Like English sentences Filipino sentences are declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences.
Declarative sentence – are statements and ends with a period.
1. Madaling mag-aral ng Filipino.
Ako ay magmememoriya ng pandiwa.
Interrogative sentence – asks a question and ends with a question mark. –"Ba" is a question marker. Any declarative sentence occurring with "ba" automatically becomes an interrogative sentence.
Declarative sentence Interrogative sentence
Nag-aaral si Mercy. 1. Nag-aaral ba si Mercy?
Bumasa siya ng aklat. 2. Bumabasa ba siya ng aklat?
Interrogative sentences can also be identified by interrogative words: sino, ano, bakit, kailan, kangino, alin, paano, etc.
e.g. 1. Sino ang guro mo?
Ano ang pangalan mo?
Bakit ka nagsusulat?
Kailan ang Linggo ng Wika?
Kangino ang bolpeng ito?
Alin ang kuwaderno mo?
Paano ka sasakay?
Imperative sentences are sentences that expresses request or ordering. These sentences end with a period.
Paki o’ maki – paki and maki prefix as affixed to a verbal rootword on sentences expressing request as in:
Makibili naman ng coke.
Pakiabot mo nga ang bolpen ko.
Exclamatory sentences – expresses intense feelings or an emotional outburst. These sentences ends with an exclamatory mark.
e.g. 1. Inaku po!
Filipino Basic Structures ---
Filipino sentences are either Predicate-Subject construction (PS), Subject-Predicate construction (SP) and Equational construction.
Predicate-Subject Construction -- is considered the natural order of Filipino sentences. According to survey, Filipino talks more on PS construction.
e.g. 1. Maligo ka. "Take a bath."
2. Mabait na bata si Rosy. "Rosy is a good girl."
3. Nagluluto ang kusinero. "The cook is sooking."
Subject-Predicate Construction -- SP construction are "ay" sentences. Here "ay" is used as relator, "ay" is not equivalent to "is" in English, sentences with or without "ay" have the same meaning.
e.g. Malamig ang panahon.
= The weather is cold.
Ang panahon ay malamig.
Exercises: From "ay" construction to without "ay" construction..
Siya ay pupunta sa palengke. Pupunta siya sa palengke.
Siya ay aalis bukas. Aalis siya bukas.
Equational construction -- are sentences whose subject and predicate are both introduced by ANG, or its substantive. Predicate cannot be determined as the assumed predicate can stand grammatically as subject. In other words, subject and predicate is equated, or of the same level, and both are emphatic.
e.g. Ang opyo ang masama.
Ang pangulo ang nagsasalita.
Ang guro ko ang naririto ngayon.
Other Sentence Structure ---
There are other sentence structures found especially in conversation. They can be classified as:
Sentences with subject only, in which the predicate is understood as in.
Ang init. (an expression meaning "It's very hot.")
Sunog! (when someone is calling for help when thus fire)
Sentences with predicate only, when the subject is "understood", like
Umulan. (It's raining.)
Lumilindol. (There's an earthquake.)
Sentences or expressions that neither has a subject nor predicate, but is understood by the listener, like
Piesta na. (Feast is here.)
Maginaw. (It's cold.)
Part of Speech ---
The parts of speech are divided into four parts:
Nouns are names of persons, places, thins, and happenings. They occur in the different parts of a sentence introduced by either an article or a preposition, according to how they are used. Nouns can be classified to these different categories.
Kinds: Proper or Common Noun
Proper noun: are names of distinct person, thing or places. They can be easily identified as they always begin in capital letters.
e.g. Elena Ginoong Raymundo
Common noun: are names of ordinary things and does not begin with a capital letter, unless used initially in sentences.
e.g. lapis babae
Gender: -- refers not only to sex, but also on living and non-living things.
Feminine gender: refers to feminine names such as in Susan, dalaga, doktora, madre.
Masculine gender: refers to masculine names as in Willy, lalaki, doktor, pare.
Indefinite gender: refers to names that can either be feminine or masculine but has life, as in: pinsan (cousin) guro (teacher)
None: refers to things or objects without life as in:
lapis (pencil) bolpen (ball pen)
mesa (table) libro (book)
Singular form of nouns can be easily identified by the introducing article; "ang, si".
Ang bata (the child)
2. Si Jose ("si" here does not have any equivalent in English. It is used as a singular determiner on proper names of persons.)
Plural form of noun is identified by the article determiner introducing them as in:
Ang mga bata
Sina Susan at Willy
Plural form can also be determined through the reduplication of the first syllable of the root word with "mag" affixes as in:
magkakapatid (brothers and sisters)
Dual nouns -- nouns can give the meaning of dualness or twoness through the affix "mag" as in:
mag-asawa -- husband and wife
magkapatid -- two brothers, or two sisters, or brother and sister
magpinsan -- cousins (only two)
Simple nouns -- simple nouns are nouns without affixes, usually rootwords as in:
bata (child) anak (daughter)
araw (sun or day)
Complex nouns -- are nouns with affixes
kabataan -- "youth"
bataan -- "a helper"
mag-anak -- "family"
arawan -- "daily"
Reduplicated nouns -- nouns that are totally or partially reduplicated as in: