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Unequal distribution of resources/unequal bargaining power Recognition of CNRT at the village level by UNTAET Lack of understanding by the people of UNTAET/CNRT structure/function UNTAETís priorities are not compatible with the peopleís priorities, resulting in incomplete programs Too much expectation from the people about UNTAET Nepotism Lack of transparency from UNTAET about taxes Lack of co-ordination between CNRT/UNTAET How to ensure genuine participation CNRT/UNTAET centralised administration Community does not understand the regulations and emergence of political parties in East Timor Inherited bureaucratic structure Corruption Conference as an example of centralisation- districts do not participate UNTAET/CNRT not sensitive to social issues UNTAET has appointed district chiefs in a non-democratic way Indigenous system of representation vs western forms of representation.





UNTAET / CNRT excessive centralisation.


(no time to discuss)

How to ensure genuine participation

        Community empowerment through consensus, training for government and non-government people.

        More direct participation in D-M plans and policies

        People decide which decisions should be made by higher levels


UNTAET/CNRT are not sensitive to local issues

        Housing: improve cooperation among local and international NGOs, and use local materials.

        Education: provide free education and give priority to disadvantaged children

        Health: strengthen the community health system (eg training, fix clinics)



UNTAET appointment of district chiefs in a non-democratic way.


  • Inform the community that there will be an election
  • Make regulations for the elections in a democratic way
  • Have discussions to reach consensus on the election process