WHAT IS INPUT?
any data or instructions you enter into the memory of a computer.
Once input is in memory, the CPU can access it and process the input into
output. Four types of input are
data, programs, commands, and user responses:
a collection of unorganized facts that can include words, numbers, pictures,
sounds, and videos. A computer
manipulates and process data into information, which is useful.
Although technically speaking, a single item of data should be called a
datum; the term data commonly is used and accepted as both the singular and
plural form of the word.
program is a series of instructions that tells a computer how to perform
the tasks necessary to process data into information.
Programs are kept on storage media such as a floppy disk, hard disk,
CD-ROM, or DVD-ROM. Programs respond to commands issued by a user.
command is an instruction given to a computer program.
Typing keywords or pressing special keys on the keyboard can issue
commands. A keyword is a specific
word, phrase, or code that a program understands as an instruction. Some
keyboards include keys that send a command to a program when you press them.
Instead of requiring you to remember keyword or special keys, many programs allow you to issue commands by selecting menu choices or graphical objects. For example, programs that are menu-driven provide menus as a means of entering commands. Today, most programs have a graphical user interface that use icons, buttons, and other graphical objects to issue commands. Of all of these methods, a graphical user interface is the user-friendliest way to issue commands.
user response is an instruction you issue to the computer by replying to a
question posed by a computer program, such as do you want to save the change you
made? Based on your response, the program performs certain actions.
For example, if you answer, yes, to this question, the program saves your
changed file on a storage device.
An input device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer. Input devices include the keyboard, pointing devices, scanners and reading devices, digital cameras, audio and video input devices for physically challenged user. Each of these input devices is discussed in the following pages.
Many input devices use an electronic pen instead of keyboard or mouse for input. Some of there devices require you to point to onscreen objects with the pen ;others allow you to input data using drawings, handwriting, and other symbols that are written with the pen on a surface….
A light pen is a handheld input device that
contains a light source or can detect light. Some light pens require a specially
designed monitor, while others work with a standard monitor. Instead of touching
the screen with your finger to interact with the computer, you press the light
pen against the surface of the screen or point the light pen at the screen and
then press a button on the pen. Light pens are used is limited such as in the
health –care field or when a wide variety of people use the application, such
as electronic voting. Readers should also note that you could create a very cost
effective electronic whiteboard using a Light Pen combined with a CRT-Type rear
As well, mounting a large (digitizing tablet) on
the wall. For example, and projecting into it, is another alternative approach
to prototyping a digital whiteboard.
Many handheld computers also
allow inputting data using an electronic pen (also called a stylus) looks like a
ballpoint pen but uses an electronic head instead of ink. Pen computers use
handwriting recognition software that translates the letters and symbols used in
handwriting into character data that the computers can use. Although most
handwriting recognition soft hare recognizes printed letters and can be trained
to distinguish writing styles, pen –computing technology continues to be
graphics tablet, also called a digitizer or digitizing tables, consists of a
flat, rectangular, electronic plastic bond used to input drawings, sketches, or
other graphical data. Each location on the graphical tablet corresponds to a
specific location on the screen. When you draw on the tablet with either an
electronic pen or a puck, the tablet detects and converts the movements into
digital signals that are sent into the computer. A puck is a device that looks
similar to a mouse, except that is has a window with cross hairs so the user can
see though to the tablet. Users with precise pointing requirements such as
mapmakers and architects use a puck.
PICTURES OF PEN INPUT
Waco Graph ire Bronze 4 x 5 USB Tablet. Logitech 10 Personal Digital Pen
Waco Grapier Ruby 4 x 5 Tablet Waco Intuits 2 4 x5
PEN INPUT, INK, AND RECOGNITION
One interesting new feature of
Tablet PC is the pen input system. All Tablet PC computers have a digitizer
beneath the screen that accepts pen input. This new input mechanism requires you
to think about how to build applications specifically for tablet PC .The Tablet
PC platform API will help you do this.
The Tablet PC platform can be
divided into three distinct areas:
Ink collection (objects that are used to collect ink from the
Ink data management (objects that are
used to manage the collected ink)
Ink recognition (objects that are used
to convert the collected ink into other types of data, such as text).
The following image shows, at high level, haw the Ink Collection API (Pen API) ,Ink Data Management API (Ink API) , and Ink Recognition API (Recognition API) work together in the Tablet PC platform.
Some users opt for alternative
pointing devices other than a mouse, such as trackball. Where a mechanical mouse
has ball mechanism on the bottom, a trackball is a station- aryl pointing device
with a ball mechanism on its top .The ball mechanism in a larger trackball is
about the size of a Ping-Pong ball; some mouse devices also have a small
trackball about the size of a marble.
To move the pointer using a
trackball, you rotate the ball mechanism with your thumb, fingers, or the palm
of your hand. Around the ball mechanism, usually a trackball also has one more
buttons that work just like mouse buttons.
