin-Induced Intestinal Secretion by Methylprednisolone Induction of Na-K-ATPase." Journal of Clinical Invest. 57: 1590, 1976.
59. Weber, C.E. "Copper Response to Rheumatoid Arthritis." Medical Hypotheses 15: 333, 1984.
60. Lukaseqycz, O.A.; Prohaska, J.R. "Lymphocytes from Copper Deficient Mice Exhibit Decreased Mitogen Reactivity." Nutrition Research 3: 335, 1983.
61. Flohe, L.; Beckman, R.; Giertz, H.; Loschen, G. "Oxygen Centered Free Radicals as Mediators of Inflammation." p. 405, Oxidative Stress (Sies H, ed) Academic Press, New York.
62. Ghosh, S.; Chatterjee, G.C. "Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Vibrio Cholerae Eltor in Relation to Oxygen Toxicity and Bactericidal Action of Nitrofurantoin." Journal of General Appl. Microbiology 25: 367, 1979.
63. Smith, N.C. "The Role of Free Oxygen Radical in the Expulsion of Primary Infections of Nippostrongylus Brasiliensis." Parisitology Research 75: 423, 1989.
64. Starch, B.C.; Hill, C.H. "Hormonal Induction of Ceruloplasmin in Chicken Serum." Comparative Biochem. Physiol. 15: 429, 1965.
65. Evans, G.W. "Copper Homeostasis in the Mammalian System." Physiol. Review 53: 535, 1973.
66. Gregoriadis, G.; Sourkes, T.L. "Regulation of Hepatic Copper in the Rat by the Adrenal Gland." Canadian Journal of Biochem. 48: 160, 1970.
67. Piletz, J.E.; Herschman, H.R. "Hepatic Metallothionein Synthesis in Neonatal Mottled-Brindled Mice." Biochem. Genet. 21: 465, 1983.
68. Chambers, J.W.; Georg, R.H. and Bass, A.D. "Effect of Hydrocortisone and Insulin on Uptake of Alpha Aminoisobutyric Acid by Isolated Perfused Rat Liver." Mol. Pharmacol. 1: 66, 1965.
69. Hirahata, F. "The Role of Lipocortins in Cellular Function as a Second Message of Glucocorticoids, in Antiinflammatory Steroid Action." Schleseimer, R.P.; Claman, H.N.; Oronsky, A.L., eds. Academic Press San Diego, NY.
70. Devoe, I.W. "The Interaction of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Endotoxin in Meningococcal Disease: A Short Review." Canadian Journal of Microbiol. 26: 729, 1980.
71. Melby, J. C.; Egdahl, R.H.; Spink, W.W. "Secretion and Metabolism of Cortisol after Injection of Endotoxin." Journal of Lab. Clinical Medicine. 56: 50, 1960.
72. Curtis, M.J.; Flack, I.M.; Harvey, S.I. "The Effect of Escherichia coli Endotoxin on the Concentration of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone in the Plasma of the Domestic Flow." Res. Vet. Sci. 28: 123, 1980.
73. Beutler, B.; Cerami, A. "Cachectic: More than a Tumor Necrosis Factor." New Engl. Journal of Medicine 316: 379, 1987.
74. Beutler, B.; Cerami, C. "The Endogenous Mediator of Endotoxin Shock." Clin. Res. 35: 192, 1987.
75. Pierce, N.F.; Sacci, J.B., Jr.; Alving, C.R.; Richardson, E.C. Rev. Infect. Disease 6:563, 1986.
76. Mishel, R.I.; Bradley, L.M.; Chen, Y.U.; Grabstein, G.H.; Shiigi, S.M. "Glucocorticosteroid Response Modifying Factors Derived form Accessory Cells." Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 332: 433, 1979.
77. Oyama, T.K.; Toyooka, Y.; Sato, S.; Kondo. "Effect of Endotoxic Shock on Renal and Hormonal Functions." Can. Anaesth. Soc. Journal 25: 380, 1978.
78. Hall, N.R.; Goldstein, A.L. "Endocrine Regulation of Host Immunity." p. 536, Immune Modulation Agents and Their Mechanisms.
79. Mannel, D.J. "Possible Role of Endotoxin in Mediating Host Resistance." Klin. Wochenschr. 60: 752, 1982.
80.Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A. "The Requirements for Serum Complement in the Detoxification of Bacterial Endotoxin." Journal of Immunol. 108: 611, 1972.
81. Jones, R.S.; Howell, E.V.; Eik-Nesk. "Inactivation by Plasma of ACTH Releasing Property of C-14 Labeled Bacterial Polysaccharide." Proc. Soc. of Exper. Biol. Med. 100: 328, 1959.
82. Finlay, G. J.; Boothe, R.J.; Marbrook, J. "Antibody Responses of Human Lymphocytes in Vitro; Enhancing Effects of Hydrocortisone." Austr. Journal of Exp. Biol. Med. 57: 597, 1979.
83. Besedovsky, H.; del Ray, A.; Sorkin, E.; Dinerello, C.A. "Immunoregulatory Feedback between Interleukin-1 and Glucocorticoid Hormones." Science 233: 652, 1986.
84. Milenkovic, L.; Rettori, V.; Snyder, G.D.; Beutler, B.; McCann, S.M. "Cachectic Alters Anterior Pituitary Hormone Release by a Direct Action in Vitro." Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 86: 2418, 1989.
85. Clark, I.A.; Virilizier, J.L.; Carswell, E.A.; Wood, P.R. "Possible Importance of Macrophage-Derived Mediator in Acute Malaria." Aus. Infect. Immun. 32: 1058, 1981.
86. Goodrun, K.J.; Berry, L.J. "The Effect of Glucocorticoid Antagonizing Factor on Hepatoma Cells." Pro. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 159: 369, 1978.
87. Moore, R.N.; Shackleford, G.M.; Berry, L.J. "Glucocorticoid Antagonizing Factor." Handbook of Endotoxin vol. 3, Cellular Biology of Endotoxin p. 123, Berry L.J., ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985.
88. Portanova, R. "Release of ACTH from Isolated Pituitary Cells: An Energy Dependant Process." Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140: 825, 1972.
89. Hanson, D.E.; Murphy, P.A.; Silicano, R.; Shin, H.S. "The Effect of Temperature on the Activation of Thymocytes by Interleukin I & II." Journal of Immunol. 130: 216, 1983.
90. De Pasquale, A.; Coste, G.; Trovat, A. "Effect of Prostaglandins on the Increased Corticosterone Output Induced by Caffeine in the Rat." Prostaglandins Med. 3: 97, 1979.
91. Civen, M.; Leeb, R.M.; Wishnow, R. M.; Morin, R.J. "Effects of Dietary Ascorbic Acid and Vitamin E Deficiency on Rat Adrenal Cholesterol Ester Metabolism and Vitamin E Deficiency on Rat Adrenal Cholesterol Ester Metabolism and Corticosteroidogenesis." Int. Journal of Vitamin Nutr. Res. 50: 70, 1980.
92. Quigley, M.E>; Yen, S.S.C. "A Mid-Day Surge in Cortisol Concomitant with Food Intake in Women." Journal of Clinical Endocrinol. Metab. 49: 945, 1979.
93. Da Prato, R.A.; Rothschild, J. "The AIDs Virus as an Opportunistic Organism Inducing a State of Chronic Relative Cortisol Excess: Therapeutic Implications." Med. Hyp. 21: 253, 1986.
94. Kjeldson-Kragh, J.; Hangen, M.; Borchgrevink, C.F.; Laerum, E.; Eek, M.; Mowinkel, P.; Hovi, K.; Forre, O. "Controlled Trail of Fasting and One Year Vegetarian Diet in Rheumatoid Arthritis." Lancet 338: p. 899, Oct.21, 1991.
95. Schlaghecke, R.; Kornely, E.; Wollenhaupt, J.; Specker, C. "Glucocorticoid Receptors in Rheumatoid Arthritis." Arthritis Rheum 35: 740, 1992.
96. Kinney, F.T.; Kull, F. J. "Hydrocortisone Stimulated Synthesis of Nuclear RNA in Enzyme Induction." Proc. Nat. Aad. Sci. U.S. 50: 493, 1963.
97. Uehara A., Gottschall P.E., Dahl, R.E., & Akira, A. Interleukin 1 stimulates ACTH release by an indirect action which requires endogenous corticotropin releasing factor . Endocrinology 121; 1580-1582, 1987.
98. Kluger, M.J. The evolution and adabtive value of fever. American Sci. 66: 38-43.
99. Michie, H.R., Spriggs, D.R., Monogue, K.R., Sherman, M.L., Revhang, A., O'Dwyer, S.T., Arthur, K, Dinerello, C.A., Cerami A., Wolff, S.M., Kufe, D.W., & Wilmore, D.W. Surgery 104: 280, 1988.
100. Reiser S Ferretti RJ Fields M & Smith JC 1983 Roles of dietary fructose in the enhancement of mortality and biochemical changes associated with copper deficiency in rats. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38; 214.
101. Ueda Y, Honda M, Tsuchiya M, Watanabe H, Izumi Y, Shiratsuchi T, Inoue T, Hatano M. 1982 Response of plasma ACTH and adrenocortical hormones to potassium loading in essential hypertension. Jpn Circ J. 1982 Apr;46(4):317-22.

