TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2
II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3
III. SCOPE AND LIMITATION 3
IV. METHODOLOGY 3
V. INTRODUCTION 4
VI. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 5-9
a. factors affecting the elimination 5-6
b. Capital punishment 7
c. drug testing 7
d. Davao Death Squad 8
e. Anti- drug Campaigns 9
V. INTERVIEW 10-14
VI. ANALYSIS 15
VII. CONCLUSION 16-17
VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY 18-19
The researchers would like to thank the various writers and journalists who’ve published their articles in the internet, the facts and opinions you’ve presented is a great help in formulating this research.
We would also like to thank our interviewees, Vice Mayor Luis Bonguyan, Pastor Tito Lo, Sister Corazon Agda, Mario Patrio Eloja, and Datu Zaire Mamalinta for taking time in answering our question in spite your busy schedule.
Our warmest gratitude to our teacher in Social Philosophy for educating us with the right moral values, as well as, in helping us make the right presumptions in devising this project, and for everything that we’ve learned in this semester. You’ve helped us to better choose right decisions.
To our loving parents who deeply support us in our endeavors, for the encouragement, and care that you’ve shown us. It would be completely different without you.
And finally, to God, we acknowledge your presence in making this project. We can’t finish this without your constant guidance. We give you back all the glory and praise.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Specifically, the researchers would like to answer the ff questions:
1. What are the factors that affect the rate of drug addiction?
2. What are the possible means of eradicating drug addiction in Davao City?
3. Which of the identified means is the effective and best way to use?
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The researchers would like to limit the topic to the statements of government officials, the church, and ordinary citizens.
The data presented were from the interviews. In addition, articles and journals written by local journalists from the internet were also gathered in order to sort out the recent development of drug addiction in the city, as well as, the current means of eradicating drug addiction implemented by the government.
The world is in crisis due to drug epidemic (Drug War Chronicle, 2004). Almost everyday, national and international newspapers and magazines contain columns on drugs and drug-related incidents. Thus, even without a comprehensive statistical basis, it is safe to say that millions of people throughout the world are already hooked on drugs and almost the same number is engaged in the illegal drug trade. The drug problem seems to be far from over. Statistics show that individuals high on drugs committed 65-75 percent of heinous crimes. Rape, murder, incest, robberies are among the list of drug-related crimes (Villar, 2005).
The Philippines is now the world's fifth largest producer of crystal methamphetamine or what is popularly known as shabu according to US State Department's 2004 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, a study which evaluated more than 140 countries based on their progress in combating drug trafficking, while Filipinos rank third in the world in consumption of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) like "shabu" or "crack," according to a United Nations study (Alama, 2004). Some 3.4-million Filipinos are on illegal drugs. Based on the Philippine Population Report submitted by the Dangerous Drugs Board and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency an estimated half of the 3.4-million or 1.8 million are young people (Irlandez, Jr., 2004).
The government has imposed different means of eradicating drug addiction which resulted to successful raids, seizures or arrests. Every now and then, authorities would recover several grams or kilos of shabu, marijuana and other drugs including drug related paraphernalia, publicly burn and destroy huge volume of drugs and even revived the policy of painting the houses of arrested drug pushers. However, at the end of the day, reports such as that of the US State Department shows that what we are doing are still not effective (Villar, 2005).
The government has set the year 2010 for the whole country to be drug- free (Alama, 2004). In relation to this, the paper will discuss possible means of eradicating drug addiction, as well as, identify the factors that greatly affect the implementation of eradicating drug addiction.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG ADDICTION
The Philippines has just emerged from the economic slow down. Evidences are very visible in the continued devaluation of the peso, permanent closure of companies and banks and rise in the prices of basic commodities. The worsening unemployment problem and a poor quality living condition for many Filipino families as immediate consequences, created a productive breeding ground for the illegal drug trade that is viewed as an alternative source of income and a rewarding business. The continued devaluation of the peso is attracting drug traffickers to launder money into the country considering the high value of the dollar. The country has not yet fully recovered from the adverse effects of this regional economic development forced by a staggering yearly deficit prompting the government to effect a national fiscal crisis and went further to lessen the budgetary requirements of operating law enforcement agencies and stop the implementation of their programs thereby negatively affecting the campaign against drug trafficking and other crimes.
