All Legislative powers herein delegated shall be vested in a Congress of the Federation of American States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
(1) The House of Representatives of the Federation of American States shall be composed of members chosen every four years by the Citizens of the several States and each Representative shall have one vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into two classes. The Seats of the Representatives of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year and of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year so that one-half may be chosen every second year. Only States shall have voting Representatives but territories or other protectorates may elect non-voting Representatives who can participate in debates or other matters as allowed by Rules of the House.
(2) Only a natural-born Citizen, a naturalized Citizen of twenty or more years, a Citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or a Citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the adoption of this Constitution shall be a Representative provided that they are between twenty-five and sixty-five years of age and when elected, be an inhabitant of the State and District for which chosen.
(3) Six years after adoption of this Constitution a person shall be a resident of their State for five years before qualifying as a Representative.
(4) Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States, which may be included within this Federation, shall be determined by the whole number of Citizens only. The number of Representatives shall be found by multiplying 0.000002 times the population of each individual State and rounding up to the next whole number (each State shall have at least one Representative) and their Districts shall be divided as evenly as possible by population. Enumerations shall be made every subsequent term of ten years from the last official United States enumeration and any census questions other than those to establish the official national population is prohibited. Until the next scheduled enumeration is accomplished the States shall be entitled to the same number of Representatives as in the present United States Congress.
(5) At the next and all future enumerations State Legislatures shall define Congressional Districts for the election of Representatives consistent with the terms of this Constitution and said Districts shall be geographically compact and contiguous and whenever possible, shall not divide existing counties and disregarding the demographics of the inhabitants. Each State shall have the burden of justifying any departures from this requirement by reference to neutral criteria such as natural, political, or historical boundaries. The interest in enhancing or preserving the political power of the party in control of the State government shall not be considered a neutral criterion.
(6) When vacancies happen in the representation from any State or a Representative has not been elected the Governor thereof may appoint a qualified Citizen who lives in the same district and shall issue writs of election to fill the vacancy as the Legislature may, by law, provide for.
(7) The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
(1) The Senate of the Federation of American States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen for six years by the Legislature thereof, at the regular session next immediately preceding the commencement of the term of service; and each Senator shall have one vote. Only States shall have voting Senators.
(2) Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, a Senator has not been chosen, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Governor thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
(3) Only a natural-born Citizen, a naturalized Citizen of twenty or more years, a Citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or a Citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the adoption of this Constitution shall be a Senator provided that they are between thirty and sixty-five years of age and when elected, be an inhabitant of the State for which chosen.
(4) Six years after adoption of this Constitution a person shall be a resident of their State for five years before qualifying as a Senator.
(5) The Vice President of the Federation shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they are equally divided.
(6) The Senate shall choose their other officers; and also a President pro tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the Federation.
(7) Each State shall have the power to recall either or both Senators at any time within their term of office and to send others in their stead for the remainder of their term of office.
(8) The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, subject to the provisions of this Constitution. If State law provides for their popular election then contested senatorial seats may be placed on the same primary and general election ballots as Representatives.
(9) The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
(10) During an impeachment of the Vice President he shall not preside over the Senate.
(11) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit or any elected office under this Federation; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
(1) The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year and the terms of Senators and Representatives shall end at noon on the first Monday in September and the terms of their successors shall then begin unless they shall, by law, appoint a different day.
(2) Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.
(3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings (which shall be available for public inspection and shall only be introduced or changed at either the beginning or end of their session), punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds of the whole number, expel a member.
(4) All proceedings of the Congress, its committees, formal conferences and discussions of its Members, or other forums where public business is discussed (except where state secrets, sensitive defense issues, political party meetings, or individual personal information is discussed) shall be open to the public and the press.
(5) Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
(6) Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days; nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses are sitting.
(7) The Congress shall adjourn the day before a Federal election and stay adjourned until the new Congress is seated if a majority of its incumbent members are replaced by a new majority. The President shall have the power to wavier this Clause in the case of a national emergency. The first order of business for the new Congress shall be a complete reading of this Constitution and any Articles of Amendment before the Congress and is desired that every elected or appointed public service official, students of all ages, and the People at large should be taught age appropriate lessons on the Declaration of Independence, selected Federalist Papers, Articles of Confederation, all United States and Confederate Constitutions, this Constitution, and any other documents to foster understanding of the same at least once a year.