REFERENCES to chapter VII only, Potassium Daily Requirement

-- Anonymous 1994 Potassium and sodium and potassium in the skeletal muscle. Laeger Ugeskr 156; 4007-4010
-- Bajusz E, ed 1966 Electrolyte and Cardiovascular Diseases: Physiology, Parthology, Therapy, vol. 2 The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
-- Bartter FC 1980 Clinical problems of potassium metabolism - contributions to nephrology p21 in: Disturbances of Water and Electrolyte Metabolism (Bahlmamn J & Brod J, editors) . S. Karger, Basil & NY
-- Benjamin F 1959 Release of intracellular potassium as the physiological stimulus for pain. Journal of Applied Physiology 14;643
-- Bloch MR 1963 The social influence of salt. Sci. Am. 209; 88-98
-- Consolazio CF et al 1963 Excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron in human sweat and the relation of each to balance and requirements. Journal Nutrition 79; 407
-- Consolazio CF et al 1967 Metabolic aspects of acute starvation in normal humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20; 672
-- Darrow DC 1946 Retention of electrolyte during recovery from severe dehydration due to diarrhea. Journal Pediat. 28; 515
-- Donowitz M & Binder HJ 1976 Infect. Dis. 134; 5
Dorlach J & Collery P 1984 Magnesium and potassium in diabetes and carbohydrate metabolism; Review of the present status and recent results. Magnesium 3; 315-23
-- Dunning MF & Plum F 1956 Potassium depletion by enamas. American Journal Medicine 20; 789
-- Edmonds CJ & Richards P 1970 Measurement of rectal electrical potential difference as an instant screening test for hyperaldosteronism. Lancet 2; 624
-- Elman R et al 1952 Intracellular and extracellulat potassium deficits in surgical patients. Ann. Surgery 136; 111-131
-- Fischer PW Giroux A 1987 Effects of dietary magnesium on sodium-potassium pump action in the heart of rats. J Nutr, 117(12):2091-5.
-- Fox CL & Baer H 1947 Redistribution of potassiu, sodium, and water in burns and trauma and its relation to phenomena of shock. American Journal Physiology 151
-- Gardner LI 1953 Experimental potassium depletion. J. Lancet 73; 190-191
-- Gennari FJ -- Ghosh HN et al 1963 The effect of intra-arterial potassium chloride infusions on vascular reactivity in the human hand. Journal of Physiology, London 168
-- Glaz E & Vecsei P 1971 Aldosterone. Pergamon Press, New York
-- Gordon RS Jr. & Andrews HL 1966 Potassium depletion under heat stress. Fed. Proc. 25; 1372-1374
-- Govan CD Jr. & Darrow DC 1946 The use of potassium chloride in the treatment of the dehydration of diarrhea in infants. Journal Pediat. 28; 541549
-- Grace ND & O'Dell BL 1970 Effect of magnesium deficiency on the distribution of water and cations in the muscle of the guinea pig. Journal of Nutrition 100; 45-50
-- Gubner RS & Behr DJ 1957 Role of electrolytes in origin of ischemic cardiac pain and associated electro-cardiographic abnormalities. Circ. 16; 889
-- Hendricks SB 1964 Salt transport across cell membranes. American Scientist 52; 318
-- Hiatt N et al 1972 The effect of potassium chloride infusion on insulin secretion in vivo. Hormone Metabolism Research 4; 64
-- Hungerland H 1963 Significance of the food supply of potassium in the potassium retention in infants and correlations with body weight destruction of cells by hunger (journal to follow)
-- Johnson S 2001 the multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Medical Hypotheses 56; 163-170.
-- Kellgren JH 1966 Epidemiology of RA. Arth. & Rheum. 9;658
-- Knochel JP 1977 Role of glucoregulatory hormones in potassium homeostasis. Kidney International 11; 443-452
-- Koch AR et al 1956 American Journal Physiology 86; 350
-- Kramer P et al 1962 The effect of specific foods and water loading on the ileal excreta of ileostomized human subjects. Gastroenterology 42; 535
-- Lane HW et al 1978 Effect of physical activity on human potassium metabolism in a hot and humid environment. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31; 838-843
-- Lee YS Lorenzo BJ Koufis T Reidenberg MM 1996 Grapefruit juice and its flavenoids inhibit 11 beta - hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 59; 62-71
-- Liddle GW et al 1953 The prevention of ACTH induced sodium retention by the use of potassium salts: a quantitative study. Journal of Clinical Investigation 32; 1197-1207
-- Luft FC Zemel MB Sowers JA Fineberg NS Weinberger MH 1990 Sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride: effects on blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis in normal and hypertensive man. Journal of Hypertension 8; 663-670.
-- MacIntyre I & Davidson D 1958 The production of secondary potassium depletion, sodium retention, nephrocalcinosis and hypercalcemia by magnesium deficit. Biochem. Journal 70; 456-462
-- Manitius A 1965 Some physiological effects of magnesium deficiency p28. in: Electrolytes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Bajusz E, editor. S. Karger, New York
-- McCarty MF 2004 Should we restrict chloride rather than sodium? Medical Hypotheses 63; 138-148.
-- McDonald GO 1964 Treatment of electrolyte deficiencies in surgery. Surg. Clin. n. aMER. 44;125
-- Miller HC & Darrow DC 1940 Relation of muscle electrolyte to alterations in serum potassium and to the toxic effects of injected potassium chloride. American Journal of Physioology 130; 747
-- Nogard et al 1981 Potassium depletion decreases the number of 3H-oubain binding sites and the active Na-K transport in skeletal muscle. Nature 293 ; 739-741
-- Olivereau JM 1973 Actions de le ionization atmospherique artificielle sur l'excretion urinaire du sodium et du potassium. C.R. Hebdomidaire Es Seances de le Acad. Sci. 276;777-780
-- Pearson PB 1948 High levels of dietary potassium and magnesium and grawth of rats. American Journal of Physiology 153; 432-435
-- Perkins JG Petersen AB & Riley JA 1950 Renal and cardiac lesions in potassium deficiency due to chronic diarrhea. American Journal Medicine 8; 115
-- Petersen VP 1963 Potassium and magnesium turnover in magnesium deficiency. Acta Med. Scand. 174; 595-604
-- Peterson CG 1972 Perspectives in Surgery. Lea and Febiger, Phila
-- Peterson L & Wright FS 1977 Effect of sodium intake on renal potassium excretion. American Journal of Physiology 233; 225-234
-- Post RL et al 1960 Membrane adenosine triphosphatase as a participant in the active transport of sodium and potassium in the human erythrocyte. Journal Biol. Chem. 235; 1796-1802
-- Potts WTW & Parry G 1969 Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals.MacMillan Co. NY
-- Prunty FTG 1964 Chemistry and Treatment of Adrenocortical Diseases. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.
-- Rowinski P 1960 Potassium in the animal organism. Proceedings of the Congress of the International Potash Institute, Amsterdam. 381-433
-- Randall HT et al !949 Potassium deficiency in surgical patients. Surgery 26; 341
-- Rubini ME & Chojnacki 1972 Principles of parenteral therapy.. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 25; 96-113
-- Schwartz WB & Relman MB 1953 Metabolic and renal studies in chronic potassium depletion resulting from overuse of laxatives. Journal of Clinical Investigation 32; 258
-- Seelig MS 1964 The requirement of magnesium by the normal adult. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14; 342-390
-- Selye H 1950 The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress. Acta Inc., Montreal
-- Sheehan JP & Seelig MS 1984 Interactions of magnesium and potassium in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Magnesium 3; 301-314
-- Silva P et al 1977 Adaptation to potassium. Kidney International 11; 466
-- Southon S & Heathen FW 1979 Effect of potassium deficiency on cellular composition. Biochem. Soc. Trans 7; 207-210
-- Stormer FC Reistad R Alexander J 1993 Glycyrrhizic acid in licorice - evaluation of health hazard. Food Chem. Toxicol. 31; 303-312
-- Venning EH Dyrenfurth I & Beck JC 1957 Effect of anxiety upon aldosterone excretion in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 17; 1005
-- Weisberg HF 1962 Water, electrolyte, and acid base balance. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore
-- Welt LG HollanderW Jr. Blythe WB 1960 The consequences of potassium depletion. Journal Chronic Disease 11; 213=314.
-- Wohl MG & Goodhart RS 1968 Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 4th edition. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia
-- rmersley RA & Darragh JH 1955 Potassium and sodium restriction in the normal human. Journal of Clinical Investigation 34; 456-461
 Wright FS et al 1971 Potassium secretion by distal tubule after potassium adaptation. American Journal of Physiology 221; 437.
Lozoya X, Reyes-Morales H, Chavez-Soto MA, Martinez-Garcia Mdel C, Soto-Gonzalez Y, Doubova SV. 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov;83(1-2):19-24.