The national economic policy of inviting foreign investors and multinational corporations to do business in the country to accelerate economic recovery is also enhancing the entry and exit of drugs. Along this line, the government is also concentrating a large amount of government funds to boost tourism in the country to attract foreigners and consequently allow a continuous dollar inflow into the national coffer to further stabilize the peso.
Unfortunately, this economic environment is being transformed by transnational criminal syndicates to their advantage. The Davao business community, especially the Tsinoy was suspected of involvement in illegal drugs (See, 2005). With the emergence of a borderless world, members of these criminal syndicates can enter any country with ease to perpetrate their illegal activities concealed as legal investors and tourists. This has also complained up the entry of illegal goods and services including drugs that are now flooding the local markets. In effect, the globalization of the economy has resulted to new threats to human security as people fear for their safety, health and livelihood.
The banking system of the Philippines provides a very safe haven for proceeds from the drug trade. The banking law does not regulate the amount deposited or withdrawn by clients and banks are not required to report suspicious currency transactions. These banks are also prohibited from revealing bank accounts and the identities of depositors except upon lawful orders of the courts. Thus, members of transnational criminal organizations are ensured that their deposits are safe in Philippine banks and far beyond the reach of law enforcement authorities.
Geographically, the Philippines is at the circle between the Asian drug producing and exporting countries and the Pacific drug-dependent countries. The coastal areas in Southern Mindanao, Western Mindanao, Caraga and Northern Mindanao were used frequently as transshipment points for shabu coming from Metro Manila and other parts of the country (Canuday, 2002). It is therefore very difficult and very expensive to effectively patrol these coastlines rendering the country virtually unguarded making it weak to drug trafficking and the perpetration of other global crimes.
The political system of the country including law enforcement is power and not service oriented making professionalism difficult to introduce. This was proven in the last elections wherein Duterte has been voted as the mayor of the city, the drug use has declined significantly, and crime statistics fell by as much as 50% (Summary, 2002). Although some of the Politicians and other key government officials see themselves as masters and not servants of the people and assignment to key positions in government, as a result, an unstable situation is open to graft and corruption. With a meager salary and enrichment in office as a primary motivation, drug traffickers who have in their possession of the financial requirements to fill-up the space, can easily exploit and manipulate them. The recent incident was the arrest of Mayor Ronnie Mitra of Panukalan town in Quezon province. The drug problem is caused by a graft and corrupt system (Artizada, 2002). Philippine law enforcement efforts suffer from corruption of police, customs and military officials. Judicial corruption is also acknowledged to be an impediment to drug prosecution. Here, usually only small-time drug users and pushers are caught.
The up to date revelations of the Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) which states that 12.3% of the country’s anti-narcotic agents are habitual drug users and that 61% of the surveyed officers failed a drug information test administered by the board. Many drug traffickers arrested and charged in court are released and end up going back to the illicit trade or allowed to return to their country of origin in the case of foreigners because of escapes not only in the law but also in the judicial process. Drugs confiscated from in custody traffickers are recycled by police lawbreaker and sold back to the underground market. In addition to this, most of those so-called shabu warehouses that were raided are abandoned already and drug criminals transfer their operations from one place to another. This means that the raid of such warehouses do not affect or curb the supply of illegal drugs in the market (Villar, 2005).
Drug addiction is said to have low costs and high profits. The UN study noted that profits are driving the business and easily camouflaged labs close to retail points make the amphetamine-type stimulants business extremely attractive to organized crime (Flores, 2003). In relation to this, it estimates the business value at about 65 billion dollars a year, with profit rates ranging between 3,000 and 4,000 percent of capital, in the Philippines, illegal drugs have become a 216-billion-peso to 432-billion-peso industry (Flores, 2003). This underlies a great factor in eradicating this social problem.
Finally, the social condition of the people also offers a favorable drug market. Approximately seventy five percent (75%) of the country’s seventy four million (74 million) Filipinos are within the poverty line. As such, they are easily uptight to sow unrests to demand for social reforms thereby dividing the attention of law enforcement authorities. They are also easily lured into the drug trade because of the easy money resulting therein. The cravings for food and money oblige individuals to run tasks for drug lords. Children whose parents cannot afford to feed them sniff drugs to stop the hunger in their stomachs. Entertainers, drivers, conductors, and other wage earners take drugs to let them stay awake and perform overtime works for additional incentives and worst people from all walks of life take drugs out of curiosity and the desire to be accepted by their peers. Poverty is not an excuse to the drug problem but it is the cause of the drug problem so we must address problems of poverty, joblessness and high cost of education (Canuday, 2001).
