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HEALTH - HAZARDS
AND VETERINARIANS

FAQ provided by rec.pets.birds

Comments, suggestions, chocolates to: Jodi Giannini (giannini@nova.umd.edu). This FAQ, as a collection of information, is copyrighted 1993, by Jodi L. Giannini, and distribution by means other than Usenet is by permission only. Removal of this copyright notice is not permitted.
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INDEX


FINDING A VET HEALTH HAZARDS
FEATHER JUNCTION INDEX PROMOTIONAL LINKS E-MAIL US!!



FINDING AN AVIAN VET


A vet plays an integral part in the life of you and your bird. S/he can offer advice, options, information, and of course, medicinal care! Before you even buy a bird, make sure you have a vet.

Q. Where can I find an avian vet?

A. Try looking in the yellow pages, asking a breeder or another friend for a recommendation.

Q. What do I look for when I go to check out the vet?

A. A number of things: Is the office clean and does it have proper equipment? Look for or ask to see bird-related equipment like an incubator, special bird syringes--to administer small doses, opthalmic equipment--for surgery and for sexing, perhaps a laser if the office is advanced enough. Ask for a tour when it's convenient for the doctor and the staff! Most vets will gladly do this--they're usually very proud of what they can offer to their avian patients. Do you like the doctor's manner and personality? Are you encouraged to and do you feel comfortable asking questions? Does the doctor take the time to explain things? Will the doctor refer you to a specialist if this is what the bird needs? Can--and will the doctor admit when s/he doesn't know? Are the fees and rates explained to you? Do the costs seem reasonable? Are various tests available and used? Are the purposes of these tests made clear to you? Are these tests needed or are they extraneous? Does your vet own any birds?

Q. The vet I have for my dog doesn't seem to know a lot about birds. Will he be offended if I go to another vet?

A. If the vet's worth their salt, no. They should always have the animals' best interest at hearts. If you feel very badly, continue to bring the dog to your regular vet, and the bird to a vet with an interest with birds.

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HEALTH


Q. How do I tell if my bird is sick?

A. The best indicator would be the bird's droppings. Bright green or watery droppings are not a good sign. Also a sick bird will sit huddled and puffed up, with its eyes closed. The bird's song may change or stop and it may stop talking. Wheezing or sneezing or a nasal discharge is bad news. The bird might "pump" its tail. It may not eat or it may consume vast amounts of water. Observe your bird every day, that way when something occurs out of the ordinary, you'll notice. Also, birds often don't manifest signs of sickness until they're really in trouble. Watch for warning signs, and act on them--get that bird to a vet. Better safe than sorry.

Q. Do I really need to clip my bird's wings?

A. A lot of people think it's mean to clip a bird's wings. "What good is a bird that can't fly?" Well, it's a bird that you won't lose. Wing clipping is painless, like getting a haircut. The bird won't end up injured due to flying in the house. Clipping also keeps the bird from getting too smart-alecky and it is an aid in the taming process. Different birds require different patterns of clipping. A cockatiel is such a powerful flyer that usually all the primaries have to be trimmed. Ask your vet or breeder to show you how to do it, and then you can do it yourself from there. If you do it, it's actually less stressing for the bird, and no, the bird won't hate you. Make sure to check for bloodfeathers before clipping wings.

Q. If I clip my bird's wings, how soon will they grow back? What if I pull the feathers out instead? Do they come back quicker that way?

A. A feather that is cut, clipped, broken or bent will be replaced during the next molt, no matter how awful, raggedy or good it looks. However, if a feather is pulled out (ouch!) and as long as there is no damage to the follicle (the area that the feather grows from, like our hair follicles) the bird's body will immediately begin replacing the feather. This new feather, until it is mature, will have a blood supply to it. (see BLOODFEATHER) Some people prefer to pull out wingfeathers, rather than cutting them, because it looks nicer. This not only hurts (imagine someone 'trimming' your hair by yanking out bunches), it also puts stress on the bird's body. Feathers are all protein, and having to replace many, large wingfeathers at once depletes bodily resources.