REFERENCES for chapter VIII only, Potassium in Foods

-- Adelson SF et al 1963 Discard of edible food in households. Journal Home Economics 55; 633
-- Allard J, Lennon DP, Greenwood MR, Buckenham AJ, Hawthorne JN. 1993 Reduced sodium pump activity in inositol-deficient HL-60 cells: no evidence of control by protein kinase C. Biochim Biophys Acta. Dec 16;1220(1):66-8.
-- Amerine MA Ough CS 1972 Recent advances in enology. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology V2 issue 4407-526.
-- Anonymous 1994 Potassium and sodium and potassium in the skeletal muscle. Laeger Ugeskr 156; 4007- 4010
-- Bara MGuiet-Bara A Durlack J 1993 regulation of sodium and potassium pathways by magnesium in cell membranes. Magnesium Research 6; 167-177.
-- Bajusz E, ed 1966 Electrolyte and Cardiovascular Diseases: Physiology, Parthology, Therapy, vol. 2 The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
-- Bell DS Bell KM Cheney PR 1994 Primary juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Clin. Infect Dis. Jan, 18 Suppl 1; 521-523.
-- Bell IR Baldwin CM Schwartz GE 1998 Illness from low levels of environmental chemicals: relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Am. J. Med. 105; 74s-82s.
-- Bian J, Cui J, McDonald TV 2001 HERG K(+) channel activity is regulated by changes in phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Circ Res. 89(12): 1168-76.
-- Blau, LW 1950 Cherry diet control for gout and arthritis-Texas reports on biology and medicine, 8, in; Rodale JI & Adams R 1961 The Complete book of Food and Nutrition. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Penn. US
-- Blundell JE Green S. & Barley VJ 1994 Carbohydrates and human appetite. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (suppl) ; 728 s-734 s
-- Brown J Bourke GJ Gearty CF Finnegan A Hill M Hefferman-Fox FC Fitzgerald DE Kennedy J Childers RWBishop WJE Trulson MF Latham MC Gronin S McCann WB Clancy RE Gore I Stoudt HW Hegsted DM Stare FJ 1970 Nutritional and epidemiological factors related to heart disease. World Rev. Nutr. Diet 32.
-- Burnett RB Yeap BB Chatterton BE Gaffney RD 1996 Chronic fatigue syndrome: is total body potassium important? Med. J. Aust. 164; 384.
-- Cannon JG Angel JB Abad LW Vannier E Mileno MD Fagioli L Wolff SM Koaroff AL 1997 Interleukin - 1 beta, interleukin - 1 receptor antagonist, and soluble interleukin - 1 receptor type II secretion in chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Clin. Immunol. 17; 253-261.
-- Cowin IS, Emmett PM, and the ALSPAC Study Team 2001 Associations Between Dietary Intakes and Blood Cholesterol Concentrations at 31 Months European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;55:39-49.
-- Dahl LK 1960 Results of chronic excess salt feeding. Journal of Experimental Medicine 112; 635-651.
-- Dall & Gardner HS 1971 Dietary intake of potassium by geriatric patients. Gerontol. Clinic 13; 119-124
-- Dall JLC Paulose S & Ferguson JA 1971 Potassium intake of elderly patients in hospital. Gerontol. Clinic 13; 114
-- DeFreitas E, Hilliard B, Cheney PR Bell DS Kiggunde E Sankey D Wroblewska Z Palladino M Woodward JP Koprowski H 1991 Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 88; 2922-2926.
-- Demitrack MA, Dale JK, Straus SE, Laue L, Listwak SJ, Kruesi MJ, Chrousos GP, Gold PW 1991Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Dec;73(6):1224-34.
-- Doyle R 2002 Down on the farm. Scientific American 287 No2; 27.
-- Economic Research Service 1971 Food consumption supplement for 1970 to Agricultural Economic Report #138 USDA, Wash. DC
-- Evengard B Schacterle RS Komaroff 1999 Chronic fatigue syndrome: new insights and old ignorance. J. Intern. Med. 246; 455-469.
-- Fitzhugh DG Knudsen L Nelson A 1946 The chronic toxicity of sulfites J. Pharm. Exptl. Therap. 86; 37-48
-- Flink EB 1983 Nutritional aspects of potassium metabolism p37-44. in; Whang R Aikawa JK eds. Potassium its Biologic Significance. CRC Press, Boca Ratyon, Fla.
-- Folis RH 1942 Myocardial necrosis in rats on a potassium low diet prevented by thiamine deficiency. Bull. Johns-Hopkins Hospital. 71; 235-241.
-- Gibson T et al 2001 J Rheumatol ;28:2409-2415.
Gotze FR Thid SK Kyllerman M 1998 Fibromyalgia in hyperkalemia periodic paralysis. Scand. Journal -- Grace ND O'Dell BL 1970 Effect of magnesium deficiency on the distribution of water and cations in the muscle of the guinea pig. J. Nutr. 100; 45-50
-- ? Rheumatol. 27; 383-384.
-- Griffith RS, DeLong DC, Nelson JD 1981 Relation of arginine-lysine antagonism to herpes simplex growth in tissue culture. Chemotherapy ;27(3):209-13.
-- Griffith RS, Walsh DE, Myrmel KH, Thompson RW, Behforooz A 1987 Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis. Dermatologica ;175(4):183-90.
-- Grim CE et al 1970 On the higher blood pressure of blacks: A study of sodium and potassium intake and excretion in a bi-racial community. Clinical Research 18; 593
-- Grim CE, Luft FC, Miller JZ, Meneely GR, Battarbee HD, Hames CG, Dahl LK 1980 Racial differences in blood pressure in Evans County, Georgia: relationship to sodium and potassium intake and plasma renin activity. J Chronic Dis. 33(2):87-94.
-- Grimm H, Mayer K, Mayser P, Eigenbrodt E. 2002 Regulatory potential of n-3 fatty acids in immunological and inflammatory processes. Br J Nutr. 2002 Jan;87 Suppl 1:S59-67.
-- Goodwin JS Goodwin JM 1984 The tomato effect, rejection of highly efficacious therapis. JAMA 251; 2387-2390.
-- Hadhazy VA Ezzo J Creamer P Berman BM 2000 Mind - body therapies for the treatment of fibromyalgia, a systematic review. Journal Rheumatol. 27;2911-2918.
-- Hanninen O, Rauma AL, Kaartinen K, Nenonen M. 1999 Vegan diet in physiological health promotion. Acta Physiol Hung. 86(3-4):171-80.
-- Heggveit HA 1965 The cardiomyopathy of magnesium deficiency. in; Electrolytes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Bajusz E, ed. S. Karger, Basel & NY
-- Irwin M, Costlow C, Williams H, Artin KH, Chan CY, Stinson DL, Levin MJ, Hayward AR, Oxman MN: Cellular immunity to varicella-zoster virus in patients with major depression J Infect Dis 1998 Nov;178 Suppl 1:S104-8.
-- Ivie GW Holt DL Ivey MG 1981 Natural toxicants in human foods: psoralans in raw and cooked parsnip root. Science 213 No. 4510 ; 909-910
-- Jentoft ES Kvalik AG Mengshoel AM 2001 Effects of pool - based and land based aerobic exercise on women with fibromyalgia / chronic widespread pain. Arthritis Rheum. 45; 42-47.
-- Johnson H 1995 Osler's Web Penguin Books.
-- Johnson S 2001 the multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Medical Hypotheses 56; 163-170.
-- Kelley DS. 2001 Modulation of human immune and inflammatory responses by dietary fatty acids. Nutrition. Jul-Aug;17(7-8):669-73.
-- Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E 1987 Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality. A 12-year prospective population study. N Engl J Med. Jan 29;316(5):235-40.
-- Khetagurova ZV 1982 Function of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal system in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Terapevticheskii Archiv 54; 92-95. (Russian).
-- Kremer JM Bigouette J 1996 Nutrient intake of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is deficient in pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium. Journal of Rheumatology 23; 990-994
-- Kremer JM. 2000 n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):349S-51S.
-- LaCelle PL et al 1964 An investigation of total body potassium in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Rheumatism Association, Arthritis and Rheumatism 7; 321
-- LaVecchia c Decarli A Pagano R 1998 Vegetable consumption and risk of chronic disease. Epidemiology 9; 208-210.
-- Linos A et al. Dietary factors in relation to rheumatoid arthritis: a role for olive oil and cooked vegetables? Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 1077-82.
-- Mann GV 1977 Diet-Heart: end of an era. New England Journal of Medicine 297; 644-650.
-- McCarty DJ. 1991 Complete reversal of rheumatoid nodulosis. J Rheumatol. May;18(5):736-7.
-- McCune MA, Perry HO, Muller SA, O'Fallon WM 1984 Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex infections with L-lysine monohydrochloride. Cutis Oct;34(4):366-73.
-- Newton GL Fontenot JP Tucker RE Polan CE 1972 Effects of high dietary potassium intake on the metabolism of magnesium by sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 35; 440-445.
-- Nikkels AF, Pierard GE.1994 Recognition and treatment of shingles. Drugs. Oct;48(4):528-48.
-- Oliver WJ Cohen EL Neel JV 1975 Blood pressure, sodium intake, and sodium related hormones in the -- Yanomamo Indians "no salt culture". Circulation 52;146151.
-- Patarca R Klimas NG Lugtendorf S Antoni M Fletcher MA 1994 1994 Dysregulated expression of tumor necrosis factor in chronic fatigue syndrome interelations with cellular sources and patterns of soluble immune mediator expression. Clin Infect. Dis. Jan 18 Suppl. 1; s147-s153.
-- Patnaik M Komaroff AL Conley E Ojo-Amaize EA Peter JB 1995 Prevalence of IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 early antigen (p31/48) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 172; 1364- 1367.
-- Pattison, D. 2004 Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol 50: pp 3804-3812.
-- Petersen Posborg V 1972 Potassium and magnesium turnover in magnesium deficiency Acta Med. Scand. 174; 595-604
-- Racciati D Vechiet J Ceccomancini A Ricci F Pizzigallo E 2001 Chronic fatigue syndrome following toxic exposure. Sci. Total Environ. 270; 27-31.
-- Rauma A-L Torronen R Hanninen O Mykkanen H 1995 ViaminB-12 statusof long term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet (“living food”) diet is compromised. Journal of Nutrition 125;2511-2515. Comments by Davis DR et al in the 1997 issue, start p378.
-- Ritchie G, Kerstan D, Dai LJ, Kang HS, Canaff L, Hendy GN, Quamme GA 2001 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates Mg2+ uptake into MDCT cells: modulation by extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 May;280(5):F868-78.
-- Roubenoff R, Roubenoff RA, Selhub J, Nadeau MR, Cannon JG, Freeman LM, Dinarello CA, Rosenberg IH. 1995 Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid cachexia. Association with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor alpha production and markers of inflammation 1995 Arthritis Rheum. Jan;38(1):105-9.
-- Sable-Amplis R Sicart R Reymir B 1987 Apparent retention of copper, zinc, iron in hamsters, influence of a fruit enriched diet. Nutrition Reports International 35; 811-818
-- Saltin B Astrand P-O 1993 Free fatty acids and exercise. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57 (suppl) 752 s-758 s
-- Scott LV Dinan TG 1999 Small adrenal glands in chronic fatigue syndrome: a preliminary computer tomograph study psychoneuroendocrinology 24; 759-768.
-- Scott LV Svec F Dinan T 2000 A preliminary study of dehydroepiandrosterone response to low dose ACTH in chronic fatigue syndrome and in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research 97; 21-23.
-- Seelig MS 1964 The requirement of magnesium by the normal adult. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14; 342-390
-- Simopoulos AP. 2002 The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
-- Skoldstam L, Hagfors L, Johansson G. 2003 An experimental study of a Mediterranean diet intervention for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003 Mar;62(3):208-14.
-- Slater G, et. al., Nutrition Reports International, vol. 14 (1976), page 249
-- Stone J Doube A Dudson D Wallace J 1997 Inadequate calcium. folic acid. vitamin E zinc, and selenium intake in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results of a dietary survey. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheum. 27; 180-185
-- Takahasha H Imai K Katanuma A Sugaya T Hisano K Motoya S Aoki S Sugiyama T Yachi A 1992 A case of chronic fatigue syndrome who showed a beneficial affect by intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate. Arerugi 41; 1605-1610.
-- Trujillo E, Alvarez de la Rosa D, Mobasheri A, Gonzalez T, Canessa CM, Martin-Vasallo P. Histol Histopathol. 1999 Oct;14(4):1023-31.
-- Vetter G, Brüggemann G, Lettko M, Schwieger G, Asbach H, Biermann W, Bläsius K, Brinkmann R, Bruns H, Dorn E. 1988 Shortening diclofenac therapy by B vitamins. Results of a randomized double-blind study, diclofenac 50 mg versus diclofenac 50 mg plus B vitamins, in painful spinal diseases with degenerative changes. Z Rheumatol. 1988 Sep-Oct;47(5):351-62. (Article in German )
-- Van Duyn MA Pivonka E 2000 verview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature. J Am Diet Assoc. Dec;100(12):1511-21.
-- Vieth R 1999 Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and safety. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69; 842-856.
-- Weber CE 1974 Potassium in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and heart infarction. Journal of Applied Nutrition 26; Nos 1&2, 41-67.(bibliography must be acquired separately).
-- Westerterp KR 1993 Food quotient, respiratory quotient, and energy balance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57(suppl); 759 s-765 s
-- Wilkinson RJ Llewelyn M Toosi Z et al 2000 Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gyarati Asians in West London: a case controlled study. Lancet 355; 618-621.

REFERENCES for chapters IX and X only, Processing and Kitchen Losses

-- Abrams HL, JR. 1975 Sugar: a cultural complex and its impact on modern society. Journal of Applied Nutrition 27; 40-43.
-- Adelson SF et al 1963 Discard of edible food in households. Journal Home Economics 55; 633
-- Bills CE, et al 1949 Sodium and potassium in feeds and waters. J. American Dietetic Association 25; 304.
-- Dall & Gardner HS 1971 Dietary intake of potassium by geriatric patients. Gerontol. Clinic 13; 119-124
-- Dall JLC Paulose S & Ferguson JA 1971 Potassium intake of elderly patients in hospital. Gerontol. Clinic 13; 114
-- Economic Research Service 1971 Food consumption supplement for 1970 to Agricultural Economic Report #138 USDA, Wash. DC
--.Grim CE et al 1970 On the higher blood pressure of blacks: A study of sodium and potassium intake and excretion in a bi-racial community. Clinical Research 18; 593
-- Grim 1980 Sodium in medicine and health. (Moses C, editor) Reese Print, Baltimore 11-17
-- Hunter BT 1980 Fumigants and solvents in food processing; Some effects on food and health. Journal of Applied Nutrition 32; 44-57
-- Kaunitz H 1956 Causes and consequences of salt consumption. Nature 178; 1141
-- Koch AR et al 1956 American Journal of Physiology 86; 350
-- Kolata G 1982 Value of low sodium diets questioned. Science 216; #4151; 38-39
 Krehl WA & Winters RW 1950 Effect of cooking method on retention of vitamins and minerals in vegetables, Journal American Diet. Association 26; 966
-- McCarty MF 2004 Should we restrict chloride rather than sodium? Medical Hypotheses 63; 138-148.
-- Oliver WJ et al 1975 Blood pressure, sodium intake, and sodium related hormones in the Yanomano Indians "No salt culture". Circulation 52; 146-151
-- Pearson PB & Luecke RW 1945 B vitamin content of raw and cooked sweet potatoes. Food Research 10; 325
-- Peterson L & Wright FS 1977 Effect of sodium intake on renal potassium excretion. American Journal of Physiology 233; 225-234
-- Snively WD 1960 The Sea Within p73. JB Lippincott Co. 73
-- USDA 1959 Food, the Yearbook of Agriculture, p420. USDA, Wash. DC
-- Whitescarver SA Ott CE Jackson BA Guthrie GP Jr. & Kotchen TA 1984 Salt hypertension: contribution of chloride. Science 223; 1430-1432
-- Young CB & Storvick CA 1949 Food habits of freshmen at Oregon State College. Journal of the American Diet. Association 25; 318