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo outlined four strategic priorities in the government’s aggressive drive to rid the country of the illegal drug menace.
The President said the government would push measures resulting in the "steady attrition in drug supply lines" that would make illegal drugs more inaccessible and more expensive to users. "We must concentrate in the areas of highest drug trafficking intensity. This will put pressure on points of highest profitability," she said. Everyone should help in exposing "the big fish at the highest possible level," with the police and government patrons as priorities, she added. Lastly, she enjoined homes, communities, schools and civil society to "stop drug use before it starts at the most vulnerable age levels." The President likewise disclosed that she would soon call a meeting, between and among legislators and law enforcers to tackle more effective ways to neutralize the illegal drug trade in the country (GMA pushes, 2003).
Two years ago, the president signed the Anti dangerous Drugs Act which imposes death penalty on people in possession of 10 grams of illegal drugs, and on policemen and other law enforcers found to have planted evidence against suspected pushers. The same law applies death to people in possession of at least 750 grams of marijuana and death to people with 500 grams of marijuana and to those with 10 grams of Ecstacy, LSD, Opium, morphine, heroine and cocaine. Then again, it gives provision for drug users. On first offense, sanctions are six months rehabilitation and six months community service while on the second offense the user will be given a one year sentence in jail.
In spite of this, studies worldwide have failed to match the death penalty with drops in crime; in fact it has tended to increase it (Manila Times, 1999). This opposes to the right to life of decency and dignity. By executing the mentally retarded is senseless cruelty even strong death penalty supporters recognize that capital punishment is wrong for people with the mind of a child (Facts about capital punishment). Moreover, Asiaweek Magazine quoted in a recently printed a cover story that pondered: "Does Manila have the judicial maturity to mete out the ultimate penalty (Gluckman)?"
Government officials are also a big portion of the grounds of the elimination of drug addiction; as a result, drug testing was implemented, not only to government officials, employees, and agencies but to some universities, and companies.
Officials who are positive will be employees will be "forever barred" from joining government service, a punishment is suited for a despicable offense (Beltran, 2005).
This mean of eradicating drug addiction primarily used to identify drug users, but the pushers will still be present and illegal drugs will made its way through the communities which made it alarming for the reason that it will still made it available to everyone. Another factor that will fail this is the police who “serve and protect” drug users in turn of money (Balabo, 2005).
DAVAO DEATH SQUAD
Davao Death Squad (DDS), the group suspected of summarily executing at least 150 drug pushers and petty criminals since 1995 is composed of policemen and rebel returnees according to the regional chief of the Philippine National Police, Chief Supt. Eduardo Matillano. DDS members is paid P5,000 for every drug pusher or petty criminal killed. Duterte has repeatedly denied involvement in the DDS. He said the Davao Death Squad is a myth, and that while there is a DDS, it refers to the Dog Death Squad or the team handling stray dogs (DDS, 2004). Mayor Rodrigo Duterte unveiled a controversial list of 500 names, including police, Army, Air Force and fire department personnel including doctors, lawyers and other professionals, who are suspected to be involved or are implicated in drug use and drug trade activities (Canuday, 2001). Furthermore, the mayor also said that the persons on the list are in fact lucky to be alive because anti-drug vigilantes have not yet caught up with them. "Nine out of 10 persons who are rehabilitated usually slide or go back to their old ways. There's no cure for that," he said. "So, don't give that line 'why did they kill him when he has reformed (Canuday, 2001)?"
