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    Kolkata… An Enigma

Historical events
of
Kolkata’s 300 years of existence
  • 1690 August, Job Charnok, chief of the factory of East India Company (was established in 1600) settles in Calcutta.
  • 1693 Charnok died.
  • 1698 East India Co. bought three villages (Sutanuti, Kolkata, Gobindapur) from local landlord Sabarna Chowdhury.
  • 1699 East India Company started developing Calcutta as a Presidency city.
  • 1707 Mughal Emperor Aurangjeb died.
  • 1715 British people completed building the Old Fort.
  • 1717 The Mughal emperor Farrukh-siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees.
  • 1727 As per the order of King George I, a civil court was set up.
  • 1756 Siraj-ud-daulla attacks Calcutta.
  • 1757 23rd June, British people (under the leadership of Lord Clive) defeated Siraj-ud-daulla at Plassey.
  • 1757 British first printed currency bill in Calcutta mint.
  • 1765 Clive took Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from Badsha Alam II (Delhi) with an agreement of paying excises.
  • 1770 Infamous famine.
  • 1772 Calcutta became the capital of British India when the first governor-general, Warren Hastings, transferred all important offices to the city from Murshidabad.
  • 1774 First Post office was built on March 31.
  • 1775 Nandakumar, a local landlord was hang in a false allegation when he protested against the misdeeds of the British.
  • 1780 James Hicky established a printed press and published first newspaper, The Bengal Gazzette.
  • 1784 The first official newspaper, The Calcutta Gazzette, was published.
  • 1784 Sir William Jones took initiative and established The Asiatic Society.
  • 1799 William Carey, a missionary, established a printing press.
  • 1801 Fort William College was established.
  • 1804 The Governor House (presently Raj Bhawan) was built.
  • 1813 The Town Hall was built, where the proclamation of the accession of King George V was made in 1818.
  • 1818 First Bengali Magazine, Digdarshan, was published from Sreerampur, with the help of David Hare.
  • 1817 The Hindu College (presently Presidency College) was established with main efforts from Rammohan Roy, David Hare and Radhakanta Dev. Initially started with 20 students.
  • 1829 Rammohan Roy was successful in making ‘satidaho’ banned by British General Bentinck.
  • 1851 Calcutta got it’s first telegraph line.
  • 1852 Calcutta became a Municipality.
  • 1854 First Railways in India (from Calcutta to Hooghly).
  • 1857 The University of Calcutta was established.
  • 1857 Mangal Pandey, shot his Sergeant Major in the Parade Grounds at Barrackpore.
  • 1858 Queen Victoria assumed the Government of India on 1st November. Calcutta became the Royal Capital of India ruled by a Governor General and Viceroy.
  • 1859 Public sewerage system was set up.
  • 1860 Availability of filtered water supply.
  • 1868 Off the drawing board of Walter Granville came the Calcutta GPO, a magnificient edifice, with its high dome and magistic corinthian pillars built for the princely sum of Rs 650,000.
  • 1873 First Tram car (horse drawn) in Calcutta plied on an experimental basis on February 24 between Sealdah station and Armenian Ghat on the banks of the Ganges.
  • 1875 The Statesman, leading English Daily newspaper, started.
  • 1875 The Indian Museum was built.
  • 1877 Queen Victoria became the Empress of India on 1st January, and Calcutta became the Imperial Capital.
  • 1881 First Tram car (horse drawn) service started.
  • 1882 Telephone Exchange was built. Telecom service was started in January 1882, just six years after invention of telephone by A G Bell.
  • 1883 Surendra Nath Banerjee called for a National convention (which led to the forming of Indian National Congress in 1885 at Bombay).
  • 1886 Second convention of Indian National Congress at Calcutta.
  • 1888 Indian Football Association established.
  • 1899 The city got Electricity supply.
  • 1902 First Electric tram car from Esplanade to Kidderepore.
  • 1905 Lord Curzon, viceroy of India, tried to partition Bengal. There was a strong protest.
  • 1911 British moved the capital city of India from Calcutta to Delhi.
  • 1911 A local football team, Mohanbagan, defeated British in ISA shield final and created national sensation.
  • 1913 Rabindranath Tagore, the great philosopher, poet and writer received Nobel Prize in literature.
  • 1921 King Edward VIII inaugurated the Victoria Memorial building.
  • 1924 Chittaranjan Das, was elected as the first Indian mayor of the city of Calcutta.
  • 1929 Agnes Goinxha Bejaxhiu (Mother Teresa), came to Calcutta to join Bengal Loreto mission.
  • 1939 The World War II hit Calcutta.
  • 1941 Tagore died.
  • 1941 Subhash Chandra Bose escaped from British house arrest.
  • 1943 Thousands of people got killed in famine.
  • 1946 Communal riot killed thousands of people.
  • 1947 India gained Independence. Bengal was divided, Calcutta became the capital city of the state of West Bengal in India. Bidhan Chandra Roy became the first Chief Minister of West Bengal. Calcutta and surrounding places were flooded with people from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) as a result of the partition.
  • 1952 The National Library was moved to Alipore from Esplanade.
  • 1962 India-China war affected Calcutta.
  • 1971 Tension of India Pakistan war on freedom of Bangladesh touched the city.
  • 1970-71 The Naxalite Movement hit the city resulting arrests of hundreds of youths and created enormous tension among city dwellers.
  • 1975 TV was first inaugurated on 9th August. Initially the programs were aired in one channel for limited time in the morning and in the evening.
  • 1977 Left Front led by CPI(M) Party wins the election and comes into the power of state Government.
  • 1978 A major flood hit Calcutta.
  • 1979 Mother Teresa, a permanent resident of Calcutta was awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
  • 1984 Metro Railway, the first underground railway in India, started from Tollygunge to Esplanade.
  • 1984 In June, Calcutta Doordarshan entered the world of colour transmission.
  • 1992 Satyajit Roy, film director, received prestigious “Life Time Achievement” Oscar award and “Bharat Ratna”. He died in the same year.
  • 1995 India’s first Cellular telephone service started in Calcutta.
  • 1997 Mother Teresa dies in Calcutta.
  • 1998 Amartya Sen, another Calcuttan, received Nobel Prize in Ecomonics.
  • 2000 Calcutta is rechristened as Kolkata on December 24.
  • 2000 Kolkata is the first city to have completely digital PSTN telephone network

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