Although it shares characteristic
with a mouse, a trackball is not as accurate as a mouse .A trackballs ball
mechanism also requires frequent cleaning because it picks up oils from your
fingers and dust from the environment. If you have limited desk space, however,
a trackball is a good alternative to a mouse because you do not have to move the
entire device pointer, has advantage that cursor stays in position when device
PICTURES OF TRACKBALLS
Logitech Cordless Trackman Wheel Mouse 4 D Scroll Track Finger Mouse
Qtronix Libra 90 M/Net Trackball
Trackman Opt Wheel
Digital camera allows you to take pictures and store the
photographed images digitally instead of on traditional film. With some digital
cameras, you down load, or transfer a copy of, the stored pictures
to your computer by connecting a cable between the digital camera and your
computer and using special software included with the camera. With other digital
cameras, the pictures are stored directly on a floppy disk or on PC card.
You then copy the pictures to your
computer by inserting the floppy disk into a disk drive or the PC Card into a PC
Card slot. Once the pictures are on your computer, they can be edited with
photo-editing software, printed, faxed, sent via electronic mail, included in
another document, or posted to a Web site for everyone to see.
The three basic types of digital cameras are studio cameras,
field cameras, and point-and shoot- cameras. The most expensive and highest
quality of the three, studio camera
is a stationary camera used for professional
used by photojournalist, a field camera is a portable camera that has many
lenses and other attachment; like the studio camera, a field camera can be quite
point-and-shoot camera is more affordable and lightweight and provides
acceptable quality photographic images for the home or small business user..
can use a point-and-shoot camera to add pictures to personalized greeting cards,
a computerized photo album, a family newsletter, certificates, awards, or your
own web site.
The point-and-shoot camera also is ideal for mobile users
such as real estate agents, insurance agents, and general contractors.
from 640x 480 to 1024x 960. Other features of digital cameras are As with a
scanner, the quality of a digital camera is measured by the number of bits it
stores in a dot and the number of dots per inch, or resolution. The higher each
number, the better quality, but the more expensive the camera. Most of today’s
point-and-shoot digital camera are at least 24-bit with a resolution discussed
in chapter 13.
The mouse is the
most widely used pointing device because it takes full advantage of a graphical
user interface. Designer to fit comfortably under the palm of your hand, a mouse
is an input device that is used to control the movement of the pointer on the
screen and to make selections from the screen. She top of the mouse has
one to four buttons. Some also have a small wheel. The bottom of a mouse
is flat and contains a multidirectional mechanism and usually a small ball. The mouse
often rests on a mouse pad, which usually is a rectangular rubber or foam
pad that provides better traction for the mouse than the top of a desk.
The mouse pad also protects the ball mechanism from a build up of dust
and dirt, which could cause it to malfunction.
USING A MOUSE
As you move the mouse across a flat surface such as a
desktop, the pointer on the screen also moves. For example, when you move the mouse
to the right, the pointer moves right on the screen. When you move the mouse to
the left, the pointer moves left on the screen, and so on. If you have never
worked with a mouse, you might find it a little awkward at first, with a
little practice, however, you will discover that a mouse is quite easy to
Generally, you use the mouse to move the pointer on
the screen to an object such as a button, a menu, an icon, a link, or text and
then press one of the mouse buttons to perform a certain action on that
object. In windows98, for example, if you point to the start button on the
taskbar and then press, or click, the primary mouse button, the start
menu displays on the screen.
For a right-handed user, the primary mouse button typically
is the left button, and the secondary mouse button typically is the right mouse
button. The function of these buttons, however, can be reversed to accommodate
You can perform other operations using the mouse in addition
to clicking. These operations include point, right-click, double-click, drag,
and right-drag. Some mouse devices also have a wheel located between two buttons
that can be used with certain programs. You often rotate or press the wheel to
move text and objects on the screen. The function of the mouse buttons and the
wheel varies depending on the program. Some programs also use keys in
combination with the mouse to perform certain actions.
A mouse that has a rubber or metal ball on its underside is
called a mechanical mouse. When the ball rolls in a certain direction,
electronic circuits in the mouse translate the movement of the mouse into
signals that are sent to the computer. Another type of mouse, called an optical
mouse, has no moving mechanical parts inside; instead it uses devices that emit
light to detect the mouse’s movement.
have become an important part of the home office over the last few years.
Scanner technology is everywhere and used in many ways:
scanners, also called desktop scanners, are the most versatile and
commonly used scanners. In fact, this article will focus on the technology as
it relates to flatbed scanners.
scanners are similar to flatbed scanners except the document is moved
and the scan head is immobile. A sheet-fed scanner looks a lot like a small
scanners use the same basic technology as a flatbed scanner, but rely
on the user to move them instead of a motorized belt. This type of scanner
typically does not provide good image quality. However, it can be useful for
quickly capturing text.
Drum scanners are used by the publishing
industry to capture incredibly detailed images. They use a technology called a
photo multiplier tube (PMT). In PMT, the document to be scanned is
mounted on a glass cylinder. At the center of the
cylinder is a sensor that splits light bounced from the document into three
beams. Each beam is sent through a color filter into a photo multiplier tube
where the light is changed into an electrical signal.