“Private eyes," grassroots-based agents and vigilantism have been credited as the major factors in the apparent decline in illegal drugs trading activities in Mindanao this year, according to Sr. Supt. Robelito Comilang, the head of the Mindanao Drug Law Enforcement and Prevention Coordinating Office(Canuday, 2002). He said their network of agents across Mindanao is crucial in giving the police important leads that resulted to the busting of drug syndicates and the arrest of several drug traders. According to him, they had successfully intercepted the sale of illegal drugs in Northern and Southern Mindanao in several buy-bust operations. These operations were made possible primarily due to tips provided by civilians who signed up to their confidential "Private Eye" program. The series of anti-drug vigilante killings in Davao City, Davao del Sur and in South Cotabato also had positive impact in the fight against illegal drugs as pushers appeared to have lain low in these areas(Canuday, 2002). U Ching Siong, Federation of Filipino Chinese Chamber of Commerce regional director, also added that the summary executions have created a good atmosphere for the business sector in the city and boosted the confidence of businessmen (DRC, 2004).
On the other hand, the Free Legal Assistance Group, an organization of human rights advocates, challenged the police to exercise political will in resolving the killings and in running after both the police and former rebels in the DDS. The death will teach a lesson to all criminals here that crime does not pay (Huang, 2000).
The Kabiba Children's Alliance noted that the string of summary executions merely shows the government has failed to seriously implement the law and ensure that the judicial system functions effectively (Canuday, 2001).
When moral and spiritual values deteriorate, sin--- personal, social and structural has become rampant and widespread (Irlandez, 2003). On an interview with Archbishop Fernando Capalla when ask about the summary killings in Davao, he stated the moral principles of the Church that the (members of the) DDS who eliminate drug pusher suspects are also criminals; they are taking the law into their own hands, that they cannot eliminate a person who is only a suspect. Threatening them with death will probably have no effect on them whatsoever; drug users are to be saved, not eliminated (DDS, 2004).
Being able to find the roots of the problem through continuous education, awareness, vigilance and understanding should be the main concern of eradicating drug addiction (Gerundio, 2005). The government’s mantra against illegal drugs has been “Save the user, jail the pusher”, this is, supposedly, the proactive way of eliminating the illegal drugs trade (DDS, 2004).
Thereby groups like Lakbay Kontra Droga, and KILL Droga intend to educate the youth of the effects and promotes rehabilitation to drug addicts in the city. A deep sense of spirituality may be what is needed to combat the city's rampant drug abuse problem (Artizada, 2002). The campaign usually challenges all to join hands in the campaign against drugs, and aims to reach the consciousness of the youth and teach them the hazardous consequences of drug abuse since they are the prime targets of the drug trade and the worst victims are the lower classes in the rural areas especially Mindanao (Sicam, 2001). It also aims to increase the knowledge and awareness of our children and others in the academic sector on drug-related issues and concerns that strongly remain to be one of the most alarming threats today. It also proposes to restore moral character and value for health and life preservation among every Filipino both young and old alike.
Anti illegal drug campaign of PNP conduct raids in drug laboratories was also created. The campaign covers all grounds. It requires greater coordination among law enforcement, education and health agencies in the anti-drug campaign. The government has allocated P1 billion for the war against drugs ordering all provincial governors to set up rehabilitation centers in their areas. Last year, in a span of 14 months of anti-illegal drugs campaign of the PNP, Central Luzon police arrested almost 1,000 drug pushers and users, big illegal drug laboratory here in the city were also found (See, 2005). Yet none of the so called ‘big-fish’ or financiers was caught. This casts doubt on the police’s capability to fully shutdown the illegal drug supply and demand (Balabo, 2005). In relation, the PNP, is held responsible, but local communities—its leaders and members are also responsible, unless, they can prove that there is something worth following in the performance of their duties, local citizens would be less likely to follow (Balabo, 2005).
Vice Mayor Luis Bonguyan
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM- is also one of the administrators of University of Immaculate Conception.
Pastor Tito Lo- a Born Again Christian Pastor.
Mario Patrio Eloja- an office clerk. His religion is Catholic. Age is 38.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta- student of Ateneo de Davao University, former councilor of Cotabato. His religion is Muslim. Age is 21.
· Is it possible to eradicate drug addiction in Davao City? If yes, how? If no, why?
Vice mayor Luis Bonguyan: It is not totally possible to eradicate drug addiction in Dvao City but it is possible to minimize drug addiction in the city. Some people here in the city are making money out of selling prohibited drugs. A capital of Php 20,000.00 for production of shabu could reach up to Php 1,000,000.00 in earnings when sold in the streets. So it is very difficult to eradicate drug addiction. Many young people within the age bracket of 13-21 years old are also curious of taking prohibited drugs. If they are not controlled, the number of drug dependents would increase.