(1) Senators and Representatives shall receive for their services compensation, benefits, and allowances for themselves and staff members from the State they represent and shall not establish or fund a retirement-pension system supported by the Treasury for any service as an elected public official. They shall not receive within their terms of office any other compensation from the Federation, any other State, or foreign power except if assigned to a congressional committee or other duties beyond representing their State. They shall affirm to their States or Districts before submitting or voting on a bill before Congress that they have read and understood it.
(2) Senators and Representatives shall be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same. For any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place except in the case of treason, felony, breach of the peace, or defamation of others under the color of his office. Every official and Citizen has the right to be protected by law from malignant scandal, false charges, and defamatory imputations against individual persons uttered by a Member of Congress from his seat. Each Senator and Representative shall cast his vote in person; no proxy voting is allowed in committees or before the full Senate or House of Representatives and each vote on any subject shall be recorded in the respective House's journal.
(3) No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of this Constitution, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time except for scheduled raises in salary that applies to all appointed and elected government employees and officials; and no person holding any office under this Constitution shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office. But Congress may, by law, grant to the principal officer in each of the executive departments a non-voting Seat upon the floor of either House, with the privilege of discussing any measures appertaining to his department.
(4) A Citizen who is a Senator or Representative, or any combination thereof, shall not hold elected office for more than twelve years plus the remainder of their current term if the twelve year term limit is reached before the normal expiration of their term of office nor shall any Citizen hold any elected Federal office beyond age sixty-six years plus the remainder of their current term if the age limit is reached before the normal expiration of their office.
(5) A full expense accounting shall be made of all funds spent by Congress, the President, and Vice President, all executive departments and Federal agencies on their operations and shall be made available for public examination except in the case where state secrets, personal information, or sensitive defense information may be compromised.
(6) Every elected or appointed public service official should conduct their lives and careers with the highest standards of personal integrity and ethics and should be removed from office if their conduct goes against those standards or if their actions are not in the best interests for the People.
(7) No Member of Congress, military officers, civil service employees, nor any member of their immediate family as defined by law, shall become a lobbyist or a consultant for any public, private or international entity doing business with the Federal government for five years after leaving Congress or their prior position.
(8) Before a Senator or Representative enters on the execution of their office, they shall take the following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon me as required under the Constitution and laws of the Federation of American States; and that I will support and defend the Constitution of the same against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion."
(1) All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. A system of taxation adopted in a free state must be just and equal in its operation as between individuals, classes, and sections; and be generally and thoroughly understood by the People and that taxing or other power given for one purpose cannot rightfully be exercised for any other.
(2) Every bill which shall have passed both Houses (provided that each House shall have precisely the same text in their versions), shall, before it becomes a law not violate this Constitution, laws of nature, and of nature's God, and be presented to the President. If he approves, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays and holidays excluded) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevents its return; in which case it shall not be a law. The President may approve any appropriation and disapprove any other appropriation in the same bill. In such case he shall, in signing the bill, designate the appropriations disapproved; and shall return a copy of such appropriations, with his objections, to the House in which the bill shall have originated; and the same proceedings shall then be had as in case of other bills disapproved by the President.
(3) Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of both Houses may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of both Houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.
(4) Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate to but one subject and that shall be expressed in the title.
(5) Congress shall pass no law that does not contain a concise and definite statement of the constitutional authority relied upon for the enactment of each portion of that law and shall automatically expire no greater than five years after it is signed into law. The taxing power of Congress can only be exercised only to raise revenue to defray the expenses of government, defend the state, or for some other purpose specified in the grant of the power and insure a real and effective fiscal responsibility on the part of all officials in every department of government.
(6) Laws that affect the People's freedoms, wealth, or property shall base their decisions on sound and legitimate scientific and economic research; not on politics, public or world opinion, or political correctness.
(7) After a bill or resolution has been rejected by either House of Congress no bill or resolution containing the same substance shall be passed into a law during the same session.
(8) No law shall be revised or amended by reference to its title; but in such case the act revised, or section amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length.
(9) Congress shall not delegate their law or rule making power therefore any administrative regulation, fee, mandate or rule written by any Federal agency shall not go into effect unless said administrative regulation is acted upon by Congress according to the rules and limitations prescribed as in the case of a bill.
(10) No part of any appropriation shall be used for publicity or propaganda purposes unless approved by Congress or shall any appropriation fund any general propaganda effort to aid any political party, cause, incumbent, or candidates for any public office.
