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JOURNAL OF PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT

Online Textbook of Athletic Performance Enhancement

There is a multitude of good information available on the internet.  You can find information on just about anything if you search hard enough.  The problem is that the information is scattered around, a little here and a little there.  Also, it is often hard to separate good information from propaganda.  What we have done is to produce a launching pad for a large volume of information on athletic performance enhancement.  It includes information on muscle physiology, cardiorespiratory physiology, endurance training, running, nutritional supplements, strength training, nutrition, body composition, swimming, cycling and a miscellaneous section that contains discussions on various sports science topics.  We hope that it will be a useful starting point in your search for information.  We are grateful to all of the hard working physiologists, physicians, athletes, coaches, therapists, trainers and teachers who have made such a wide variety of information available to us on the internet.  We hope that this will be an example of what is best about the internet.

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Chapter 1 Basic Exercise Physiology

Muscle Physiology

Article Source
Introduction to Muscle Physiology UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Skeletal Muscle Macroscopic Architecture UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Skeletal Muscle Microscopic Architecture UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Myofibrils UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Excitation Contraction Coupling UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Physiologic Cross Sectional Area UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Muscle Joint Interactions UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Joint Moment Arm UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Crossbridge Cycle and Force Production UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Fiber Types UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Eccentric Contractions UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Hypertrophy UCSD Neuromuscular Physiology Site
Muscle Structure and Function iafrica.com Health and Fitness
Fiber Types Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Muscle Hypertrophy Vs Hyperplasia Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Aging Skeletal Muscle Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Training Skeletal Muscle Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Muscle Contraction NISMAT Exercise Physiology Corner
Innervation. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Muscle Spindle Basics. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Muscle Spindle Structure. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Dynamic Bag 1 Fiber Response. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Static Bag 2 Fiber Response. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Functional Aspects of Muscle Spindles. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Stretch Reflexes. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Motor Control Pathways to Alpha and Gamma UMDS Physiology Homepage
Motoneurones. UMDS Physiology Homepage
The Role of Muscle Spindles in Posture and Movement. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Nuclear Chain Fiber Response. UMDS Physiology Homepage
Self Test Muscle Spindle MCQ's UMDS Physiology Homepage
Muscle Anatomy America's Health Network
Exercises and Anatomy PHYS Fitness Encyclopedia
Master Muscle List Loyola U Medical Education Network
Electromyography Boston U Neuromuscular Research Center
Muscle Soreness The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Force Velocity Relationship in Muscle Contraction Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Muscle Hyperplasia Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Muscle Hypertrophy Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Muscle Micro Injury Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Training and Muscle Metabolism iafrica.com Health and Fitness
Muscle Contraction ?
Muscle Fiber Types Sports Coach
Muscle Contraction Cycle Stanford University
Muscle Soreness Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Muscle Endurance Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Structural Determinants of Muscle Strength Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Fiber Type Distribution Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Muscle Structure and Function Curtin School of Physiotherapy

Cardiorespiratory Physiology

Ventilation and Endurance Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
The Heart Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
Training the Heart Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
Aging Heart Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
Heart Rate Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
VO2 Max Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
Lactate Threshold Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
Exercise Efficiency Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology
VO2 Max NISMAT Exercise Physiology Corner
Heart Monitor Training Cardiosport
Maximal Oxygen Consumption Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Exercise and Stroke Volume Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Anaerobic Threshold Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Physical Activity and CV Health NIH
The Oxygen Story iafraca.com Health and Fitness
Limitations to VO2 Max Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Predictors of Cardiorespiratory Capability Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Upper vs Lower Body Exercise Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Detecting the Anaerobic Threshold Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Lactate Production and Removal Curtin School of Physiotherapy

Chapter 2 Endurance Training

Principles of Training Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Strength Training and Endurance Performance Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Understanding Interval Training Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Gender Differences in Endurance Performance Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Efficiency and Endurance Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Time Course of Training Adaptations Stephen Seiler's Exercise Physiology Site
Specificity of Training Coaching Science Abstracts SDSU
Altitude Training Coaching Science Abstracts SDSU
Principles of Training Coaching Science Abstracts SDSU
Heart Rate Monitors SportsMed Web
Anaerobic Threshold SportsMed Web
Maximizing Lung Function SportsMed Web
Altitude Training Sportscience.org
Tapering for Endurance Athletes Sportscience.org
Heart Rate Training Zones Sports Coach
Anaerobic Threshold Testing Sports Coach
Conconi Test Sports Coach
Cooper Test Sports Coach
Balke Test Sports Coach
Lactate Threshold and Aerobic Training Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Taper for Competition Curtin School of Physiotherapy