REFERENCES for chapter XI only, Potassium Supplements

-- American Medical Association 1951 Handbook of Nutrition, 2nd edition, Blackiston Co. NY.
-- Anonymous 1994 Potassium and sodium pumps in the skeletal muscle. Laeger-Ugeskr 156; 4007-4010, 4013.
-- Baker DR et al 1964 Small bowel ulceration apparently associated with thiazide and potassium therapy. Journal American Medical Association 190; 586-590
-- Bajusz E, ed 1966 Electrolyte and Cardiovascular Diseases: Physiology, Parthology, Therapy, vol. 2 The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
-- Blahd WH et al 1963 Body potassium content in patients with muscular dystrophy - body composition part 1. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110; 282-290.
-- Block BP & Thomas MB 1978 A method for testing intestinal irritancy of sustained release potassium chloride preparations in animals. Journal Pharm. Pharmacol. 30 Suppl. 70P
-- Brown J Bourke GJ Gearty GF Finnegan A Hill M Hefferman-Fox FC Fitzgerald DE Kennedy J Childers RW Jepsop WJE Trulson MF Latham MC Gronin S McCann MB Clancy RE Gore I & Stoudt HW 1970 Nutritional and epidemiological factors related to heart disease. World Rev. Nutr. Diet 33.
-- Carpenter CCJ, et al 1964 Green coconut water; a readily available source of potassium for the cholera patient. Bull. Cal. Sch. Trop. Med. 12; 20-21
-- Charalampous FC 1971 Role of inositol in Na+ and K+ activated adenosine triphosphatase of KB cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 246;455-460 and 461-465p.
-- Classen HG Marquardt P Spath M Schumacher KA Grabling B 19?? Experimental studies on the intestinal uptake of organic and inorganic magnesium and potassium compounds given alone or simultaneously. Arzeneim Forsch. 28 807-811.
-- Coburn JW et al 1966 Potassium depletion in heat stroke: a possible etiological factor. Milit. Med. 131; 679
-- Conn HO 1970 Cirrhosis and diabetes: effect of potassium chloride administration on glucose and insulin metabolism. American Journal Med. Sci. 259; 394-404
-- Conway EJ 1957 Nature and significance of concentration relations of potassium and sodium ions in skelatal muscle. Phys. Rev. 37; 84.
-- CopeCL 1972 Adrenal Steroids and Disease, 2nd edition Lippincott Co., Philadelphia
-- Darrow DC & Pratt EL 1951 Handbook of Nutrition - 2nd edition p482-487. Blakiston Co., NY
-- Davis WH 1970 Does potassium deficiency hold a clue to metabolic disorders associated with liability to coronary heart disease? South African Medical Journal 44; 1297 (from the abstract)
-- DeLand EC et al 1979 A theoretical and experimental study of ionic shifts induced by K depletion and replacement. Journal of Theoretical Biology 76; 31-51
-- De Pronzo 1977 Impaired renal tubular potassium secretion in systemic lupus erythmatosus. Ann. Intern. Med. 86; 268-271
-- Dajer T 1999 Potassium paralysis. Discover 20, No. 12; 49-50.
-- Das UN 2000 Newer uses of glucose-insulin-potassium regime. Med Sci. Monit. 6; 1053-1055.
-- Department of Health, Education and Welfare 1969-1970 Cumulative percentage diet of thiamine intake values of females sixty years of age and older. Tennessee State Nutrition Survey DHEW Public No.(HSM) 72-8133 pv296 (table 30)
-- Elkington JR & Tarail R 1950 The present status of potassium therapy. American Journal of Medicine 9; 200-207
-- Ellison HS & Holley HL 1953 Hypokalemia due to insufficient dietary intake. Am. Practicioner 4; 6-8
Engel FL et al 1949 On the relation of potassium to the neurologic manifestations of hypocalcemic tetany Fabry P et al 1968 Meal frequency and ischemic heart disease. Lancet 190
-- Fabry P et al 1968 Meal frequency and ischemic heart disease. Lancet 190
-- Flear CTG 1969 Alterations in water and electrolyte distribution in congestive heart failure and their significance. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 156; 421-444
-- FletcherGF et al 1968 Polarizing solutions in patients with myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 75; 319
-- Folis RH 1942 Myocardial necroses in rats on a potassium low diet prevented by thiamine deficiency. Bulletin Johns Hopkins Hosp.71; 235-241
-- Fox CL & Baer H1947 Redistribution of potassium, sodium,and water in burns and trauma and its relation to phenomena of shock. American Journal of Physiology 151
-- Friedberg CK Diseases of the Heart, 3rd edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia
-- Giebisch G 1979 Membrane Transport in Biology. p215-298 Giebisch G editor. Springer Verlag, Berlin, NY
-- Goldberger E 1970 A Primer of Water, Electrolyte and Acid - base Syndromes. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia
-- Gould SE, ed 1968 Pathology of the Heart and Blood Vessels - 3rd ed. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill 508.
-- Greene DA Latimer SA 1983 Impaired rat sciatic nerve sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase in acute streptozocin diabetes and its correction by dietary myo-inositol supplementation. Journal of Clinical Investigatio9n72; 1058-1063
-- Gunn JA 1972 Excessive soil potassium as a factor in grass tetany. Journal Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 161; 550
-- Hamill-Ruth RJ & McGary R 1996 Magnesium repletion and its effect on potassium homeostasis in critically ill adults: results of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Critical Care Medicine. 24; 38-45.
-- Hjermann T & Orinius E 1965 Insulin-glucose-potassium infusion inacute myocardial infarction. Acta Med. Scand. 178; 525-528.
-- Hove EL and Herndon JF 1953 Potassium deficiency in the rabbit as a cause of muscular dystrophy. J Nutr. 55; 363-374.
-- Howard JE & Carey RA 1949 The use of potassium in therapy. Journal Clinical Endocrinology 9; 691
-- Hurley PJ et al 1971 KCl: a new radiophamaceutical for imaging the heart. Journal Nucl. Med. 12; 516-519
-- Iosava KV & Andriadze NA 1970 Electrolytes and metabolic disorders of the acid base balance of the blood in patients with myocardial infarction. Terap. Arh. 42; 63
-- Kassirer JP & Harrington JT 1977 Diuretics and potassium metabolism: reassessment of the need, effectiveness and safety of potassium therapy. Kidney International 11; 505-515
-- Kremer JM Bigouette J 1996 Nutrient intake of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is dewficient in pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium. Journal of Rheumatology 23; 990-994
-- Keith NM et al 1943 Serum concentration and renal clearance of potassium in severe renal insufficiency in man. Arch. Int. Med. 71; 675
-- Kohvakka A Luurila O Gordin A & Sundberg S 1989 Magnesium. Magnesium 8; 71-76.
-- Laborit H & Huguenard P 1956 Aspects biologiques de la reanimation cardiaque et vasculaire. Applications practiques. Journal Chir. Paris 72; 681.
-- Laborit H et al 1958 The place of certain salts of D. L. aspartic acid in the mechanism of preservation of the activity of reaction to environment. La Presse Medicale 66; 1307
-- Labow BI Wiley W Souba MD 2000 Glutamine. World Journal of Surgery 24; 1503-1513.
-- Lamarche M & Royer R 1965 Aspartic acid salts and the cardiovascular diseases, p104. in; Electrolytes and Vascular Diseases, Bajusz E, editor. S. Karger, Basel or N.Y.
-- Lane HW et al 1978 Effect of physical activity on human potassium metabolism in a hot and humid environment. American Journal of Clinical nutrition 31; 838-843
-- Lee YS Lorenzo BJ Koufis T Reidenberg MM 1996 Grapefruit juice and its flavenoids inhibit 11 beta - hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 59; 62-71
-- Liddle GW et al 1953 The prevention of ACTH-induced sodium retention by the use of potassium salts: a quantitative study. Journal of Clinical Investigation 32; 1197- 1207
-- Luderitz B 1984 Potassium deficiency and cardiac function: experimental and clinical aspects. Magnesium 3: 289-300
-- Luft FC Zemel MB Sowers JA Fineberg NS Weinberger MH 1990 Sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride: effects on blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis in normal and hypertensive man. Journal of Hypertension 8; 663-670.
-- Lundman T & Orinius E 1965 Insulin-glucose-potassium infusion in acute myocardial infarction. Acta Med. Scand. 178; 525-528
-- MacIntyre I & Davidson D 1958 The production of secondary potassium depletion, sodium retention, nephrocalcinosis and hypercalcemia by magnesium deficit. Biochem. Journal 70; 456-462
-- Manitius A 1965 Some physiological effects of magnesium deficiency p28. in: Electrolytes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Bajusz E, editor. S. Karger, New York
-- McQuarrie T (Chairman) 1953
-- MesserliFH et al 1977 Effects of angiotensin II on steroid metabolism and hepatic blood flow in man. Circ. Res 40;204-207
-- Mikkelsen WM & Chairman 1981 Rheumatoid arthritis - extra - articular features. Arthritis and Rheumatism 24; 138-141
-- Miller HC & Darrow DC 1940 Relation of muscle electrolyte to alterations in serum potassium and to the toxic effects of injected potassium chloride. American Journal of Physiology 130; 747
-- Millican RC et al 1952 Traumatic shockin mice, comparison of survival rates following therapy. American Journal Physiology 11170; 179-186
-- Mineno T 1969 Effect of some vitamins and other substances on K metabolism in the myocardia of vitamin deficient rats - Experiemtal investigation. J. Nagoya Med. Assoc. 92; 80-95.
-- Mondon CD 1968 Glucose tolerance and insulin response of potassium deficient rat and isolated liver. American Journal Physiology 215; 779-787
-- Morgan TO 1979 Potassium replacement: Supplements or potassium sparing diuretics? Drugs 18; 218-215
-- Muhlbauer RC & Li F 1999 Effect of vegetables on bone metabolism. Nature 401; 343- 344
-- Murakami T & Uchikawa T 1993 Effect of glycyrrhizine on hyperkalemia due to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in diabetes mellitus. Life Sci. 53; PL 63-68
-- Nogaard A et al 1981 Potassium depletion decreases the number of 3H-oubain binding sites and the active Na-K transport in skeletal muscle. Nature 293; 739-741
-- Oliver WJ Cohen EL Neel JV 1975 Blood pressure, sodium intake, and sodium related hormones in the Yanomamo indian's "no salt culture". Circulation 52; 146-151.
-- Palva IP et al 1972 Drug induced malabsorbtion of vitamin B12. Malabsorbtion and deficiency of B12 during treatment with slow-release potassium chloride. Acta. Med. Scand. 191, 355-357
-- Petersen VP 1963 Potassium and magnesium turnover in magnesium deficiency. Acta Med. Scand. 174; 595-604
-- Pierson RN and McCord C 1970 Total body potassium in heart disease serial changes after surgical correction. Circ. 42; 4 abstract #320
-- Potter JM Blake GM Cox JR 1984 Potassium supplements and total body potassium in elderly patients. Age & Ageing 13; 238-242
-- Prioreschi MD 1967 Experimental cardiac necrosis and potassium: a review.Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 96; 1221-1223
-- RackleyCE et al 1979 Glucose-insulin potassium infusion. Postgrad. Med. 65; 93- 99
-- Randall HT et al 1949 Potassium deficiency in surgical patients. Surgery 26; 341
-- Recheigl M, Jr, editor 1978 CRC Handbook Series in Nutrition and Food, Section E Nutritional Disorders, V. 1
-- Ruch TC & Fulton JF 1960 Medical Physiology and Biophysics. WB Saunders & Co., Phil. & London.
-- Sampson JJ & Anderson EM 1930 The therapeutic use of potassiu in certain cardiac arrhythmias. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology & Medicine 28; 163
-- Schumer W & Nyhus LM, editors 1970 Corticosteroids in the treatment of shock. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill
-- Sebastian, A. et al. 1994 Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. The New England Journal of Medicine. volume 330: pages 1776-1781
-- Selye H, et al 1945 Experimental nephrosclerosis, prevention with ammonium chloride. Lancet 1; 301H304
-- Selye H & Bajusz E 1958 Provocation and prevention of potassium deficiency by various ions. Proceedings of the Soc. Exptl. Biol. and Med. 98; 580-583.
-- Sheehan JP & Seelig MS 1984 Interactions of magnesium and potassium in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Magnesium 3; 301-314
-- Skoutakis VA Acchiardo SR Wojciechowski NJ Carter CA 1984 Liquid and solid potassium chloride: bioavailability and safety. Pharmacotherapy 4; 392-397.
-- Sodi-Pollares 1969 The importance of electrolyte therapy in heart disease. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 156; 603-619
-- Soler NG et al 1972 Potassium balance during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Lancet #7779, V. II
-- Stedwell RE Allen KM Binder LS 1992 Hypokalemic paralyses: a review of the etiologies, pathophysiology, presentation, and therapy. Am J Emerg Med, 10(2):143-148.
-- Stone J Doube A Dudson D Wallace J 1997 Inadequate calcium. folic acid. vitamin E zinc, and selenium intake in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results of a dietary survey. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheum. 27; 180-185
-- Stormer FC Reistad R Alexander J 1993 Glycyrrhizic acid in licoice - evaluation of health hazard. Food Chem. Toxicol. 31; 303-312
-- Sukenik S Neumann L Buskila D Kleiner-Baumgarten A Zimlichman S Horowitz J 1990 Dead sea bath salts or the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Exp. Rheumatology 8; 353-357 (from the abstract)

-- Szabo Z Arnqvist H Hokanson E Jorfeldt L Svedjehholm R 2001 Effects of high-dose glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial metabolism after coronary surgery in patientswith type II diabetes. Clin. Sci. (London) 101; 37-43.
-- Thadani V Chiong MA & Parker JO 1979 Effects of glucose - insulin - potassium infusion on the angina response during treadmill exercise. Cardiology 64; 333-349
-- Waxweiler RJ Wagoner JK Archer VE 1973 Mortality of Potash Workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 15; 486-489
-- Weil MH & Shubin H 1967 Diagnosis and Treatment of Shock p84. Williams & Wilkins Co. NY
-- White RJ 1970 Potassium supplements on the exchangeable potassium in chronic heart disease. Brit. Med. J. 3; 141-142