Q. My bird's nails are overgrown. Can they be trimmed?

A. Yes. Use either a pair of nail clippers or special bird claw scissors. Look for the "quick", the vein that is in the claw. You can see in it light colored claws as a pinkish stripe. In dark claws, you can turn the bird over to see the underside of the claw and the quick. You may want to have someone show you how to clip them first. Provide different perches and surfaces to keep claws in trim naturally. If you do hit the quick, dip the claw into some styptic powder to staunch the bleeding.

Q. My bird's beak is overgrown. What do I do?

A. An overgrown beak usually means that the bird doesn't have enough to gnaw on, which is how the bird keeps the beak trimmed in the wild. A vet or experienced breeder must trim the beak, as it is full of blood vessels, and a mishap could be very serious. Offer the bird toys to chew on or lava blocks or such to help keep the beak trimmed.

Q. Does my bird need a bath?

A. Yes! Most birds love baths, and will bathe in a dish or in the shower with you or like to be spritzed with a plant mister set to fine. It's excellent for the bird's plumage and with "dusty" birds, like cockatoos, helps keep down the dust. Some birds may have to be gradually introduced to misting, but it's a good move. You can let the bird dry by itself (as long as the ambient temperature in your house is at *least* 60 degrees Farenheit (16 Celsius) or use a hairdryer set on medium heat. Never put a wet bird to bed for the night.

Q. Do I need to install full-spectrum lighting?

A. It's a good idea, especially since birds really don't get enough sunlight in an apartment or some homes. You can get the bulbs at pet stores or order them directly. These bulbs are called "R" bulbs meaning that they cannot be used with a covered fixture. This includes track lighting and recessed lighting--anything with a "shade" even if the "shade" is made of metal. Check with the manufacturer, or get in touch with the local electrician. The lighting should be placed 4 to 8 feet away from the cage, in an ordinary light socket (no shade!) The light should only be hitting a portion of the cage. The bulbs should be used a *minimum* of 10 (ten) hours a week.

Q. What about an air-filtration system?

A. Maybe. If you find you're sensitive to the dust from your birds. They help reduce the dust load greatly. If you have a lot of birds, this is a good idea. Also, if you smoke, it would be a good idea to have a filtration system for the sake of your birds.

Q. What about stress in my bird?

A. The best cure for stress is prevention! Make sure the bird is healthy, has a good diet and isn't bored. But if this all checks out, think about the bird's surroundings: Did it recently get a new cage or was the cage moved? Did you rearrange the furniture? Change the diet? Remember, birds are usually suspicious of any new thing. Stress is serious, it's a physical reaction to mental and physical strain. A bird can become stressed when you go away for a long period of time, like a vacation. Infections can be a cause of stress--the bird is fighting to maintain homeostasis. Even strong perfume or even smoke can be a stressor. Natural processes, such as breeding or molting can cause stress. Of course, what may stress one bird may be of no consequence to another.


"Help! My bird's NAKED! Why does it pluck?"


This behavior is most common in African Greys. Plucking is usually brought on by stress, but sometimes skin problems can cause it. Parakeets sometimes will pluck their older babies, in order to get them out of the nest, so that they can clutch again. Cockatiels might do it as well. A bird may denude itself because it wants to breed, but cannot, as it's a pet. Sometimes, plucking is acceptable, as when a hen may pluck her brooding area to transfer her body heat better. Boredom can cause plucking. A diet that is poor can cause this behavior, too. Once started, it usually is a very hard habit to break, and even if "cured" the bird may regress back to plucking if it gets upset. Even a minor change may trigger plucking.

Q. How do I stop the bird from plucking?

A. First, take it to the vet to rule out any medical causes. Consider any changes in the bird's environment. Even little things. A plucker may be dissuaded from its habit by giving the bird a toy with rope or fabric or anything the bird can tear up. Polly Dolly (tm) toys are great for pluckers. There are bitter apple sprays available, but they usually don't work. Collars can be used, but don't ever try to do this without a vet's help, or the bird could get hurt.

Q. Do I need to vaccinate my birds?

A. There are pros and cons to vaccinations. The biggest drawback is that every bird will react differently to the same vaccination. Some birds become paralyzed, others blind, some die, some aren't even bothered. I would think that one or two domestic birds kept as pets wouldn't need it. Birds in a large, mixed, business aviary, maybe. I don't feel qualified to give advice on this one. Ask your vet. They'll be able to explain it to you, correctly and in depth.