Chapter 3 Running

Running: Avoiding Injuries Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Hot Weather Running Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Cold Weather Running Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Overtraining Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Stretching Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Sports Physiology Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Leather As An Orthotic Material Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Sport Shoes Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Basic Biomechanics Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Neuroma Pain Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Shin Splints Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Plantar Fasciitis Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Ankle Sprains Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Knee Problems Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Iliotibial Band Syndrome Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Achilles Tendinitis Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Common Running Injuries Dr Stephen Pribut's page
Running a Sub 4 Minute Mile Peak Performance
Overspeed Running Peak Performance
Threshold Training Runner's World
Heart Rate Training Runner's World
Sprint Training Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Distance Runners Overtraining Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Running Shoes and Sports Injuries Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Fartlek Training Sports Coach
Running Technique-Middle Distance Sports Coach
Running Technique-Sprinters Sports Coach
Running Economy Sports Coach
Hill Running American Running Association

Chapter 4 Nutritional Supplements

Pyruvate Richard Chiang's Athletic Supplement Page
Creatine Richard Chiang's Athletic Supplement Page
HMB Richard Chiang's Athletic Supplement Page
Vanadyl Sulfate Richard Chiang's Athletic Supplement Page
DHEA Richard Chiang's Athletic Supplement Page
HMB The Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Creatine Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Chromium Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Protein Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
DHEA Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Androstenedione Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Essential Fatty Acids Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Vanadyl Sulfate Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Ephedrine Semper Fit Guide to Nutritional Supplements
Creatine Journal of Exercise Physiology
Sodium Bicarbonate Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Caffeine The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Supplements USOC Nutrition
Glycerol EndurePlus web site
Caffeine EndurePlus web site
Melatonin EndurePlus web site
Hormone Supplements EndurePlus web site
Glutamine 1 EndurePlus web site
Glutamine 2 EndurePlus web site
DHEA EndurePlus web site
Choline EndurePlus web site
Fructose EndurePlus web site
Capsaisin EndurePlus web site
BCAA EndurePlus web site
Ephedrine EndurePlus web site
Fish Oil Diabetes Care
Protein and Amino Acid Supplements Sportscience.org
Glutamine Sports Nutrition Connection
Ephedrine Sports Nutrition Connection
Meal Replacement Powders Sports Nutrition Connection
Medium Chain Triglycerides Sports Nutrition Connection
Sports Drinks Dietsite.com
Caffeine and Performance Dietsite.com

Chapter  5 Strength Training

Strength Training

From Coaching Science Abstracts SDSU:
Isometric Training Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Strength Training Neural Adaptation Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Pre-Contest Dieting FitnesLink
Circuit Weight Training GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Strength Training Exercises and Anatomy PHYS Fitness Encyclopedia
Weight Training Injuries The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Strength Training for Adult Fitness The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Hyperplasia Muscle Maker Journal
Soreness Ripped-Clarence Bass
Plyometrics Sports Coach
Plyometrics Complete Conditioning
Youth Strength Training Complete Conditioning
Neural Adaptions to Strength Training Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Structural Determinants of Muscle Strength Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Strength, Power and Endurance Training Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Fatigue and Adaption to Strength Training Curtin School of Physiotherapy

Muscle Tests

Muscular Power  

Vertical Jump Test
Standing Long (Broad) Jump Test
Rob Wood's Home of Fitness Testing
Strength

1-RM Tests

Isokinetic Strength Tests

Handgrip Strength Test
Abdominal Strength Test
Rob Wood's Home of Fitness Testing
Muscular Endurance  

Abdominal Endurance Tests

Pull-Up Test
Push-Up Test
Rob Wood's Home of Fitness Testing

Chapter 6 Nutrition

USOC Nutrition for Competition

USOC
Protein Intake Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Protein PHYS Encyclopedia
Amino Acids PHYS Encyclopedia
Carbohydrates PHYS Encyclopedia
Carbs and Glycemic Index APFA
Fat PHYS Encyclopedia
Facts About Fat IFIC Review
Water Intake GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Nutrition for Musclebuilders The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Protein The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Fiber Fundamentals The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Eating for Peak Performance The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Diet Tips For Runners NISMAT Runner's Resource Guide
Carbohydrates NISMAT Sports Nutrition Corner
Fluids NISMAT Sports Nutrition Corner
Protein Mesomorphosis.com
Glycogen Resynthesis Mesomorphosis.com
Physiology of Nutrition Cycling Performance Tips
Fats Cycling Performance Tips
Carbohydrates Cycling Performance Tips
Glycemic Index Cycling Performance Tips
Protein Cycling Performance Tips
Fluids Cycling Performance Tips
Electrolytes Cycling Performance Tips
Hyponatremia Cycling Performance Tips
How Much Water Do You Need? Army Physical Fitness Research Institute
The Stamina Nutrition Connection Army Physical Fitness Research Institute
Nutrition for Gaining Muscle Mass Sports Nutrition Connection
Nutrition for the Strength Athlete Sports Nutrition Connection
Nutrition for the Endurance Athlete Sports Nutrition Connection
Glycogen Replenishment US Sports Academy
Dietary Goals For Improved Performance Dietsite.com
Diet to Improve Performance Dietsite.com
Nutrients For Athletes Dietsite.com
Sports Drinks Dietsite.com
Consumer's Guide to Fat FDA