REFERENCES for chapter XII only, Potassium Side Affects

-- Amerine MA Ough CS 1972 Recent advances in enology. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology V 2 issue 4 pp407-5116.
-- Anonymous 1994 Potassium and sodium pumps in the skeletal muscle. Laeger-Ugeskr 156; 4007-4010, 4013.
-- Baker DR et al 1964 Small bowel ulceration apparently associated with thiazide and potassium therapy. Journal American Medical Association 190; 586-590
-- Bajusz E, ed 1966 Electrolyte and Cardiovascular Diseases: Physiology, Parthology,
Therapy, vol. 2 The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
-- Blahd WH et al 1963 Body potassium content in patients with muscular dystrophy - body composition part 1. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 110; 282-290.
-- Block BP & Thomas MB 1978 A method for testing intestinal irritancy of sustained release potassium chloride preparations in animals. Journal Pharm. Pharmacol. 30 Suppl. 70P
-- Brown J Bourke GJ Gearty GF Finnegan A Hill M Hefferman-Fox FC Fitzgerald DE Kennedy J Childers RW Jepsop WJE Trulson MF Latham MC Gronin S McCann MB Clancy RE Gore I & Stoudt HW 1970 Nutritional and epidemiological factors related to heart disease. World Rev. Nutr. Diet 33.
-- Carpenter CCJ, et al 1964 Green coconut water; a readily available source of potassium for the cholera patient. Bull. Cal. Sch. Trop. Med. 12; 20-21
-- Charalampous FC 1971 Role of inositol in Na+ and K+ activated adenosine triphosphatase of KB cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 246;455-460 and 461-465p
-- Classen HG Marquardt P Spath M Schumacher KA Grabling B 19?? Experimental studies on the intestinal uptake of organic and inorganic magnesium and potassium compounds given alone or simultaneously. Arzeneim Forsch. 28 807-811.
-- Coburn JW et al 1966 Potassium depletion in heat stroke: a possible etiological factor. Milit. Med. 131; 679
-- Conn HO 1970 Cirrhosis and diabetes: effect of potassium chloride administration on glucose and insulin metabolism. American Journal Med. Sci. 259; 394-404
-- Conway EJ 1957 Nature and significance of concentration relations of potassium and sodium ions in skelatal muscle. Phys. Rev. 37; 84.
-- CopeCL 1972 Adrenal Steroids and Disease, 2nd edition Lippincott Co., Philadelphia
-- Darrow DC & Pratt EL 1951 Handbook of Nutrition - 2nd edition p482-487. Blakiston Co., NY
-- Das UN 2000 Newer uses of glucose-insulin-potassium regime. Med Sci. Monit. 6; 1053-1055.
-- Davis WH 1970 Does potassium deficiency hold a clue to metabolic disorders associated with liability to coronary heart disease? South African Medical Journal 44; 1297 (from the abstract)
-- DeLand EC et al 1979 A theoretical and experimental study of ionic shifts induced by K depletion and replacement. Journal of Theoretical Biology 76; 31-51
-- De Pronzo 1977 Impaired renal tubular potassium secretion in systemic lupus erythmatosus. Ann. Intern. Med. 86; 268-271
-- Dajer T 1999 Potassium paralysis. Discover 20, No. 12; 49-50.
-- Department of Health, Education and Welfare 1969-1970 Cumulative percentage diet of thiamine intake values of females sixty years of age and older. Tennessee State Nutrition Survey DHEW Public No.(HSM) 72-8133 pv296 (table 30)
-- Elkington JR & Tarail R 1950 The present status of potassium therapy. American Journal of Medicine 9; 200-207
-- Ellison HS & Holley HL 1953 Hypokalemia due to insufficient dietary intake. Am. Practicioner 4; 6-8
-- Engel FL et al 1949 On the relation of potassium to the neurologic manifestations of hypocalcemic tetany.
-- Fabry P et al 1968 Meal frequency and ischemic heart disease. Lancet 190
-- Fitzhugh DG Knudsen L Nelson A 1946 The chronic toxicity of sulfites J. Pharm. Exptl. Therap. 86; 37-48
-- Flear CTG 1969 Alterations in water and electrolyte distribution in congestive heart failure and their significance. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 156; 421-444
-- FletcherGF et al 1968 Polarizing solutions in patients with myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 75; 319
-- Folis RH 1942 Myocardial necroses in rats on a potassium low diet prevented by thiamine deficiency. Bulletin Johns Hopkins Hosp.71; 235-241
-- Fox CL & Baer H1947 Redistribution of potassium, sodium,and water in burns and trauma and its relation to phenomena of shock. American Journal of Physiology 151
-- Friedberg CK Diseases of the Heart, 3rd edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia
-- Giebisch G 1979 Membrane Transport in Biology. p215-298 Giebisch G editor. Springer Verlag, Berlin, NY
-- Goldberger E 1970 A Primer of Water, Electrolyte and Acid - base Syndromes. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia
-- Gould SE, ed 1968 Pathology of the Heart and Blood Vessels - 3rd ed. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill 508.
-- Greene DA Latimer SA 1983 Impaired rat sciatic nerve sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase in acute streptozocin diabetes and its correction by dietary myo-inositol supplementation. Journal of Clinical Investigatio9n72; 1058-1063
-- Gunn JA 1972 Excessive soil potassium as a factor in grass tetany. Journal Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 161; 550
-- Hamill-Ruth RJ & McGary R 1996 Magnesium repletion and its effect on potassium homeostasis in critically ill adults: results of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Critical Care Medicine. 24; 38-45.
-- Hjermann T & Orinius E 1965 Insulin-glucose-potassium infusion inacute myocardial infarction. Acta Med. Scand. 178; 525-528.
-- Hove EL and Herndon JF 1953 Potassium deficiency in the rabbit as a cause of muscular dystrophy. J Nutr. 55; 363-374.
-- Howard JE & Carey RA 1949 The use of potassium in therapy. Journal Clinical Endocrinology 9; 691
-- Hurley PJ et al 1971 KCl: a new radiophamaceutical for imaging the heart. Journal Nucl. Med. 12; 516-519
-- Iosava KV & Andriadze NA 1970 Electrolytes and metabolic disorders of the acid base balance of the blood in patients with myocardial infarction. Terap. Arh. 42; 63
-- Kadaner Vya & Solonitsyna OP 1965 The therapeutic action of potassium chloride in patients with hypertensive and coronary disease (in Russian) in; The Pathology of the Hepato-pancreato-duodenial Zone and Disorders of Circulation.(Moscow). 66-67. From Bio Abstracts 1966 V47, p4478, Article 52531.
-- Kassirer JP & Harrington JT 1977 Diuretics and potassium metabolism: reassessment of the need, effectiveness and safety of potassium therapy. Kidney International 11; 505-515
-- Kremer JM Bigouette J 1996 Nutrient intake of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is dewficient in pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium. Journal of Rheumatology 23; 990-994
-- Keith NM et al 1943 Serum concentration and renal clearance of potassium in severe renal insufficiency in man. Arch. Int. Med. 71; 675
-- Kohvakka A Luurila O Gordin A & Sundberg S 1989 Magnesium. Magnesium 8; 71-76.
-- Laborit H & Huguenard P 1956 Aspects biologiques de la reanimation cardiaque et vasculaire. Applications practiques. Journal Chir. Paris 72; 681.
-- Laborit H et al 1958 The place of certain salts of D. L. aspartic acid in the mechanism of preservation of the activity of reaction to environment. La Presse Medicale 66; 1307
-- Lamarche M & Royer R 1965 Aspartic acid salts and the cardiovascular diseases, p104. in; Electrolytes and Vascular Diseases, Bajusz E, editor. S. Karger, Basel or N.Y.
-- Lane HW et al 1978 Effect of physical activity on human potassium metabolism in a hot and humid environment. American Journal of Clinical nutrition 31; 838-843
-- Lee YS Lorenzo BJ Koufis T Reidenberg MM 1996 Grapefruit juice and its flavenoids inhibit 11 beta - hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 59; 62-71
-- Liddle GW et al 1953 The prevention of ACTH-induced sodium retention by the use of potassium salts: a quantitative study. Journal of Clinical Investigation 32; 1197- 1207
-- Luderitz B 1984 Potassium deficiency and cardiac function: experimental and clinical aspects. Magnesium 3: 289-300
-- Lundman T & Orinius E 1965 Insulin-glucose-potassium infusion in acute myocardial infarction. Acta Med. Scand. 178; 525-528
-- MacIntyre I & Davidson D 1958 The production of secondary potassium depletion, sodium retention, nephrocalcinosis and hypercalcemia by magnesium deficit. Biochem. Journal 70; 456-462
-- Manitius A 1965 Some physiological effects of magnesium deficiency p28. in: Electrolytes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Bajusz E, editor. S. Karger, New York
-- McQuarrie T (Chairman) 1953
-- MesserliFH et al 1977 Effects of angiotensin II on steroid metabolism and hepatic blood flow in man. Circ. Res 40;204-207
-- Mikkelsen WM & Chairman 1981 Rheumatoid arthritis - extra - articular features. Arthritis and Rheumatism 24; 138-141
-- Mineno T 1969 Effect of some vitamins and other substances on K metabolism in the myocardia of vitamin deficient rats - Experiemtal investigation. J. Nagoya Med. Assoc. 92; 80-95.
-- Miller HC & Darrow DC 1940 Relation of muscle electrolyte to alterations in serum potassium and to the toxic effects of injected potassium chloride. American Journal of Physiology 130; 747
-- Millican RC et al 1952 Traumatic shockin mice, comparison of survival rates following therapy. American Journal Physiology 11170; 179-186
-- Mondon CD 1968 Glucose tolerance and insulin response of potassium deficient rat and isolated liver. American Journal Physiology 215; 779-787
-- Morgan TO 1979 Potassium replacement: Supplements or potassium sparing diuretics? Drugs 18; 218-215
-- Muhlbauer RC & Li F 1999 Effect of vegetables on bone metabolism. Nature 401; 343- 344
-- Murakami T & Uchikawa T 1993 Effect of glycyrrhizine on hyperkalemia due to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in diabetes mellitus. Life Sci. 53; PL 63-68
-- Nogaard A et al 1981 Potassium depletion decreases the number of 3H-oubain binding sites and the active Na-K transport in skeletal muscle. Nature 293; 739-741
-- Oliver WJ Cohen EL Neel JV 1975 Blood pressure, sodium intake, and sodium related hormones in the Yanomamo indian's "no salt culture". Circulation 52; 146-151.
-- Palva IP et al 1972 Drug induced malabsorbtion of vitamin B12. Malabsorbtion and deficiency of B12 during treatment with slow-release potassium chloride. Acta. Med. Scand. 191, 355-357
-- Petersen VP 1963 Potassium and magnesium turnover in magnesium deficiency. Acta Med. Scand. 174; 595-604
-- Peterson CG 1972 Perspectives in Surgery. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia
-- Pierson RN and McCord C 1970 Total body potassium in heart disease serial changes after surgical correction. Circ. 42; 4 abstract #320
-- Potter JM Blake GM Cox JR 1984 Potassium supplements and total body potassium in elderly patients. Age & Ageing 13; 238-242
-- Prioreschi MD 1967 Experimental cardiac necrosis and potassium: a review.Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 96; 1221-1223
-- Raab W 1969 Myocardial electrolyte derangement: Crucial feture of pluricausal, so called coronary heart disease. Ann. N.Y. Academy of Science 147; 627-686
-- RackleyCE et al 1979 Glucose-insulin potassium infusion. Postgrad. Med. 65; 93- 99
-- Randall HT et al 1949 Potassium deficiency in surgical patients. Surgery 26; 341
-- Recheigl M, Jr, editor 1978 CRC Handbook Series in Nutrition and Food, Section E Nutritional Disorders, V. 1
-- Ruch TC & Fulton JF 1960 Medical Physiology and Biophysics. WB Saunders & Co., Phil. & London.
-- Sampson JJ & Anderson EM 1930 The therapeutic use of potassiu in certain cardiac arrhythmias. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology & Medicine 28; 163
-- Schumer W & Nyhus LM, editors 1970 Corticosteroids in the treatment of shock. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill
-- Seekles L 1960 Pathology of potassium in animals in; “Potassium in the Animal Organism”, which isProceedings of the 6th Congress of the International Potash Institute,Amsterdam, printed by International Potash Institute, Berne, Switzerland.
-- Selye H, et al 1945 Experimental nephrosclerosis, prevention with ammonium chloride. Lancet 1; 301H304
-- Selye H & Bajusz E 1958 Provocation and prevention of potassium deficiency by various ions. Proceedings of the Soc. Exptl. Biol. and Med. 98; 580-583.
-- Sheehan JP & Seelig MS 1984 Interactions of magnesium and potassium in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Magnesium 3; 301-314
-- Skoutakis VA Acchiardo SR Wojciechowski NJ Carter CA 1984 Liquid and solid potassium chloride: bioavailability and safety. Pharmacotherapy 4; 392-397.
-- Sodi-Pollares 1969 The importance of electrolyte therapy in heart disease. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 156; 603-619
-- Soler NG et al 1972 Potassium balance during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Lancet #7779, V. II
-- Stone J Doube A Dudson D Wallace J 1997 Inadequate calcium. folic acid. vitamin E zinc, and selenium intake in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results of a dietary survey. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheum. 27; 180-185
-- Stormer FC Reistad R Alexander J 1993 Glycyrrhizic acid in licoice - evaluation of health hazard. Food Chem. Toxicol. 31; 303-312
-- Szabo Z Arnqvist H Hokanson E Jorfeldt L Svedjehholm R 2001 Effects of high-dose glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial metabolism after coronary surgery in patientswith type II diabetes. Clin. Sci. (London) 101; 37-43.
-- Thadani V Chiong MA & Parker JO 1979 Effects of glucose - insulin - potassium infusion on the angina response during treadmill exercise. Cardiology 64; 333-349
 Vieth R 1999 Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and safety. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69; 842-856.
Walsh CR Larson MG Liep EP Vasan RS Levy D 2002 Serum potassium and risk of cardiovascular disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 162; (9) 1002-1012.
-- Waxweiler RJ Wagoner JK Archer VE 1973 Mortality of Potash Workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 15; 486-489
-- Weil MH & Shubin H 1967 Diagnosis and Treatment of Shock p84. Williams & Wilkins Co. NY
-- Whang R Flink EB 1983 Glucose - insulin - potassium infusion in acute myocardial infarction - an overview. in; Whang R Aikawa JK eds. Potassium: its Biologic Significance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl.
-- White RJ 1970 Potassium supplements on the exchangeable potassium in chronic heart disease. Brit. Med. J. 3; 141-142.
 Young DB, Ma G1999 Vascular protective effects of potassium. Semin Nephrol. 1999 Sep;19(5):477-86.