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: There is always a hope to end the effects and ways of drug addiction in Davao City. This can be possible if all citizen would learn to cooperate in supporting the campaign against it. Taking away the lives of the suspect is an immoral act against justice and it is not an effective way of preventing the illegal use of drugs. Why not try providing incentives and benefits to those concerned citizens in motivating them to renew their ways of life? Poverty is the main cause of drug addiction, I think the best way to solve this is to eradicate poverty first.
Pastor Tito Lo: No, because, it is a spiritual problem.
Mario Patrio Eloja: Yes! Only if citizens and vigilantes would tell those people who are in authority about the widespread problem of drug addiction in their society. Probabably, drug addiction would be eradicated.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: Drug addiction is a major problem not only in our country but also in some parts of the world. Eradicating it is near to impossibility. I believe that it is possible to eradicate it if everyone would cooperate in putting an end to this heinous crime. The bigger problem we have is the presence of some corrupt government officials who tolerate the criminal activities of the users and pushers. Before we think of an end to drugs, we must find a solution to pulverize the real culprit and they are the corrupt government officials.
· What are the factors that affect the eradication?
Vice mayor Luis Bonguyan: Although it’s hard to eradicate drug addictions, orientations and seminars especially in schools would play a vital factor in minimizing drug addiction. It is through education and proper orientation that young people would learn the effects of prohibited drugs in out society.
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: As I said, the main factor is poverty which keeps the people in abusing drugs as means of their living. Youths who are not guided properly are also drug users because of lack of attention from their parents. While others are just curious to experience it.
Pastor Tito Lo: Family problem, a problem which has roots.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: One of the greatest factors that affect the eradication of drug addiction is the presence of corrupt government officials that pretend to stop crime where in fact they themselves are the ones who are helping in the propagation of drugs.
· Are you in favor of capital punishment for drug lords/drug pushers?
Vice mayor Luis Bonguyan: Yes, I am in favor of capital punishment for drug lords/ pushers because what they are doing in the society is worst than terrorism. Statistically speaking, most of the crimes here in the Philippines are drug related. There are more or less about 3 million drug pushers in the Philippines. Can you imagine if every drug user in the Philippines would commit a crime?
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: No, this DDS is completely against the law of humanity because many innocent victims are not given proper sanctions and sometimes are forcely killed. And moreover, the ones who are mostly killed are minors and others are runners, thus, the drug lords are not included.
Pastor Tito Lo: No, the 10th commandment said thou shall not kill.
Mario Patrio Eloja: Yes.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: Yes, I am in favor of capital punishment for drug lords and drug pushers.
· Do you believe in the effectiveness of Davao City Death Squad?
Vice mayor Luis Bonguyan: Is there such a group? I still believe in due process.
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: It is not effective; it could only trigger terrorism in the country.
Pastor Tito Lo: In some ways, yes, because people will get scared, nevertheless, it won’t still eradicate.
Mario Patrio Eloja: But does DDS really exist? How can you prove that? I don’t believe on this because they do not really exist.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: Since the authorities cannot make it in eradicating the bad elements, I believe that Davao Death Squad is a strong helping hand and is very effective than our police force.
· Are you in favor of it? Why, why not?
Pastor Tito Lo: No, because only God has the ability to give life and take life.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: Yes, I am strongly in favor of the Davao Death squad because they help alleviate drugs.
· Without the DDS, do you believe in the credibility of law enforcers in eliminating drug addiction?
Vice mayor Luis Bonguyan: Yes, but we need more law enforcers to effectively help in the elimination of drug addiction.
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: No, because not all law enforcers are devoted to their responsibility. Some of them are behind in many illegalities in the city including drug addiction.
Pastor Tito Lo: It won’t be eliminated beyond God’s power.
Mario Patrio Eloja: Yes. They are more effective than that non-existing DDS.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: no, I beg to disagree. Our police force is very lousy and they don’t seem to do their job well. The Davao Death Squad is a very big help for us.
· Do you believe that government officials are behind the drug lords? If yes, in what means?
