was founded in 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. This was an important
foundation due to the fact it made possible to connect the Alto Peru with the
Río de la Plata. Its geographic situation in the middle of the territory made
the circulation of products and silver easier all around the Virreinato del
Peru to which jurisdiction Córdoba belonged.
population that Cabrera found in this territory was agricultural complemented
with the hunting activity. Their social organization was based on kinship with
a political head, the chief or cacique.
natives could make only little resistance to the conquest. So the Spanish
people took possession of the territory very quickly.
the 17th and 18th century Córdoba was an important
producer of bovine used for feeding and mules which were sold in Potosí (today
Bolivia) to be used in the silver mines and for transportation. So since the
beginning, Córdoba developed the cattle and the trade market.
In the 17th
century the Jesuits order had a relevant role in the material and spiritual
life of the city. At the beginning of the XVII century the Jesuits had to face
the group of “encomenderos” to protect the interest of the natives. The Spanish
system of “encomiendas” represents a grant of rights or taxes from the crown to
the conquerors.In exchange to this
grant, the Spanish "encomenderos" had to guarantee the protection of the
natives and theirconversion to
Catholicism. On the contrary, the "encomenderos" obliged the natives
to work all day to pay the taxes, without any control from the colonial state.
moment the Jesuits represented a strong opposition against the “encomenderos”
group and promoted the intervention of the Viceroy of Peru which sent Francisco
de Alfaro to make a “visit” and solve the situation. The result was a group of
ordinances that prohibited the “Personal Service” or, in other words the
exploitation of natives and set up a lot of rules for the natives’ work.
Jesuits had also a central role in the education of the elites. In 1613 fray
Fernando de Trejo y Sanabria donated his goods for the foundation of the
Maximum College of Jesuits. In that year the Council of Indies and the king
Felipe III decided to allow the Jesus Company the power to grant university
grades. This decision had the opposition from the Dominic order. So only when
the Pope Gregorio XV confirmed the decision of the king, it was possible for
the Jesus Company to grant university grades.
other hand, the Jesuits settled a lot of “haciendas o estancias” –a kind of
ranch- in the rural territory of Cordoba in order to support its members. The
great number of estancias was built on land donated by people through their
last will or testament. There isn’t only one model of Jesuitical hacienda but
we can give a few common characteristics they all share. For example: All of
them have a principal “Casco” which contains the church with a lot of rooms
where the fathers lived. Near the Casco, it was possible to find the slaves’
rooms, different workshops for knitting and other handcrafts and the barn.
Other important feature of these haciendas was that they had a productive
diversification. So the fathers not only developed manufactures, they developed
cattle, agriculture and fruit industry.
the beginning of the colonial period workforce was performed by the natives, it
was later performed by the slaves. Jesuits took the decision of keeping the
slave family together and promoted a reproductive policy. At the same time, the
slaves produced their own food and clothes and repaired their tools. So the
economic advantages of the haciendas were many.
Jesuits were thrown out, all their goods were administrated by the Junta de
Temporalidades which gave the administration of Maximum College to the
Franciscans order and sold the rest of the goods of the Company to private
arrive at the 19th century a great part of what it is today
territory of Cordoba was unpopulated or in the hands of natives, in particular
all the land in the south of 31 parallel.
second part of the 19th century as you have probably seen in the
rest of Argentina, the group of conservatives with liberal ideas tried to bring
European colonists with the idea that these people would bring the economic
development, progress and civilization. But Cordoba, different from other
provinces as Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, could enter in this colonization policy
a few years later. While Santa Fe had colonies since de middle of the century,
Córdoba had her first colonies after 1871. These were at first an enterprise of
the national state (official colonies) and then private enterprises. In both
cases the tenant farmer paid for the land in different ways or paid a rent for
them and received a little help to hold the economic work of this land. In this
respect the situation in Santa Fe was different as her state policy was more
coherent and helped the colonies.
Córdoba already had five colonies: Tortugas, Sampacho, Caroya, Marengo y
Garibaldi. The next year there were other ones: Maipú, Sarmiento, Marcos Sastre
y Leones. With the private colonisation the number of colonies increased. In
general the foreign population was from Italy, but there were Swiss German and
Spanish people. The colony system was one of the factors that made it possible
the development of agriculture and cattle in Argentina and her insertion in the
world as an exporting country. The development of industries in Córdoba was directly
related to the food production. This situation was the same at least until the
decades of 1950 and 1960 when the national government promoted the settlement
of foreign enterprises with important advantages, especially to the metallurgic
and automobile industries.In
Córdoba,Fiat and Kaiser settled and
this decision made important economic and social changes. This
industrialization produced another migration of people from the other provinces
to work in the new enterprises.
back to the 19th century we can say that the foreign immigration we
talked about before, started to work actively in political parties,particularly the UCR party and had an
important participation in the social movements to change the political system
which had allowed the permanence in power of the group of conservatives.
of elite had the power of the country and of each of the provincial
governments. It was only with the Saenz Peña Law that Argentina changed the way
to do politics. This law established the obligatory, universal and secret vote.
These three points were fundamental to politics because for many years the same
elite had had the power through fraud and with the vote of a little part of
population. The old system guaranteed the continuity of conservatives. Since
1912 nothing would be the same.
social democratization had also impact on the organization of the university
government. In 1918, two years after the UCR had arrived at the national
government, a group of students at the University of Córdoba started a movement
which fought for the secularization,
democratization and autonomy of the University from the political
leaders of the 1918 reform asserted that the solution of educational problems
should be related to the solution of the national problems and proposed a
profound economic and political reform. They were explicit about the ideal
relationship between the university, the state, and society and allied
themselves with workers’ organizations.
important features of reform can be summarized as follows:
student participation in university councils, joining professors and students
in a three party system known as co-governance.
between student politics and national politics in order to mobilize the
university toward the solution of economic, social and political problems.
emphasis on university extension.
education and open admission to all academically qualified applicants, in order
to replace the elitist and archaic 19th century university.
of institutional autonomy with respect to the state.
f)Promotion of new ideas
promotion of professors on the basis of merit and achievement rather than
the national level, the 1918 reform represented the political aspirations of an
emergent middle class. The radical government, headed by president Yrigoyen,
provided vital support to the student movement, even when this support led him
to be confronted by prominent politicians and university authorities.
of the principles of the Reform were reached but the idea of taking the reform
from the university to society was forgotten. Ten years later, Deodoro Roca,
one of the leaders of the movement said that the reform had stayed in the
formal changes, forgetting the real spirit of the reform.
was only a brief account of some of the main events in the history of Cordoba.