Q. What's a hospital cage?

A. It's a small, enclosed cage that has a heater in it, and usually a humidifier. A hospital cage can be warmed up, which makes it easier for the sick bird to maintain its normally high body temperature. The humidifer helps ease respiratory problems. You can make such a cage by using a small aquarium, and placing a heating pad under it. Put a thermometer in the bottom corner where the bird will be. Put some bedding in there, along with food and water, and cover with towels. Place in a dim room. The temperature should be about 85 to 90 degrees Farenheit (27 to 32 degrees Celsius). If you're really in a pinch, place the cage, wrapped in towels, near a lightbulb.

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HAZARDS


Q. What are some common hazards?


A.	Animals (Cat and dog saliva is very hazardous to birds)
	Aquariums (Uncovered = drowning)
	Carpet (getting snagged)
	Ceiling fans
	Children (Unless they know how to handle the bird)
	Chimneys/fireplaces
	Curtains/Drapes (can get toenails caught)
	Electrical wires, fixtures
	Feet
	Fannies
	Mirrors
	Phone cords
	Pots on the stove
	PTFE  (found in Teflon, Silverstone)
	(Polytetrafluoroethylene)--given off by nonstick pans overheated
	to 536 or higher degrees Farenheit (280 or higher Celsius)-- is
	very toxic to birds, death occurs within a few minutes.
	Stovetops
	Windows



Q. What are some of the common household poisons?


A.	Aerosols		Drain cleaner		Pine Oil
	Alcohol			Gasoline		Paint remover
	Antifreeze		Insecticides		Paint thinner
	Aspirin			Kerosene		Rat/Mouse poison
	Bleach			Medicine		Shellac
	Caffeine		Mothballs		Shoe Polish
	Cigarette smoke		Paint (Lead-based)	Suntan lotions
	Deodorants		Perfume			Waxes
	Dishwasher detergent



Q. I have plants in my home. What ones are safe and what are dangerous?

A. Tom Przybylski przybyls@avo.hp.com posted the following list of dangerous plants (taken from the October '87 Bird Talk Magazine) to the group:

The article gives latin names as well that I did not copy in. The symptoms codes are: GI = gastrointestinal, CV = cardiovascular, BL = blood abnormalities, CNS = nervous system, IR = irritant, UR = urinary tract, CY = signs associated with cyanide poisoning, RE = reproductive. The text of the article gives more information and detail on the symptoms.