Vice mayor Luis Bonguyan: Yes, with huge amounts involved, it is possible that some of them are behind the syndicate. With their money, they can easily buy anyone; bribe anyone for the success of their drug operations.
Pastor Tito Lo: Yes, for protection, safety, facilitation, and distribution.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: Yes, some government officials contribute to the propagation of drugs. They seem to find money very swiftly in this immoral act that is why they’d rather join the circle than destroy it.
· Is drug testing an effective tool in minimizing drug addiction? Why? Why not?
Vice mayor Luis Bonguyan: It may be effective but it is unconstitutional. It is against our constitution to have a mandatory drug testing.
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: It is less effective because its only purpose is to test not to lessen the number of users.
Pastor Tito Lo: No, it can detect but it cannot suppress.
Mario Patrio Eloja: Yes, because through that we can identify people who are engage in drug addiction.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: People can always alter the results in drug test. I find it impossible to eradicate drugs by the means of drug testing.
· The 7-to-21 age group represents 25 million young people, or around 33% of the population. According to the survey taken by Trends MBL, 12% of the youth in Metro Manila and 20% of the youth in Mindanao admitted that they have tried prohibited drugs. The balance of Luzon and the Visayas registered 7% each. How could we reduce drug addiction in this sector?
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: I would suggest by slowly starting in the family as the basic unit of community. The youths belong to certain families and in this way, proper motivation and discipline by the parents would really affect the attitudes of the children.
Pastor Tito Lo: By educating them through the government agencies, educational system, at home, the spiritual leaders, the city mayor, so that they will know what to do. But in the end, the parents are responsible for their children.
Mario Patrio Eloja: For me, the head or root of drug addiction should be first the main target of the people in authority because by removing the root, the other branch could not move, through this way, drug addiction can be implemented.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: I can help reduce drug addiction in this sector by avoiding the said drugs. This is my simplest way of helping since I am just a civilian person.
· Statistics show that individuals high on drugs committed 65-75 percent of heinous crimes. Rape, murder, incest, robberies are among the list of drug-related crimes. “I would rather see criminals dead than innocent victims die,” said Duterte in the interview about the slayings. How would you react to this since the majority percentage of the victims is drug users and pushers?
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: As portrayed by the media, the nation’s inner cities are increasingly becoming a nightmare landscape of ongoing violence and crime, mostly caused by drugs. However, there are also innocents who cover in far behind locked doors, thus this slaying method must be stopped before it provoke terrorism in the city.
Pastor Tito Lo: Everyone is entitled to their own opinion, but no one has the prerogative to take another person’s life even if how evil person he may be or how heinous that crime may be.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: Honorable Mayor Rodrigo Duterte is a determined public servant. He is indeed trying toput an end to drug addiction. I strongly support his statement for it is just and proper.
· What is the best possible means of eradicating drug addiction in Davao city?
Sister Corazon Agda, RVM: The possible means of eradicating drug addiction would not necessarily be capital punishment. Proper education for the youths and providing work opportunities for individuals may also be effective. It is because through these ways the people would not be needing anymore to work illegally just to satisfy their basic needs. And the most essential way is for the government officials to refrain from abusing drugs and even many other illegal businesses.
Pastor Tito Lo: Strict enforcement of the law. Educating the youth of the evils of the society through media, educational system, etc.
Mario Patrio Eloja: The best means of eradicating drug addiction is through education educating our people especially the young ones about the evil effect of taking the prohibited drugs, so that they could be abreast of the unwanted effect and try to do other things than engaging in that activity.
Datu Zaire Mamalinta: Conducting multi sectoral dialogue with topics about drugs will help the people in using drugs. I believe that we lack information that is why some of us play innocent or ignorant when caught.
Finding out if there is a possibility in eradicating drug addiction in Davao City, 1 out of the 5 didn’t believe in the eradication of drug addiction because of the social issue of family problem, while the other four believe in the possibility though they all admit in the difficulty of eliminating it because of poverty, government implementation, lack of education in drugs and the non-cooperation of the citizens.
3 out of the 5 are in favor in the eradication of drug addiction because of the relation of it in crime, while the remaining 2 disagree of the means because of moral issues and religious.