Chapter 7 Miscellaneous

Swimmer's Shoulder

The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Fat Burning During Exercise The Physician and Sportsmedicine
Estimation of Body Composition Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Electrical Muscle Stimulation Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Fat Metabolism Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Overtraining Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Temperature Regulation and Environment Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Weight Reduction Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Dehydration and Heat Injury SportsMed Web
Hyponatremia SportsMed Web
Hponatremia 2 SportsMed Web
Sports Psychology USOC
Helping Athletes Cope With Jet Lag USOC
Heat Acclimatization USOC
Why Warm Up USOC
Flexibility USOC
RICE USOC
Basic Stretches USOC
Training the Olympic Athlete Scientific American
Metabolism Ripped - Clarence Bass
Cellular Energy Metabolism Cycling Performance Tips
Measuring Blood Pressure Rob Wood's Home of Fitness Testing
Measuring Lung Function Rob Wood's Home of Fitness Testing
Heat Acclimatization Sportsci.org
Physiologic and Long Term Adaptions to Exercise Physical Activity and Health: A report of the Surgeon General
Effects of Physical Activity on Health and Disease Physical Activity and Health: A report of the Surgeon General
Aging and Physical Performance Cycling Performance Tips
Lactic Acid Sports Coach
Wingate Test Sports Coach
The Seven Laws of Training Complete Conditioning
Lipid Metabolism During Exercise NIH Workshop Summary
Fat Metabolism Rensselear Chemical Engineering
Lipid Metabolism During Exercise Samuel Klien, MD
Blood Pressure During Exercise Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Exercising in the Heat Curtin School of Physiotherapy
Exercising at Altitude Curtin School of Physiotherapy

Chapter 8 Measuring Body Composition

Skinfold Measurements GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Underwater Weighing GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Bioelectrical Impedence GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Bod Pod (Air Displacement) GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000 GSU Dept of Kinesiology
Skinfold measurement
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Waist to Hip Ratio
Hydrostatic Weighing
Bioelectric Impedance
Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
Rob Wood's Home of Fitness Testing

Chapter 9 Swimming

Swimming Physiology, Injuries and Training Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts
Skill Elements For Faster Racing Times SDSU Swimming Science Journal
Tapering Considerations For Big Meets SDSU Swimming Science Journal
NSW Nutrition Guidelines: Preperation and Recovery From Competition SDSU Swimming Science Journal
Elite Swimmers and Altitude Training SDSU Swimming Science Journal
The Structure of Training Schedules According to Scientific Principles SDSU Swimming Science Journal

Chapter 10 Cycling

Cycling Physiology and Training

Sportscience Journal Encyclopedia Drafts

Three approaches to training

Cycling Performance Tips

Aging and physical performance Cycling Performance Tips
Training at altitude Cycling Performance Tips
The post ride recovery period Cycling Performance Tips
Muscle pain, soreness and cramps Cycling Performance Tips
Overtraining Cycling Performance Tips
Crank Length Cycling Performance Tips
Tires Cycling Performance Tips
Intervals Cycling Performance Tips
Offseason training/cross training Cycling Performance Tips
Stationary cycling Cycling Performance Tips
Weight/strength training Cycling Performance Tips
Cycling Injuries iafrica.com Health and Fitness
Overtraining Roadcycling.com
Training Basics Roadcycling.com
Intervals For Cycling The Triathlon Pages

Chapter 11 Injuries

Burner Syndrome NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Neck Pain NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Protecting Your Back NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Spondylolisthesis and Spondylolysis in Gymnasts NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: More than just a pain in the neck NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Keeping Your Tennis Shoulder Tuned NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Tennis Elbow: Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Eccentric Training for Treatment of Achilles Tendinosis NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Hamstring Pull (Strain) NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Treatment NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Plantar Fasciitis NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
Shin Splints NISMAT Physical Therapy Corner
RICE NISMAT Athletic Trainers Corner