1. Indonesia background
Network and information system Nusantara-21 (Nusantara-21) represents the continuation of vision of the Indonesia in realizing a multiple society prosperity and spread out in the vast Nusantara (Indonesia) zone through telecommunication and information technology, i.e. vision which contained in the utilization of domestic communication satellite PALAPA in 1976 (Anon, 1997). Development and utilization of Nusantara-21 contains the purpose of prospering the Indonesian society with infrastructure and capability of managing and utilizing information so that the Indonesian community is capable of having a role and takes the best benefits from the economy of the very competitive global information. That conditions will increase national economic competitiveness.
1.1 Government Policy in Developing Nusantara-21
To be able to direct Nusantara-21 on the above target, development and management of Nusantara-21 will be carried out with the following policy pattern (Anon, 1997):
1.Reduce gap between socio-economic levels in Indonesia.
2.Encourage the growth of national industry, particularly industry in information technology.
3.Assist the realization in conducting an efficient and effective government.
4.Improve education and teaching.
5.Conserve the rich national culture.
6.Encourage the growth of other sectors
7.Distribute information access
In the early stage Nusantara-21 is established as information infrastructure connecting the 27 capitals of provinces in the whole Nusantara and their connection with regional as well as global information infrastructure. In the whole segments of connection, in the early stage (1996) bandwidth or capacity provided need not be the same/uniform. In the early stage, the connection to 27 capitals of the provinces by Nusantara-21 is dominated by 155 Mbps of bandwidth. This means that terrestrial bandwidth, under the sea cable, terrestrial radio, and satellite can all arrange Nusantara-21
Archipelagic Super-Lane connects the 27 Capitals of Provinces in Indonesia with various "backbone" transmissions and according to real bandwidth needs. The development of Nusantara-21 coverage at big cities in trading centers and economic as well as social activities. From stage to stage the number of multimedia cities will keep developing. Multimedia cities represent the center of economic activities which possess information highway in the city which is reliable and provide complete types of access paths and available with enough capacity so that community in the multi media cities can carry out their productive activities through information transaction in a quick and reliable way.
The development of Nusantara-21 so that it can cover the whole levels of Nusantara community with density orientation is not realistic. Aside of that the one which will become the main point to provide community access to Nusantara-21 is service point owned and managed by TELKOM and POS INDO in the whole regions of Nusantara. It is estimated that in the year 2.000 the whole capitals of sub districts in Nusantara have already had access to Nusantara-21 at the needed real wide band through cheap satellite access, of PALAPA B, C, as well as D generation satellites, Garuda satellite, as well as other PCS satellite systems which will operate in Indonesias region.
2. Key Player of Nusantara-21 in National Development
2.1 Other Network
Nusantara-21 is not intended as hardware oriented infrastructures only, but what more important is the benefits of Nusantara-21 to efficiency, effectiveness and growth of development. Based on the concept, in the initial stage of the utilization of Nusantara-21, there had been rapid growth within the Government as well as general public through various networks which have been in operation in 1996: Ipteknet, Siskom Dagri, Deperindag On-line, Inforis, ITB-net, Indonet, Radnet, Sistelindo-IBM-net, IDOLAnet, CBNnet, MELSAnet, INDOSATnet, TELKOM Ristinet, and several networks (information distribution and point system) which will keep appearing (World Bank, 1996)
With the establishment of 'network of networks' mentioned above on Nusantara-21 infrastructures, the activities for the utilization of Nusantara-21 can be carried out clearly, which comes into the way of life of the community in Indonesia which covers the main categories as follows (Anon, 1997) :
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