(11) Any bill that has the written support of more than five percent of the total membership in either the Senate or the House of Representatives shall be presented before their respective house for a vote.
(12) Any bill shall be made available for public inspection five working days before being voted upon by the Congress excepting those parts that must remain secret if it pertains to national security and defense.
(13) Congress shall appropriate no money from the Treasury except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses, taken by yeas and nays, unless it be asked and estimated for by the executive departments and submitted to Congress by the President; or for the purpose of paying its own expenses and contingencies; or for the payment of claims against this Federation, the justice of which shall have been judicially declared by a tribunal for the investigation of claims against the Government, which it is hereby made the duty of Congress to establish.
(14) All bills appropriating money shall specify the exact amount of each appropriation and the purposes for which it is made; and Congress shall grant no extra compensation to any public contractor, officer, agent, or servant, after such contract shall have been made or such service rendered.
(15) All direct taxes for national security and defense and other common expenses provided for by this Constitution allotted to the individual States shall be paid to the Treasury on a set schedule only when funds are appropriated by Congress with credits towards a State that funds and performs functions provided for by this Constitution to the Federation but delegated to a State.
(1) Four years after the adoption of this Constitution total outlays for any fiscal year shall not exceed ninety-five percent of receipts for that fiscal year, unless two-thirds of the whole number of each House of Congress shall provide for, by law, for a specific excess of outlays over receipts by a roll call vote recorded in each House's respective journal.
(2) Prior to each fiscal year the President shall transmit to the Congress a proposed budget in which total outlays, including repayment of debt principal, shall not exceed ninety-five percent of projected total receipts for that fiscal year.
(3) Total receipts shall include all receipts of the Federation, including those derived from borrowing, and shall not be increased unless two-thirds of the whole number of each House shall provide for, by law, an increase by a roll call vote recorded in each House's respective journal.
(4) The limit on the national debt shall not be increased unless approved by a majority of the States through the Senate.
(5) No bill to increase revenue shall become law unless approved by a two-thirds majority of the whole number of each House by a roll call vote recorded in each House's respective journal.
(6) The Congress may waive the provisions of this Section for any fiscal year in which a declaration of war is in effect or a national emergency in which there is an imminent threat to national security and defense and is so declared by the President and adopted by a majority of the Congress. Temporary taxes may be imposed to financially support the expenses of a declared war or national emergency provided that said taxes expire no greater than three years after said war or national emergency is terminated.
(7) Any bill, resolution, or other Legislative measure renewing extant, creating new, or increasing current fees, duties, and excise taxes shall be approved by a two-thirds majority of both Houses of Congress, shall automatically expire in ten years, be a standalone bill not combined with other legislation, not exceed five percent, and the votes and names of all Members shall be entered in the respective House's journal.
(8) The power of Congress to appropriate any funds shall be limited to carrying into execution the powers enumerated by this Constitution and vested in this Federation, or in any department or officer thereof.
(1) Congress shall have power to review all executive and other agreements with any foreign power or international organization. All such agreements may be subject to the same limitations and procedures imposed on treaties as provided elsewhere in this Constitution if Congress chooses to act. A provision of an international agreement shall become effective as internal law only through legislation in which the treaty is treated according to the rules and limitations prescribed as in the case of a bill.
(2) No treaty shall authorize or permit any foreign power or any international organization to supervise, control, or adjudicate rights of Citizens enumerated in this Constitution or any other matter essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of this Federation or the several States.
(3) A provision of a treaty or other international agreement which conflicts with this Constitution, or which is not made in pursuance thereof, or expands or diminishes the authority or jurisdiction of either the President, Congress, the courts, the States beyond that granted them by this Constitution, diminishes the rights of Citizens, or overrides, supplants, alters, or terminates the sovereignty of the individual States, the territories, or other protectorates shall not be of any force or effect. This clause shall equally apply to all individual State laws, regulations and their constitutions including court decisions, heritage, culture, and customs thereof.
(4) The Federation shall not enter into a treaty or other international agreement that would provide for the Federation to adopt as legal tender any currency issued by an entity other than the Central Bank.
The Congress shall have the power:
(1) To provide for the national security and defense of the nation, insure energy and food independence, secure the international borders, regulate environmental or public health, issues that affect two or more States or to carry out international agreements, and to eradicate or control harmful non-native species and diseases.