REFERENCES for chapter XIII only, Blood Potassium too High

Amerine MA Ough CS 1972 Recent advances in enology. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology V2 issue 4407-526.
-- Batuman V Maesaka JK Landy E Haddad B Wedeen P Tepper E 1981 The role of lead in gout nephropathy. New England Journal of Medicine 304; 520-3
-- Bellevue R Dosik H Spergel G Gussof BD1975 Pseudohyperkalemia and extreme leukocytosis. Journal of Lab.Clin. Med. 85; 660-664
-- Black, R. M. (1996). Rose and Black's clinical problems in nephrology. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.
-- Brown J Bourke GJ Gearty CF Finnegan A Hill M Hefferman-Fox FC Fitzgerald DE Kennedy J Childers RWBishop WJE Trulson MF Latham MC Gronin S McCann WB Clancy RE Gore I Stoudt HW Hegsted DM Stare FJ 1970 Nutritional and epidemiological factors related to heart disease. World Rev. Nutr. Diet 32.
-- D'Amico G Gentile MG Fellin G Manna G Cofano F1994 Effect of dietary protein restriction on the progression of renal failure: A prospective randomized trial. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11; 1590-1954.
-- Davis WH 1970 Does potassium deficiency hold a clue to metabolic disorders associated with liability to heart disease?. South African Med. Journal 44; 1297
-- Donadio JV. 2001The emerging role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of patients with IgA nephropathy. J Ren Nutr. 2001 Jul;11(3):122-8.
-- Epstein FH 1960 Calcium and the kidney. Journal of Chronic Diseases 11; 255-277.
-- Fitzhugh DG Knudsen L Nelson A 1946 The chronic toxicity of sulfites J. Pharm. Exptl. Therap. 86; 37-48
-- Flink EB 1983 Nutritional aspects of potassium metabolism p37-44. in; Whang R Aikawa JK eds. Potassium its Biologic Significance. CRC Press, Boca Ratyon, Fla.
-- Folis RH 1942 Myocardial necrosis in rats on a potassium low diet prevented by thiamine deficiency. Bull. Johns-Hopkins Hospital. 71; 235-241.
-- Fored C M et al 2001 N Engl J Med ;345:1801-1808.
-- Furuya R, Kumagai H, Sakao T, Maruyama Y, Hishida A. 2002 Potassium-lowering effect of mineralocorticoid therapy in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Nephron. 92(3):576-81.
-- Giebisch G 1979 Membrane Transport in Biology. p215-298 Giebisch G editor. Springer Verlag, Berlin, NY
-- Ichinohe T, Kuwahara T, Yata K, Seo T, Suyama K, Onaka H, Ono T, Ueda S, Matsuo T 1991. Recurrent hyperkalemia in the course of rheumatoid arthritis--a case report Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. Aug;33(8):811-6.
-- Ifudu O Markell MS Friedman EA 1992 Unrecognized pseudohyperkalemia as a cause of elevated potassium in patients with renal disease. American Journal of Nephrology 12; 102-104.
-- Kaufman CE Popper S 1983 Hyperkalemia. in; Whang R Aikawa JK eds. Potassium its Biologic Significance. CRC Press, Boca Raton Fl.
-- Knochel JP 1977 Role of glucoregulatory hormones in potassium homeostasis. Kidney International 11; 443-452
-- Lasky T, Sun W, Kadry A, Hoffman MK. 2004 Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Jan;112(1):18-21.
-- Lin JL, Tan DT, Ho HH, Yu CC 2002 Environmental lead exposure and urate excretion in the general population. . Am J Med. 2002 Nov;113(7):563-8.
-- McDonald JT Margen S 1979 Wine vs ethanol in human nutrition. Fluid sodium and potassium balance. American journal of Clinical Nutrition 32; 817-822
-- Moore RJ Hall CB Carlson EC Lukaski HC Klevay LM 1989 Acute renal failure and fluid retention and kidney damage in copper-deficient rats ffed a high NaCl diet. Journal Lab. Clin Med. 113;516-524
-- Perneger TV, Whelton PK, Klag MJ. 1994 Risk of kidney failure associated with the use of acetaminophen, aspirin, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. N Engl J Med. 1994 Dec 22;331(25):1675-9.
-- Peterson CG 1972 Perspectives in Surgery. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
-- Peterson L & Wright FS 1977 Effect of sodium intake on renal potassium excretion. American Journal of Physiology 233; 225-234
-- Ravnskov U. 2000 Hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Evidence based on Hill´s criteria for causality. Quarterly Journal of Medicine; 93:551-556
-- Recheigl M, Jr, editor 1978 CRC Handbook Series in Nutrition and Food, Section E Nutritional Disorders, V. 1
-- Richmond VL 1985 Thirty years of fluoridation: a review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41; 129-138.
-- Rubini Chojnacki . Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25; 96-113.
-- Sager RH Spargo B 1955 The effects of low phosphorus ration on calcium metabolism in the rat with production of calcium citrate stones. Metabolism 4; 519
-- Schumer W & Nyhus LM, editors 1970 Corticosteroids in the treatment of shock. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill
-- Schwarz A, Perez-Canto A. 1998 Nephrotoxicity of antiinfective drugs Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 36(3):164-7.
-- Scribner BH & Burnell JM 1956 . Metabolism 5; 468-479.
-- Seekles L 1960 Pathology of potassium in animals in; “Potassium in the Animal Organism”, which isProceedings of the 6th Congress of the International Potash Institute,Amsterdam, printed by International Potash Institute, Berne, Switzerland.
-- Shekarriz B, Stoller ML 2002 Uric acid nephrolithiasis: current concepts and controversies. J Urol. 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 1):1307-14.
-- Simopoulos AP. 2002 The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
-- Stewart GW Corrall RJ Fyffe JA Stockdill G Strong JA 1979 Familial pseudohyperkalemia, a new syndrome. Lancet 1979 ii/8135; 175-177
-- Tannen RL 1977 Relationship of renal ammonia production and potassium homostasis. Kidney International 11; 453-465.
-- Thompson, J., & Henrich, W. (1991). Nephrotoxic agents and their effects. In H. G. Jacobsen, G. Striker, & S. Klahr, The principles and practice of nephrology, (pp. 563 - 569). Philadelphia: B.C. Decker.
-- Tobian L MacNeil D Johnson MA Ganguli MC Iwai J 1984 Potassium protection against lesions of the renal tubules, arteries, and glomeruli and nephron loss in salt loaded hypertensive dahl S rats.
-- Winegrad AT Reynold AE 1958 Effects of insulin on the metabolism of glucose, pyruvate, and acetate. Journal of Biol. Chem. 233; 267.
-- World Health Organization 2001 Health Effects. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminents.WHO Technical Report Series. 55th Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. p63-66.

REFERENCES for chapter XIV only, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia

(many are from the abstracts and many were provided by Co-cure, a free email mailing at http://www.co-cure.org/ )

[*] I have lost the reference for these.