Microtel's Scan maker flatbed scanner
A standard computer keyboard
sometimes is called a QWERTY keyboard because of the layout of its typing
area. Pronounced KWER-tee, this keyboard layout is named after the first six
leftmost letters on the top alphabetic line of the keyboard. Because of the
way the keys are organized, a QWERTY keyboard might limit your typing speed. A
keyboard with an alternative layout was designed to improve typing speed.
Called the Dvorak keyboard (pronounced de-vor-zhak),
This type of keyboard places the most frequently typed
letters in the middle of the typing area.
the more logical design of the Dvorak keyboard, the QWERTY keyboard is more
Most of today’s desktop computer keyboards are an enhanced keyboard, which means they have twelve function keys along the top, two CTRL keys, two ALT keys, and a set of arrow and additional keys between the typing area and the numeric keypad.
Although most keyboard attach to a serial port on the system
unit via a cable, some keyboard-called wireless keyboard- transmit data via infrared
light waves. For a wireless keyboard to transmit signals to a computer, both the
computer and the wireless keyboard must have and IrDA port. These IrDA ports
must be aligned so that nothing obstructs the path of the infrared light wave.
wireless keyboard must have and IrDA port. These IrDA ports
must be aligned so that nothing obstructs the path of the infrared light wave.
Regardless of size, most keyboards have a rectangular shape with the keys aligned in rows. Users who spend a significant amount of time typing on thee keyboards sometimes experience repetitive strain injuries of their writs. For these reason, some manufacturers have redesigned their keyboards to minimize the chance of these types of workplaces injuries. Keyboard such as these are called ergonomic is to incorporate comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace.
Provides compatibility with legacy
company is in its fourth quarter of shipping USB devices. As computer companies
continue to stand-arise on legacy- free systems, Telex will continue to lead the
way with innovate USB microphones are perfect for legacy--free systems like
Apple’s iBook or Compaq iPac.
delivers highest- quality digital input and Easy set up.
Ø The result is more accurate speech
Recognition and higher voice quality. This innovative desktop
Ø Works with any USB- equipped PC running Microphone Windows (TM) 98 or
Apple) IBook(TM) systems running Mac OS 9. 0 4.
Because there is no sound card to configure, you simply plug
This desktop microphone provides high – quality audio input
without a headset.
Ø Now you can use voice application without being tethered to your computer by a
Directional Processing (TM) technology cancels background noise.
That consistent audio performance is critical for accurate
result with voice application.
Ø Why Telex has used its more than 60 years of experience in the audio industry to the
unique microphone structure that allows destructive.
Interference to cancel background noise and focus audio
reception on the user’s voice.
The Telex M-560 provides speech recognition up to two feet
away in most office
Effective range is even further for other application. And
performance Cant’ be beat.
for voice application.
The microphone is ideal for all voice application, including
and chat, video conferencing or editing, language labs, voice command
control, and speech dictation.
Users running game software such as a driving of
flight simulator may prefer to use a joystick as their pointing device. A
joystick is a vertical lever mounted on a base (Figure 4-18). You move the lever
in different direction to control the actions of a vehicle or player. The lever
usually includes buttons called triggers that you can press to activate certain
events. Some joysticks also have additional buttons that you can set to perform
Links to their line of game accessories,
including several joysticks.
Home page of AVB Co., manufacturer of joysticks,
force feedback steering wheels, joy pads, and other game control devices.
Offers links to a full line of PC, Macintosh, and
3DO systems joysticks, throttles, F-16 sticks, rudder pedals, flight yokes, game
cards, and trackballs, all manufactured and designed by CH products.
Provides information on calibrating joysticks,
along with programming and connecting this device.
Describe the Demon Gann product; wh9ick is a
joystick type of device (though shaped like a gun), to use in action games like
Doom, Heretic, and other 3D action games.
This page, from Sun remarketing, provides
photographs and descriptions of several mice, trackballs, Mac ALLY joystick, and
queue pads specifically for the Macintosh.
This product review contains a functional review
of Microsoft’s Sidewinder 3D Pro joystick
Computer gamers have been filling
the simulated skies and virtual roadways, enjoying the growing number of
adventure games and flight simulators available on the market. Joystick
manufacturers have kept pace with the explosion of software, providing a variety
of input devices designed to make your armchair experiences closer to the
reality of maneuvering a jet fighter or racecar.
of the new joysticks are programmable, providing greater control and
customization as you play your favorite games. The serious joystick user
certainly needs more control than just up/down and left/right; even the
occasional gamer knows that game performance depends upon fine-tuning your
Windows 95 provides a joystick configuration feature among its Control Panel
icons. This feature lets you define property settings for multiple joystick
devices, making sure they’re properly
Just connect the joystick device you want to calibrate
to your computer. In Win95, left-click the Start button, and select Settings.
From the Settings menu, left-click Control Panel. From within Control Panel,
double left-click the Joystick icon. The Joystick properties window will open.
This window lets you save the property settings for any joysticks, flight yokes,
or game pads you’ll be using. First, select the Current Joystick by
left-clicking the down arrow and then left-clicking the appropriate number (1
Move down to the Joystick Configuration section in the window. If the current joystick has not been calibrated, “None” will be displayed. If it has been....
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