All or part of the listed plant may be deemed hazardous



		COMMON NAME		     SYMPTOMS

----------------------------------------------------------------

Autumn crocus or Meadow saffron			GI
Avocado						GI
Azelea						GI
Baneberry					GI
Castor						GI
Horse, Fava, Broad Java				BL
Glory, Scarlet Runner				CY
Mescal						CNS
Rosary peas, Ind. Licorice			GI
Bird of Paradise				GI
Bleeding Heart or Dutchman's Breeches		CNS
Bloodroot					GI
Boxwood						GI
Bracken Fern					BL
Buckthorn					GI
Amaryllis					GI
Daffodil, Narcissus				GI
Hyacinth					GI
Iris						GI
Caladium					IR
Calla Lily					IR
Cardinal Flower					CNS
Chalice or Trumpet Vine				GI
Cherry Tree					CNS
Chinaberry Tree					CNS
Christmas Candle or Rose			GI
Clematis or Virginia Bower			CNS
Coral Plant					GI
Cowslip, Marsh Marigold				CNS
Daphne						GI
Death Camas					CNS
Dieffenbachia, or Dumb Cane			IR
Elderberry					CNS
Elephants Ear or Taro				IR
Eucalyptus Tree - not dried, dyed, treated	CY*
Euonymus or Spindle Tree			GI
False Hellebore					CV
Firethorn, Pyracantha				IR*
Four O'Clock					GI
Foxglove					CV
Golden Chain					CNS
Grass: Johnson, Sorghum, Sudan, Broomcorn	CY
Ground Cherry					GI
Poison						CNS
Water						CNS
Henbane						CNS
Holly						GI
Honeysuckle					GI*
Horsechestnut or Buckeye			GI
Horsetail					CNS
Hydrangea					CNS
Ivy, English, varieties				GI*
Jack-in-the-Pulpit or Ind. Turnip		IR
Jasmine						GI, CNS
Jimson Weed or Thornapple			CNS
Kentucky Coffee Tree				CNS
Lantana						CNS
Larkspur					CV
Lily-of-the-Valley				CV
Black						GI
Honey						RE
Lord and Ladies or cuckoopint			GI
Lupines or Bluebonnet				CNS
Marijuana or Hemp				CNS
Mayapple, Mandrake				GI
Mistletoe					GI
Mock Orange					GI, CNS
Monkshood, Aconite				CV
Moonseed					CNS
Morning Glory					CNS
Mushrooms - Amanita, others			GI, CNS
Nettles						CNS, CV
Nightshades: Deadly, Black, Garden		GI, CNS
Woody, Bittersweet, Eggplant			GI, CNS
Jerusalem Cherry, Potato shoots			GI, CNS
Oaks						GI
Oleander					CV
Periwinkle					CNS
Philodendrons: var. Split Leaf, Swiss Cheese	IR*
Pigweed						BL
Poinsetta					IR*
Poison Ivy					IR
Poison Oak: Western, Eastern			IR
Pokeweed or Inkberry				GI
Privet						GI
Rain Tree					GI
Ranunculus, Buttercup				CNS
Red Maple					GI
Rhubarb leaves					UR
Rhododendrons, Azaleas, Laurels			GI
Sandbox Tree					GI
Skunk Cabbage					IR
Sorrel, Dock					CNS
Snowdrop					GI
Spurges:	Pencil Tree			GI, IR
Snow on the Mountain				GI, IR
Candelabra Tree					GI, IR
Crown of Thorns					GI, IR
Sweet Pea and related peas			CNS
Tansy Ragwort					CNS
Tobacco, Tree Tobacco				CNS
Vetch						CY
Virginia Creeper				GI
Wisteria					GI
Yews						CV, GI
Yellow Jasmine					CNS


*  These plants have been used in aviaries without reported problems
   and may be considered of questionable hazard to birds.



Q. I'm worried about my bird getting stolen. What can I do?

A. Your best bet is not to tell people the worth of your birds. If you have to transport them, do so in a covered carrier and tell them you have a canary. If you have a big bird, you might want to lock it in the cage and keep the keys with you. I doubt a crook will try to make off with a 215 pound wrought-iron cage just because the bird's locked inside of it. Teach your bird your name, address and phone number. If you have a lot of birds, invest in an alarm system. Don't put the bird in a window where people can look in and see it. If you have a very rare, expensive or just much-loved bird, consider having a transponder planted in its chest. It's painless and effective.

Q. How can I make sure that I can postively identify my bird should it be stolen? (Heaven forbid!)

A. Teach your bird your full name, address and phone number if at all possible. Keep your receipt, which should have the bird's band number on it. The thief will, in all likelihood cut off the band, though. Make an audiotape of the bird speaking, especially if it says something that's unique. Make a videotape of the bird, if it does tricks. Take photographs of feet and beak, they're just like fingerprints, each unique. With Macaws, the feather lines on the facial patch are good identification. All these lines vary slightly from bird to bird. Photograph any unusual physical features, like scars or marks or missing toes and the like. You can get the bird tattooed with an I.D. number, but bird skin is thin, and doesn't hold the tattoo well. It fades quickly and has to be retouched every so often. It also is very stressing for the bird. Transponders are effective, painless and undetectable.

Q. Is there such thing as bird insurance?

A. Yes, there is. You may be able to get additional coverage from your company, but usually not. The loss of a bird will not be covered by your homeowner/rental policy, either. However, there is a company called Avi-Care that has a standard policy which provides coverage against theft and death. Premiums begin at 9.5% of the bird's market value. There is also an optional veterinary coverage at additional cost. For futher information call or write to:


		Complete Equity Markets, Inc.
		Avicare Divison
		1098 South Milwaukee Avenue
		Wheeling, IL, 60090-6398
		1-800-323-6234


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