-- Abou-Donia et al 1996 A combined exposure to high doses of pyridostigmine bromide (PB), N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET), and Permethrin leads to a significant toxicity and neurological dysfunction J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 48: 35-56.
-- Al-Allaf AW, Mole PA, Paterson CR, Pullar T. 2003 Bone health in patients with fibromyalgia..Rheumatology (Oxford). June 16 [Epub ahead of print].
-- Amouroux I, Pesando D, Noel H, Girard JP. 1999 Mechanisms of cytotoxicity by cosmetic ingredients in sea urchin eggs.Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999 Jan;36(1):28-37.
-- Anonymous 1994 Potassium and sodium and potassium in the skeletal muscle. Laeger Ugeskr 156; 4007-4010.
-- Bell DS Bell KM Cheney PR 1994 Primary juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Clin. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 1; S21-3.
-- Bell IR Baldwin CM Schwartz GE 1998 Illness from low levels of environmental chemicals: relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Am. J. Med. 105; 74S-82S.
-- Bell IR Baldwin CM Stoltz E Walsh BT Schwartz GER 2001 Concomitant Environmental Chemical Intolerance Modifies the Neurobehavioral Presentation of Women with Fibromyalgia. Journal: J of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 9(1/2) 2001, pp. 3-19
-- Benjamin F 1959 Release of intracellular potassium as the physiological stimulus for pain. Journal Appl. Physiol. 14; 643.
Bhathena S.J. et al American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 43, p. 42 Jan 1986
-- Bian J, Cui J, McDonald TV 2001 HERG K(+) channel activity is regulated by changes in phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Circ Res. 89(12): 1168-76.
-- Biddle R et al 1992 A chronic illness characterized by fatigue,neurologic and immunologic disorders, and active human herpesvirus type 6 infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 116; 103-13.
-- Bouic PJ. 2001 The role of phytosterols and phytosterolins in immune modulation: a review of the past 10 years. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001 Nov;4(6):471-5.
-- Brouwers FM Van der Werf S Bleijenberg G Van der Zee L Van der Meer JWM 2002 The effect of a polynutrient supplement on fatigue and physical activity of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a double-blind randomized controlled trial Q J Med 2002; 95: 677-683.
-- Bruce M. Carruthers, ; Anil Kumar Jain, Kenny L. De Meirleir, Daniel L. Peterson, Nancy G. Klimas, Lerner AM, et al. 2003 Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition, Diagnostic and Treatment Protocols. J of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 11 (1) 2003, pp. 7-116.
-- Buchanan WW Kean WF 2001 Evidence Based Medicine: The Median Is Not the Message. Journal of Rheumatology, Vol. 28, No. 11 2371
-- Buchwald D Sullivan JL Leddy S Komaroff AL 1988 "Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection" syndrome and polymyalgia rheumatica. J. Rheumatol. 15; 479-82.
-- Buchwald D Chenet PR Peterson DL Henry B Wormsley SB Geiger A Ablashi DV Salahuddin SZ Saysinger C -- Buchwald, D Garrity 1994 Comparison of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia and Multiple Chemical Sensitivities," Archives of Internal Medicine; 154;2049-53.
-- Burnet RB Yeap BB Chatterton BE Gaffney RD 1996 Chronic fatigue syndrome: is total body potassium important? Med. J. Aust. 164; 384.
-- Caligiuri M, Murray C, Buchwald D, Levine H, Cheney P, Peterson D, Komaroff AL, Ritz J 1987. Phenotypic and functional deficiency of natural killer cells in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Immunol. 139(10):3306-13.
-- Cannon JG Angel JB Abad LW Vannier E Mileno MD Fagioli L Wolff SM Komaroff AL 1997 Interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II secretion in chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Clin. Immunol 17; 253-261.
-- Charalampous FC 1971 Metabolic functions of myoinositol: VIIII - Role of inositol in Na+-K+ transport and in Na+ and K+ activated adenosine triphosphate of KB cells. Journal of Biol. Chem> 246; 455 & 461.
-- Chaudhuri A Watson WS Peam J Behan PO 2000 The symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome are related to abnormal ion channel function. Medical Hypotheses 54; 59-63.
-- Clapp LL, Richardson MT, Smith JF, et al. Acute effects of thirty minutes of light-intensity, intermittent exercise on patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Phys. Ther. 1999;79:749–56.
-- Clark MR Katon W Russo J Kith P Sintay M Buchwald D 1995 Chronic fatigue: risk factors for symptom persistance in a 2 and one half year study. Am. J. Med. 98; 187-195.
-- Classen HG Marquardt P Spath M Schumacher KA Grabling B 19?? Experimental studies on the intestinal uptake of organic and inorganic magnesium and potassium compounds given alone or simultaneously. Arzeneim Forsch. 28 807-811.
-- Coutts R Weatherby R Davie A 2001The use of a symptom "self report" inventory ro evaluate the acceptability and efficiency of a walking program for patients suffering with chronic fatigue syndrome. .J. Psychosom. Res. 51; 425-29.
-- Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. 1991 Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet Mar 30;337(8744):757-60.
-- Dahle LO Berg G Hammar M Hurtig M Larsson L 1996 The ffect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy induced cramps. American Journal of Obstet. Gynecol. 175; 233-234.
-- Davis DR 1997 Some algae are potentially adequate sources of vitamin B-12 for vegans. J Nutr. 127(2); 378; discussion 380
-- Demitrack MA, Dale JK, Straus SE, Laue L, Listwak SJ, Kruesi MJ, Chrousos GP, Gold PW 1991 Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Clin Endocrinol. Metab. 73(6): 1224-34.
-- DeFreitas E Hilliard B Cheney PR Bell DS Kiggunde E Sankey D Wroblewska Z Palladino M Woodward JP Koprowski H 1991 Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88; 2922-2926.
-- Donaldson M Speight N Loomis S 2001 Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using mostly raw vegetarian diet: an observational study. BMC Complimentary and Alternative Medicine 1;7.
-- Eby GA 1997 Zinc ion availability---the determinant of efficacy in zinc lozenge treatment of common colds. Chemother 1997 Oct. 40 (4); 483-493.
-- P. Englebienne(Corresponding Author), M. Verhas, C. V. Herst and K. De Meirleir. 2003 Type I interferons induce proteins susceptible to act as thyroid receptor (TR) corepressors and to signal the TR for destruction by the proteasome: possible etiology for unexplained chronic fatigue. Medical Hypotheses 60, Issue 2; 175-180
-- Erdman JS 2001 Lead investigator Dr. Joel S. Edman of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, presented the findings at the annual meeting of the American College of Nutrition in Orlando, Florida.
-- Evengard B Schacterle RS Komaroff 1999 Chronic fatigue syndrome: new insights and old ignorance. Journal Intern. Med. 246; 455-469.
-- Field T 2002 J Clinical Rheumatology. 8(2):72-76.
-- Fullea S, Beliab S, Vecchieta J, Morabitoa C, Vecchieta L, and Fano G 2003 -- Modification of the functional capacity of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes in patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome Neuromuscular Disorders 2003; 13: 479–484.
-- Gaudin-Harding F, Claverie-Benureau S, Armier J, Davy J, Lebel B.Aromatic amines (serotonin and histamine) and magnesium deficiency in the rat. 1980 Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1980;50(2):185-92.
-- Gherardi RK 2003 Lessons from macrophagic myofasciitis: towards definition of a vaccine adjuvant-related syndrome [Article in French]Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris) Feb;159(2):162-4.
-- Ghosh HN Glover WE Hutchison KJ 1963 The effect of introarterial potassium chloride infusioons on vascular reactivity in the human hand. Journal Phys. , London, 168.
-- Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, Hass E, Overbeck S, Thomsen J, Charles P, Eriksen EF 2000 Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med. 2000 Feb;247(2):260-8.
-- Gotze FR Thid SK Kyllerman M 1998 Fibromyalgia in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Scand. Journal of Rheumatol. 27; 383-384.
--Griffith RS, DeLong DC, Nelson JD 1981 Relation of arginine-lysine antagonism to herpes simplex growth in tissue culture. Chemotherapy ;27(3):209-13.
-- Griffith RS, Walsh DE, Myrmel KH, Thompson RW, Behforooz A 1987 Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis. Dermatologica ;175(4):183-90.
-- Grimm H, Mayer K, Mayser P, Eigenbrodt E. 2002 Regulatory potential of n-3 fatty acids in immunological and inflammatory processes. Br J Nutr. Jan;87 Suppl 1:S59-67.
-- Hadhazy VA Ezzo J Creamer P Berman BM 2000 Mind-body therapies for the treatment of fibromyalgia; a systematic review. J. Rheumatol. 27; 2911-8.
--.Hansen C.R. Jr., 1983 Copper and zinc deficiencies in association with depression and neurological findings Biological Psychiatry 18 (3): p. 395-401.
-- Hanson, D.E.; Murphy, P.A.; Silicano, R.; Shin, H.S. 1983 The effect of temperature on the activation of thymocytes by interleukin I & II. Journal of Immunol. 130: 216, 1983.
--.Hendricks SB 1964 Salt transpoty across cell membranes. Amer. Sci 52; 306.
-- Hinds G, Bell NP, McMaster D, McCluskey DR. 1994 Normal red cell magnesium concentrations and magnesium loading tests in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann. Clin. Biochem. Sep;31(Pt 5):459-61.
-- Holmes GP et al 1987 A cluster of patients with a Chronic Mononucleosis-like Syndrome: Is Epstein-Barr virus the cause? Journal of the American Medical Association 257; 2297-302.
-- Hong C-Z et al 1993 Immediate effects of various physical medicine modalities on pain threshold of active myofascial trigger points. J Musculoskeletal Pain 1(2)pp37-53
--.Huisman A M White KP Algra A Harth M Vieth R Jacobs JWG Bijlsma JWJ Bell DA 2001 Vitamin D Levels in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Fibromyalgia.J of Rheumatology, Vol. 28: No. 11, November 2001 pp. 2535-9.
-- Irwin M, Costlow C, Williams H, Artin KH, Chan CY, Stinson DL, Levin MJ, Hayward AR, Oxman MN: Cellular immunity to varicella-zoster virus in patients with major depression J Infect Dis 1998 Nov;178 Suppl 1:S104-8.
-- Jenthoft ES Kvalik AG Mengshoel AM 2001 Effects of pool based and land-based aerobic exercise on women with fibromyalgia / chronic widespread pain. Arthitis Rheum. 45; 42-7.
-- Johnson H 1997 Osler's Web. Penguin's Books, Ontario Canada.
-- Imbierowicz K, Egle UT 2003 Childhood adversities in patients with fibromyalgia and somatoform pain disorder. Eur J Pain 2003;7(2):113-9.
-- Johnson S 2001 the multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Medical Hypotheses 56; 163-170.
-- Karlin A Jones DG 1993 Treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol. ASHP Annual Meeting Vol. 50 ISS Jun, PP-30D,(REF)
-- Kelley DS. 2001 Modulation of human immune and inflammatory responses by dietary fatty acids. Nutrition. Jul-Aug;17(7-8):669-73.
-- Klein R, Bänsch M, Berg PA. 1992 Clinical relevance of antibodies against serotonin and gangliosides in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology. Nov;17(6):593-8.
-- Knook L, Kavelaars A, Sinnema G, Kuis W, Heijnen CJ. High 2000 Nocturnal melatonin in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 85, No. 10 3690-3692.
-- Krapf MW Muller S Mennet P Stratz T Samborski W Muller W 1992 Recording muscle spasm in the musculus erector spinae using in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with chronic lumbalgia and generalized tendomyopathies Z Rheumatol. 51(5):229-37.
-- Kuratsune, H., Yamaguti, K., Sawada, M., Kodate, S., Machii, T., Kanakura, Y and Kitani, T. 1998 Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 1, 1, 143-146.
--.Ladefoged K Hagen K 1988 Correlation between concentrations of magnesium, zinc, and potassium in plasma, erythrocytes and muscles. Clin. Cim. Acta 177; 157-166.
-- Levallois P 2002 Hypersensitivity of human subjects to environmental electric and magnetic field exposure: a review of the literature. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Aug;110 Suppl 4:613-8.
-- Lawson K & Eisinger J (2001) Pharmacological agents to treat Fibromyalgia Syndrome, Exp. Opin. Invest. Drugs, in press.
-- Lawson K (2000) Is there a role for potassium channel openers in neuronal ion channel disorders? Exp Opin Investl. Drugs 9(10) 2269-2280.
-- Lawson K, Barras M, Armstrong JM & Hicks PE (1997) Effects of K channel inhibitors and antagonists on NS-004 evoked relaxations in guinea-pig isolated trachea. Fundam. Clin Pharacol 11, 78-82.
-- Lawson K (1996) Potassium channel activation: a potential therapeutic approach? Pharmacol. Ther., 70, 39-63.
-- Lawson K & Hicks PE (1993) Potassium channel openers: Pharmacological anomalies suggest heterogeneous sites of action. Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs, 2, 1209-1216.
-- Levine PH Klimas N Armitage R Fredericks R Stewart J Torch W Schwartz S Suhadolnik R Reichenbach NL Rhodes L 2001 Nevada Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Consensus Conference. Journal: J of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, . 9 (1/2) , pp. 53-62.
