PRESENTATION: January 14th, 2007
Scottish American Society
By Margaret Frost
Chairman, American Clan Cumming Association
HISTORY OF THE TARTAN
out by blowing up a few misconceptions. First of all, though it is commonly used,
the term “plaid” is not synonymous with tartan. A tartan is a specific
design, usually, but not always, made of cloth. Ordinarily it is the same viewed
from any direction. That is, if you turn it upside down or sideways, it should
look the same. This is not always the case, but it is the norm.
A plaid, or more properly
pronounced “plaide” is a blanket. In times past the Highlander wrapped
himself up in his plaide at night. It was his sleeping bag and it was also his
garment during the day. Since it was frequently woven in the form of a tartan,
the two terms ultimately became confused. It is common usage now to call a tartan
you may belong to a clan, or be descended from someone who does – or be married to someone who does – you are
not “entitled” to wear a specific tartan. You can wear any tartan
you like. You may choose to wear a tartan identified with your particular clan
or district, but if you do not like it, or it doesn’t match your favorite sweater, feel free to wear one that does. There is no official governing body for tartan.
Tartan is an industry. Today there are many mills located all over Scotland
which produce tartan cloth. There are mills in other countries that produce it
as well. They are all legitimately tartans.
What they may or may not be is registered.
Tartans Society, for a fee, will research any new pattern or “sett” and see if it has been registered as belonging
to a specific individual, group, or commercial enterprise. If indeed it has not,
it can be recorded by them under the name specified and those records continue to grow.
The Lord Lyon, may record a Grant of Arms which includes a tartan. Many
clan chiefs recognized as such have had their tartans registered and recorded in the Lyon Court Books. There are new tartans being recognized and recorded somewhere almost every day. The last I knew there were over 3000 of them and no one source can possibly claim to have them all listed.
There is no historical basis
for the current fashion of describing certain tartan colors as being used for various fanciful concepts. “We use the blue for the rivers found flowing musically through our clan land, the green for the
verdant pine forest which surrounds us and which sheltered us in ancient battles, gold for the fields of corn which provide
us with our ancient beverage and sustenance as well…” And so forth. The Irish aren’t the only Celts who employ the blarney.
There is a sort of basis
for the so-called “dress” version of a given tartan. Most tartans
really began as what are now termed “district” tartans. Women of
various villages or gathering areas would weave a cloth of wool, plucked from their sheep and dyed with the various roots
and berries to be found on their land. They took great pride in weaving a pattern
which was colorful and attractive for their men to wear as plaides when out on the hunt or in the field. Because plants almost always were more common in one area or another, those wearing patterns with these
colors could be identified as belonging to a specific area. Whatever yarn was
left over might then be used to weave material for the woman herself to wear. As
she most likely wouldn’t have enough to weave herself a full plaide, she used the plain, cheaper, undyed wool as a background
and wove the extra strands or pattern of the one she had made for her mate to give it color.
Since that wool was usually the cream colored natural color of the sheep on the hill, the so-called “dress”
pattern for women evolved.
Many have heard
of the so-called “correct” fashion of a woman wearing her tartan sash over the right shoulder and fastened at
the left hip. Supposedly only the chief’s wife is permitted to wear it
over the left shoulder. This is balderdash.
The only recorded
mention of this is in one part of the highlands where it was noted that a lady wore her sash over a different shoulder than
usual in order to indicate that the lady concerned was in an “interesting condition.” Even in this case no specific shoulder was mentioned as being the “usual.”
For those who
do country dancing, or use their right hand on a regular basis, placing the sash over the left shoulder makes more sense and
is definitely more practical. It would be patently unfair for any chief’s
wife to demand that only she have freedom of movement, though I recently heard of one who did.
In this case the group knew full well that her demands were incorrect and unreasonable, but as a matter of courtesy
abided by her wishes.
Now as for
the actual history of the tartan.
Many myths have
been put forth in this respect. The first mention of highland tartan in writing
was around 1537 or 1538. That refers to an order for clothing made of “terten”
which may have been the pattern or it may have been a certain kind of cloth.
There are claims made that
certain tartans and patterns have been used by the same family or clan for many centuries and that these claims are proven
by the fact that so-called pattern sticks were used to denote thread counts and colors.
The sticks supposedly were measured and the thread counts were kept by wrapping the correct color a specific number
of times around the stick. None of these tartan pattern sticks have ever been
found. It does seem, though, that certain tartans may very well have been used
by the same clan for generations – but those patterns are few in number.
