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· Lack of human resources · How to strengthen the civil society? · Public awareness about political, social, and environmental problems · There is no concept of policies of a people’s economy · Government is not participatory, business is doing their own thing, government is self-righteous · There is low community pariticpation in the development process, it seems that it is government that must always implement the development projects · Civil society groups are not aware that they have power to influence the decision making process, and are not aware of their role in influencing the private/corporate sector · Political parties in remote areas have already existed, but civil society is still yet to be developed. In these areas, political society exists, but not yet civil society · Lack of political education and political leadership at the grass roots levels.





Lack of human resources

S       Train the trainer programmes

S       Community/NGO exchange with other countries

S       Introduce formal subjects on civil society into schools

S       NGOs develop syllabus on civil society

Weak civil society

S       Empower NGOs in districts and provide direct links to donors for rural NGOs

S       Lobby UNTAET to improve communication, postal service & transport to districts

S       Encourage INGOs to conduct needs assessment first

S       Identify new targets for resistance movement (eg: political parties, government, multi-national corps)

Lack of political education in civil society

S       Use community radio and traditional means to communicate with grass-roots

S       Education on political rights

S       Organise town/village meeting

S       Popular theatre

S       History workshops for writing local history of Timor Lorosa’e

Lack of participation in development process

S       Lobby National Council to use participatory approach

S       Create mechanism for consultation beyond National Council

S       Lobby World Bank to change wealth generation policy and to “provide fishing rod not fish”

S       Lobby multinationals not to create monopolies/use resources unsustainably

S       Emphasise to community importance of “cooperative” labour





  1. Incoming election
  2. Writing the Constitution
  3. Still the golden child of donors
  4. Still in a transitional period
  5. Natural resources need to be wisely used for the welfare of the people today, and also for future generations.