-- Logan AC, Beaulne TM 2002 The treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth with enteric-coated peppermint oil: A case report. Journal: Altern Med Rev Oct;7(5):410-417.
-- Logan AC, Venket Rao A, Irani D 2003 Chronic fatigue syndrome: lactic acid bacteria may be of therapeutic value. Medical Hypotheses 2003 Jun;60(6):915-23.
-- MacIntyre I & Davidson D 1958 The production of secondary potassium depletion, sodium retention, nephrocalcinosis and hypercalcemia by magnesium deficit. Biochem. Journal 70; 456-462.
-- Magaldi M, Moltoni L Biasi G Marcolongo R 2000 Role of intracellular calcium ions in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia syndrome. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper Jan-Feb;76(1-2):1-4.
-- Magaldi M, Moltoni L Biasi G Marcolongo R 2000 Role of intracellular calcium ions in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia syndrome. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper Jan-Feb;76(1-2):1-4.
-- Manitius A 1965 Some physiological effects of magnesium deficiency p28. in: Electrolytes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Bajusz E, editor. S. Karger, New York.
-- Mannerkopf K , Ahlmen M, Ekdahl C 2002 Six- and 24-month follow-up of pool exercise therapy and education for patients with fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 2002;31(5):306-10.
-- Marcel B, Komaroff AL, Fagioli LR, Kornish RJ 2nd, Albert MS. 1996 Cognitive deficits in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 1996 Sep 15;40(6):535-41.
-- McCune MA, Perry HO, Muller SA, O'Fallon WM 1984 Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex infections with L-lysine monohydrochloride. Cutis Oct;34(4):366-73.
-- McDonald JT Margen S 1979 Wine vs etanol in human nutrition. Fluid sodium and potassium balance. American journal of Clinical Nutrition 32; 817-822
Mengshoel AM Haugen M 2001 Health status in fibromyalgia - a follow up study. J. Rheumatol. 28; 2085-9.
-- Messerli FH, et al 1977 Effects of angiotensin II on steroid metabolism and hepatic blood flow in man. Circ. Res 40; 204-207.
-- Merchant RE Andre CA Wise CM 2001 Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study. Journal: J of Musculoskeletal Pain, Vol. 9(4) ; 37-54.
-- Murphy BE, Abbott FV, Allison CM, Watts C, Ghadirian AM. 2004 Elevated levels of some neuroactive progesterone metabolites, particularly isopregnanolone, in women with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal: Psychoneuroendocrinology. Feb;29(2):245-68.
-- AuthorsNasralla M, Haier J, Nicolson GL.1999 Multiple mycoplasmal infections detected in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and/or fibromyalgia syndrome. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Dec;18(12):859-65.
-- Neumann L, Buskila D. 2003 Epidemiology of fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. Oct;7(5):362-8.
 Nicolson, GL. Nasralla, MY, De Meirleir K, Gan, R., Haier J 2003 Evidence for Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 2003; 11(2):7-20.
 -- Nikkels AF, Pierard GE.1994 Recognition and treatment of shingles. Drugs. Oct;48(4):528-48.
-- [No authors listed] 2001 DHEA. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Jun;6(3):314-8
-- Paiva ES, Deodhar A, Jones KD, Bennett R. 2002 Arthritis Rheum May;46(5):1344-50.
-- Pall ML. 2001 Cobalamin used in chronic fatigue syndrome therapy is a nitric oxide scavenger. J Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 8(2):39-44.
-- Pall ML. 2002 NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple chemical sensitivity. FASEB J 16; 1407-1417.
-- Pall ML, Satterlee JD 2001 Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite mechanism for the common etiology of multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and posttraumatic stress disorder. ANN NY ACAD SCI 933: 323-329.
-- Parcell S. 2002 Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Feb;7(1):22-44.
-- Patarca R Klimas NG Lugtendorf S Antoni M Fletcher MA 1994 1994 Dysregulated expression of tumor necrosis factor in chronic fatigue syndrome interelations with cellular sources and patterns of soluble immune mediator expression. Clin Infect. Dis. Jan 18 Suppl. 1; s147-s153.
-- Patnaik M Komaroff AL Conley E Ojo-Amaize EA Peter JB 1995 Prevalence of IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 early antigen (p41/38) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 172; 1364-67.
-- Petersen VP 1963 Potassium and magnesium turnover in magnesium deficiency. Acta Med. Scand. 174; 595-604.
-- Racciatti D Vecchiet J Ciccomancini A Ricci F Pizzigallo E 2001 Chronic fatigue syndrome following toxic exposure. Sci. Total Environ. 270; 27-31.
-- Pratt R, Johnson E 1966 Production of pantothenic acid and inositol by Chlorella vulgaris and C. pyrenoidosa. J Pharm Sci. 1966 Aug;55(8):799-802.
-- Rangel L, Garralda ME, Hall A, Woodham S. 2003 Psychiatric adjustment in chronic fatigue syndrome of childhood and in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Journal: Psychol Med Feb;33(2):289-97.
-- Rauma AL, Torronen R, Hanninen O, Mykkanen H 1995 Vitamin B-12 status of long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet") is compromised. J Nutr. 125(10); 2511-5.
-- Richardson J 2002 Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Guidelines for Doctors. Journal:of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 10(1) 2002. 65-80
-- Rier, S and WG Foster. 2002. Environmental dioxins and endometriosis. Toxicological Sciences 70:161-170.
-- Ritchie G, Kerstan D, Dai LJ, Kang HS, Canaff L, Hendy GN, Quamme GA 2001 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates Mg2+ uptake into MDCT cells: modulation by extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 May;280(5):F868-78.
-- Roberts ADL Wessely S Papadopoulos A Cleare AJ 2004 Salivary cortisol response to awakening in chronic fatigue syndrome. British Journal Psychiatry 184; 136-141.
-- Schochat T, Beckmann C 2003. Sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors and reproductive history in subjects with fibromyalgia - results of a population-based case-control study.[Article in German] Z Rheumatol Feb;62(1):46-59.
-- Schwartz A, Perez-Canto A. 1998 Nephrotoxicity of antiinfective drugs. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 36(3):164-7.
-- Scott LV Dinan TG 1999 Small adrenal glands in chronic fatigue syndrome: a preliminary computer tomograph study psychoneuroendocrinology 24; 759-768.
-- Scott LV Svec F Dinan T 2000 A preliminary study of dehydroepiandrosterone response to low dose ACTH in chronic fatigue syndrome and in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research. 97; 21-8.
-- Schwartz RB, Garada BM, Komaroff AL, Tice HM, Gleit M, Jolesz FA, Holman BL. 1994 Detection of intracranial abnormalities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: comparison of MR imaging and SPECT. Am. J.
-- Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
-- Sinaii N, Cleary SD, Ballweg ML, Nieman LK, Stratton P 2002 Journal: Hum Reproduction Oct;17(10):2715-2724. (from the abstract)
-- Singer AJ, Gulla J Thode HC Jr. 2002 Parents and practitioners are poor judges of young children’s pain severity. Academic Emergency Medicine 9; 609-612.
-- Smits, MG van Rooy R.. Nagtegaal, JE 2002 Influence of Melatonin on Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Fatigue and Late Melatonin Onset. Journal: J of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 10(3/4) 2002, pp. 25-36.
-- Smith JD, Terpening CM, Schmidt SO, Gums JG 2001 Relief of fibromyalgia symptoms following discontinuation of dietary excitotoxins. Ann Pharmacother. Jun;35(6):702-6.
-- Staud R, Robinson ME, Vierck CJ, Price DD 2003 Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) attenuate temporal summation of second pain in normal males but not in normal females or fibromyalgia patients. Pain 2003 Jan;101(1-2):167-74.
-- Steele L 2000 Prevalence and patterns of Gulf war illness in Kansas veterans: association of symptoms with characteristics of person, place, and time of military service. Am J Epidemiol. 152; 992-1002. Ibid idem 2001;154:406-7.
-- Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Hrda P, Bartova J, Matucha P, Stejskal VD. 1999 Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinol Lett.;20(3-4):221-228.
-- Strobel ES Krapf M Suckfull M Bruckle W Fleckenstein W Muller W 1997 Tissue oxygen measurement and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with muscle tension and fibromyalgia.. Rheumatol Int. 16(5):175-80.
-- Roentgenol. 1994 Apr;162(4):935-41.
-- Schwarz A, Perez-Canto A. 1998 Nephrotoxicity of antiinfective drugs Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 36(3):164-7.
-- Taylor, S. E., Klein, L.C., Lewis, B. P., Gruenewald, T. L.,Gurung, R. A. R., Updegraff, J. A. 2000. Female Responses to Stress: Tend and Befriend, Not Fight or Flight. Psychological Review, 107(3),41-429.
-- Tiersky LA, Matheis RJ, Deluca J, Lange G, Natelson BH. 2003 Functional status, neuropsychological functioning , and mood in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) Relationship to psychiatric disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003 May;191(5):324-331.
-- Ting JY, Brown AF 2001 Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems. Eur J Emerg Med. 2001 Dec;8(4):295-300.
-- Tomoda A Jhodoi T Miike, T 2001 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Abnormal Biological Rhythms in School Children. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 8 (2); 29-37.
-- Ulrich F 1959 Ion transport by heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria. Amer. Journal Phys.197; 997.
-- Urowitz MB 2001 How Do I Know Thee...? Let Me Count the Ways. The Varieties of Medical Evidence. Journal of Rheumatology, Vol. 28,. 2373
-- Van Rensburg, SJ., Potocnik, FC., Kiss, T., Hugo, F., van Zijl, P., Mansvelt, E., Carstens, ME., Theodorou, P., Hurly, PR., Emsley, RA and Taljaard JJ. 2001 Serum concentrations of some metals and steroids in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome with reference to neurological and cognitive abnormalities. Brain Research Bulletin, , 55, 2, 319-325.
-- Vecchiet J, Cipollone F, Falasca K, Mezzetti A, Pizzigallo E, Bucciarelli T, De Laurentis S, Affaitati G, De Cesare D, Giamberardino MA 2003.Relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and blood markers of oxidative stress in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal: Neurosci Lett Jan 2;335(3):151-154.
-- Visser J, Lentjes E, Haspels I, Graffelman W, Blauw B, de Kloet R, Nagelkerken L 2001 Increased sensitivity to glucocorticoids in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic fatigue syndrome patients, without evidence for altered density or affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. J Investig Med 2001 Mar;49(2):195-204.
-- Visser, J., Graffelman, W., Blauw, B., Haspels, I., Lentjes, E., de Kloet, ER and Nagelkerken, L. 2001 LPS-induced IL-10 production in whole blood cultures from chronic fatigue syndrome patients is increased but supersensitive to inhibition by dexamethasone. Journal of Neuroimmunology, , 119, 2, 343-349.
-- Walker EA, Keegan D, Gardner G, Sullivan M, Bernstein D, Katon WJ. 1997 Psychosocial factors in fibromyalgia compared with rheumatoid arthritis: II. Sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and neglect. Psychosom Med 1997;59:572-577 (from the abstract).
-- Watson, WS., McMillan, DC, Chaudhuri, A and Behan, PO. Increased resting energy expenditure in the chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 1998, 4, 4, 3-14.
-- Weglicki WB, Phillips TM 1992 Pathobiology of magnesium deficiency: a cytokine/neurogenic inflammation hypothesis. Am J Physiol. Sep;263 (3 Pt 2):R 734-737.
-- Weglicki WB, Mak IT, Stafford RE, Dickens BF, Cassidy MM, Phillips TM. 1994 Neurogenic peptides and the cardiomyopathy of magnesium-deficiency: effects of substance P-receptor inhibition. Mol Cell Biochem. 1994 Jan 26;130(2):103-9.
-- Wei W, Franz KB. 1990 A synergism of antigen challenge and severe magnesium deficiency on blood and urinary histamine levels in rats. J Am Coll Nutr. 1990 Dec;9(6):616-22.
-- White KP, Harth M 2001 Classification, epidemiology, and natural history of fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2001 5(4);320-9.
-- Williams G, Waterhouse J, Mugarza J, Minors D, Hayden K 2002 Therapy of circadian rhythm disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome: no symptomatic improvement with melatonin or phototherapy. Eur J Clin Invest. 2002 Nov;32(11):831-7.
-- Wong R Lopaschuk G Zhu G Walker D Catellier D Burton D Teo K Collins-Nakai R Montague T 1992 Skeletal muscle metabolism in the chronic fatigue syndrome. In vivo assessment by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Chest. 102(6):1716-22.
-- Yeaman.MR 1997 The role of platelets in antimicrobial host defense. Clinical Infectious Diseases 25; 951-970.
-- Yunus MB, Arslan S, Aldag JC 2002 Relationship between fibromyalgia features and smoking. .Scand J Rheumatol. 2002;31(5):301-5