Since DDS is visibly reported in the media and newspapers, the interviewees were ask of its effectiveness given that they kill drug addicts and drug pushers, 2 out of the 5 didn’t believe in the existence of DDS, the other 2 believe in the effectiveness of it, while the other one didn’t believe in its effectiveness.
The government is responsible for the implementation of laws provided that drug addiction affects the crime in the city, 3 out of 5 didn’t believe in their credibility while all of the interviewees consider that law enforcers are behind the drug lords through bribery.
In using drug testing to minimize drug addiction, 4 out of the 5 believe in drug testing though it is not that effective.
The youth who is apparently involved in drug addiction, 2 believe that it could be reduce through proper education of the youth, the other one believe in concentrating more on the cause of it, while the other one believe in reducing it by not using it.
Though Mayor Duterte constantly deny in his involvement in Davao Death Squad, he agreed in their style of killing drug addicts and pushers, 2 out of 3 opposed to DDS.
All interviewees believe that the best possible means of eradicating drug addiction is proper education of the people and strict implementation of the laws.
According to Commissioner Alejandro P Melchor III of the United People Against Crime (UPAC), our country is a producer, exporter and consumer of cannabis plant-based drugs (marijuana, hashish, et al), as well as, an importer and consumer of synthetic drugs, in particular met amphetamine hydrochloride (shabu), a transit point for the international trade in heroin and cocaine, and is being used as a recreation place, an investment and money laundering haven, and a hiding place for international drug syndicates, some of whom envisioned it as a regional headquarters in the near future.
Capital punishment has been used in the past and even in the present period to threaten drug lords/pushers/users, however, the church is against this method since it opposes to the right to life. Yet the effectiveness of this method doesn’t purely rely on the punishment itself but on the law enforcers and the judicial system. The government should be able to save the user and jail the producer.
DDS started in 1990 (Drug War Chronicle, 2004), it is almost fourteen years ago, if it aims to eradicate drug addiction, the number of killings could have decreased, instead, every year, the figure of teenagers, minors, or even some who have proven to be drug users have increased. Though according to Quiboloy killing off the evil persons to save the good could be used (Joaquin, 2005), human rights leaders and the church is oppose to this vigilante style of killing. The end does not justify the means, being able to legalize drug addiction and help the financial crisis of the country is likewise the same with this type of act. It does not promote justice, and rights and laws are not observed.
According to a doctor in San Pedro Hospital, a drug addict could pass a drug testing through ordinary procedures; therefore, the purpose of drug testing is defeated. On the other hand, random drug testing would help distinguish drug users. This would also be helpful in checking government officials.
Therefore, either by stopping drugs by cutting off the supply or solving the problem by reducing demand, the cooperation between the government, media, school, church, and the local citizens is the best way to eradicate drug addiction. All sectors needs to work out in this social problem. The government as the law makers and enforcers of the different anti-drug acts needs to have strict implementation whether it would be campaigns, raids, operations, or arresting the people engaged in the drug activity, it requires consistency in imposing the laws in prohibited drug use. Intelligence units would be useless if the reported criminals are not captured. Being able to do everything possible in the schools, in the workplace, in homes and in the media to convey the message that drug use is dangerous, unacceptable, and not attractive will also help. The church should also be able to develop a high level of integrity and spirituality to the people. The people also needs to report drug users, and drug addicts in their local community. The problem arises because many are knowledgeable in the issue yet, few speak for what they knew about the matter.
A study reveals that drug use is starting with younger children today then at any time in the past. Thus, there is a need for schools to develop approaches to drug education that are tailored to the needs of individual pupils- recognizing that even by at an early age some pupils will have already started to use illegal drugs. There is also a need for parents to exercise much higher levels of supervision today than at any time in the past given the greater availability of illegal drugs. Campaigns that will educate the youth, as well as parents will bring also affect the success of eliminating drug addiction.
Despite the 1 billion allocated budget of the government, summary killings here in the city, the implementation of death penalty, and anti-drug campaigns imposed by the government and non-government sectors, the city is still experiencing difficulty in eradicating drug addiction. T must first eradicate the root causes that keep pushing people into the drug trade. Poverty is not an excuse to the drug problem but it is the cause of the drug problem so we must address problems of poverty, joblessness and high cost of education (Canuday, 2001) .Before addressing the all out war against drugs, there is a need to solve the factors of the rate of drug addiction.
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