As I mentioned earlier, the
first tartans worn were, by necessity, really the so-called “district” tartans.
This is most likely because certain berries and vegetables were used in the dyeing process and those were available
in more abundance in certain areas. Women used what they had and often had a
section of their little kitchen garden assigned to the plants they would use for the preparation of their yarn. It was stated in 1703 that it was possible to tell a man’s residence by the pattern of his tartan.
Most of those
familiar with Scottish history are aware that the Scots were forbidden to wear tartan after their defeat at Culloden in 1746. It was to be 37 years before the ban was lifted.
In 1782 that the Marquess of Graham, acting as a spokesperson for the Highland Society of London, got the ban overturned. This coincided with a Romantic Movement in Europe, which traveled to Britain, and ultimately the whole idea of the romanticism
of the Celt and the highland way of dress. The writings of Sir Walter Scott further
contributed to this change in attitude and resulted in the state visit to Scotland of George the IV who appeared in highland
dress although underneath his kilt wore pink tights. Though the visit is pictured
in paintings of the time, the tights are not, but they are documented. When Queen
Victoria visited the highlands with her beloved Albert, she became much enamoured of the
whole idea of Scotland and Scottish dress
and popularized it even more.
At the close of the 18th
Century, the opportunities for commerce involved in the development of tartan cloth was not lost on the border weaving industry. As with all industries, it was necessary to maintain a steady flow of new products. The idea of individual tartans providing an identity for a clan or family was an attractive
one – not just to the weaving trade, but to the potential wearers as well. Chiefs
and clansmen were soon asking for “their” tartan. The weavers were
most enthusiastic about meeting their wishes.
This sudden demand for clan
tartan led to a great deal of confusion. Many clans claimed the same tartan,
and some do to this day. Some have included minute differences, almost impossible
to detect at any distance, others added a recognizable stripe or shading.
In 1815, the Highland Society
of London began its collection of tartans, with a number of them signed and sealed by the chiefs of concerned clans. The first book of tartans appeared in 1831. It was entitled “The Scottish
Gael” and was written by John Logan a one-time secretary of the Highland Society.
At the same time, some of the chiefs were asked about their clan tartan and were puzzled and embarrassed. They had no idea what pattern was “theirs” and were totally confused by a declaration then
encouraged that clans and setts had been used to designate family ties from the dawn of civilization. Needless to say, this was far from the case.
Add to all this confusion
the contribution of two brothers who claimed to have been directly descended from Charles Edward Stuart, known more popularly
as Bonnie Prince Charlie. Although there is some confusion about their real name,
they eventually settled upon the name “Sobiesky Stuart.” They
claimed to have possession of an old manuscript dating from the 16th century, which supposedly gave details of
upwards of seventy five early clan tartans. The language used was also supposedly
an archaic one, and only the Stuart Brothers could understand it. Thus they alone
were able to produce a book entitled the “Vestiarum Scoticum” which is often cited as a reliable source
to this day. It is not. The original
document has never been seen by any but the Stuart Brothers and the whole thing was very likely little more than a figment
of the brothers’ rather fertile imagination.
Thanks to the spirit of commerce,
identifiable tartans have grown from the few at first, to a real flood of patterns and there are more added each day. There are lots of names distinguished by a tartan of their own and lots of variations
on the patterns themselves…such as “old” or “ancient” colors meant to replicate fabric made
of yarns dyed with native plants, “hunting” tartans meant to replicate tartan worn when out hunting the stag while
knee deep in heather, “modern” colors which are supposed to be the basic clan or district tartan using modern
dyes, and so on.
That the tartan
is a national symbol of Scottish dress is undeniable. However, there are no rules
at all about who can wear what tartan or what a given tartan should be named or used for. Nor are there even rules or regulations
about the shades or tints of the colors used within the tartan pattern itself. But there are conventions and traditions and they have been around for well over 200
It is a good way to show
your loyalty to a given clan if you wish, but no one is going to slap your hand (or any other part of your anatomy) for wearing
something simply because it pleases you. It is considered bad taste to wear more
than one tartan at a time, though perhaps different versions of the same tartan might work.
Use discretion here, please.
Tartan, as it exists today,
does not come down to us as inherited from our forbearers yea these many centuries ago.
Cave men did not wear tartan. Even in Scotland’s early formation, it was most likely worn in a haphazard fashion,
if at all. But it has existed, it has become a registered, if not regulated industry,
and we can hardly deny that it is an established custom now.