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  Cendrawasih Bay Marine National Park
General Info

Coral Reefs


Giant Clam


Sea Mammals

Coconut Crab



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Copyright WWF (1999)

Location: Southwest quarter of Cendrawasih Bay, Irian Jaya

Coordinates: 0143'-0322' S and 13406'-13510 E

Status: National Park  

Established: September 2, 1993 (Decree of Ministry of Forestry of Republic of Indonesia No. 472/Kpts-II/1993)

Size (km2): 1,453.5

IUCN Category: II


The park comprises the southwest quarter of Cenderawasih Bay which lies to the east of the isthmus connecting the Vogelkop Peninsula to the mainland.  The park falls within the administrative districts of Manokwari and Nabire.  Access is by sea from the towns of Manokwari and Nabire, which lie 95 km and 38 km north and east, respectively.  Air transport is available from Manokwari, Biak and Nabire.

The reserves support a wide spectrum of relatively undisturbed coastal and marine habitats, of which the extensive coral reefs rank amongst the finest in the world. The marine habitats, particularly contain a number of rare and commercially important species, provide the basis for the local fishing industry and have a high potential for visitor use and research.

Photographer: Setyadi, Gesang (WWF, 1997)The park consist of 80 km2  coral reefs, 1,305.3 km2 seas, 12.4 km2 coastal plain and 55,8 km2 islands bounded by 500 km coastline.  The park keeps a wide variety of important marine species, from Scleractinia corals to giant whales.  Many of them is endangered (see also CITES lists) and protected by Indonesian law.  There are five reef types in the park: fringing reef, barrier reef, patch reef, atoll and shallow water reef mound.  The diversity of Scleractinia coral species in the park is enormous, including Acropora, Porites, Pocillopora and Favites families.  Salm et. al. (1982) reported 130 species (62 genus and subgenus).  Furthermore, Gilkes and Adipati (1987) reported 145 species of 67 genus of coral.  WWF survey in  1997 found 201 species of 64 genus and subgenus.

The steep and incised topography of the western coastal mountains and the Wandamen and Kwatisore peninsulas to the south, reflect their position on the convergence of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. Five major reef types are found, of which fringing reefs are the most extensive, bordering most of the mainland coastline and the major continental islands. The island of the Auri archipelago are composed of a steep-sided patch reef. Reef topography varies from gently shelving shallow water to vertical cliffs 40-5-m in depth  | Back to top |

The park includes habitat of Butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae), Angel fishes (Pomacanthridae), Wrasess (Labridae), Parrot fishes (Scaridae), Surgeon fishes (Acanthuridae), Rabbit fishes (Siganidae), Trigger fishes (Balistidae) and other reef fishes.  Gilkes and Adipati (1987) recorded 209 fish species in the park, while the 1984 survey (WWF/KSDA/YPMD/Fisheries) recorded 305 species.  WWF survey in 1997 recorded 208 fish species.  Sharks and rays also inhabits the park, including White-tip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) and Black-tip reef shark (Charcariuns melanopterus).  Economic valued fishes inhabits the park includes Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae, grouper (Serranidae), trevally (Carangidae), mackerel (Scomberomorus sp.), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus sp.) and tuna (Eythunnus sp.)         | Back to top |

Photographer: Setyadi, Gesang (WWF, 1997)Gilkes and Adipati (1987) recorded 196 species of molluscs, includes 153 gastropods, 40 bivalves and 2 cephalopods.  There are six species of Tridacna clams found in the park: giant clam (Tridacna gigas), small giant clam (T. maxima), southern giant clam (T. derasa), scaly clam (T. squamosa), boring clam (T. crocea) and bear's paw clam (Hippopus hippopus).  The largest giant clam recorded in the park reached 1.5 in diameter.  There are also some gastropods such as triton trumpet (Charonia tritonis), horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) and top shell lola (Trochus niloticus) as well as rare green snail (Turbo marmoratus).  Other snails such as cowries (Cyprea sp.), stormbid (Lambis sp.) and cone shell (Conus sp.) are abundant in the sea floor.  | Back to top |

Photographer: Setyadi, Gesang (WWF, 1997)The park  includes nesting habitat for green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata).  The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) are known to feed in the bay. The islands of Nusambier, Iwari, Kuwom, Matas and Wairundi and several mainland beaches have been recorded as turtle nesting beaches.  In some beaches, sea crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is sometimes found.  | Back to top |

The park also includes feeding habitat of three sea mammals, Dugong (Dugong dugon), dolphin (Delpinus delphis) and whale.  According to Salm et. al.(1982),  dugong inhabit the sea grass bed in the southern coast of Mios Waar island as well as some mainland beaches.  In 1982 aerial survey, 13 dugongs found in the west coast of the park.  | Back to top |

Coconut crab (Birgus latro) is the largest living terrestrial arthropod (Helfman, 1979 in Salm et. al., 1982).  Carapace reaches to 30 cm.  Hothius (1959, 1963) in Salm et. al.(1982) reported that some islands of Wairundi, Nukup and Auri is the habitat of the crab.  Islanders of the park called Manggaperba.  | Back to top |

Over exploitation of marine resources, such as turtles and giant clams by local and itinerant fishermen is a serious problem throughout the park. Particularly badly affected is the Tridacna Reef where the giant clam population has been decimated. Other serious problems are the use of explosives by itinerant fishermen, which have degraded large areas of reef, and loss of vegetation on several of the Auri islands due to the felling of Casuarina for fuel. This has resulted in soil erosion and loss of nesting bird habitat.  | Back to top |

Further information available on:

National Park Authority

Tel/Fax. (+62-986) 212437


Marine and Coastal Conservation Science

WWF Indonesia-Sahul Bioregion Program

10, Jalan Angkasa Indah II Jayapura 99113 Irian Jaya Indonesia

Tel. (+62-967) 542765, 542420 Fax. (0967) 542529



Nabire Office

15, Jalan RE Martadinata, Nabire 98817 Irian Jaya Indonesia

Tel/Fax. (+62-967) 21289



Manokwari Office

Tel/Fax. (+62-986) 212784


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Copyright 2000 Conservation Science WWF Indonesia-Sahul Bioregion