(2) To lay and collect fees, duties, imposts, or other non-income taxes to raise revenue necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common defense, and carry out the duties of this Federation. But no bounties or funding shall be granted from the Treasury to fund any private or public subsidies, safety, health care, pensions, retirement, welfare, or entitlement programs (except where stated elsewhere in this Constitution) nor shall any duties or taxes on importations be laid to promote or foster any branch of industry or agriculture, and all fees, duties, imposts, and taxes shall be uniform throughout the nation.
(3) To borrow money on the credit of the government but this power or higher taxation shall not be used to pay off irresponsible government spending.
(4) To regulate commerce with foreign powers, Indian Nations, and economic zones off the territorial coast beyond twelve miles or as defined by treaties and international laws.
(5) To make all laws that are necessary and proper to regulate commerce among the several States but shall not be construed to include the power to regulate or prohibit any activity that is confined within a single State regardless of its effects outside the State, whether it employs instrumentalities therefrom, or whether its regulation or prohibition is part of a comprehensive regulatory scheme; but Congress shall have power to regulate harmful emissions between one or more States, and to define and provide for punishment of offenses constituting acts of war or violent insurrection against the Confederate States. Intrastate or domestic commerce which occurs solely within the geographic borders of an individual State shall only be subject to the exclusive control of the State Legislature unless they, by law, enable any Federal regulation of commerce law.
(6) To establish uniform laws of naturalization, Uniform Commercial Code, and bankruptcies throughout the nation but no law of Congress shall discharge any debt contracted before the passage of the same nor shall grant birthright citizenship.
(7) To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin; charter, insure, and regulate banks and other financial institutions that operate across two or more States; and to establish a Central Bank overseen by the Department of the Treasury to carry out these powers.
(8) To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of this Federation.
(9) To fix the standards of weights, measures, the national flag, and other national emblems or symbols and Congress or the States may pass laws to protect the flag or other national emblems or symbols from desecration.
(10) To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.
(11) To constitute general and special Federal courts and other tribunals subordinate to the Supreme Court.
(12) To define and punish terrorism, human trafficking, piracies, and all felonies committed on the high seas or in the air and offenses against the law of nations.
(13) To declare war, grant letters of marquee and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water but this grant of power shall not be so construed as to prevent the President from adopting all measures necessary to maintain the national security and defense and protect Citizens in foreign countries, and for these purposes the President may deploy the Armed Forces for a period of time no greater than ninety days without approval of Congress.
(14) To raise (through conscription if needed) and maintain the Armed Forces. The Armed Forces shall collectively consist of, but not be limited to, the National Guard, State Militias when called to national service, military academies, reserve officer training corps detachments, and other reserve military forces or uniformed services that Congress may, by law, provide for.
(15) To make rules for the government and regulation of the Armed Forces.
(16) To provide for calling forth the National Guard to execute the laws of this Federation, augment the Armed Forces, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
(17) To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the National Guard, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in national service; reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the National Guard according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. When not in national service the National Guard shall be subject to the orders of the Governors of the several States.
(18) To fund a system of tax free pensions and allowances, burial benefits, and service-related medical care and domiciliaries for retired members of the Armed Forces, and the National Guard or members of the State Militias who are killed or injured while in national service, and honorably discharged veterans with service-connected injuries.
(19) To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of one or more States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Federation and shall consist only of property owned or leased by this Federation. And to exercise like authority over all places purchased with the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of military installations and other needful facilities and buildings. This Federation shall never own title to any property that is not specifically provided for by this Constitution without the consent of the State where same is located.
(20) To set deadlines when a candidate for any nationally elected office is allowed to withdraw their name from the ballot and said deadlines shall not be subject to change by any court.
(21) To assign by auction, sale, or otherwise electromagnetic wave frequency spectrums for public and private purposes. Spectrums assigned to the private sector may be bought and sold just like any other property without regulation, censorship, or interference by any Federal or State agency (except for eminent domain) provided that the user stays within the parameters of their assigned territory and technical limitations. But the Federation and each State may reserve one common frequency within each band for emergency or other public information broadcasting. (22) To create regulations, controls, and tracking of nuclear or radioactive materials or other goods and services that pertains to national security and defense.
(23) To provide for the establishment and administration of a system of personnel management of the Federal Civil Service and its executive and judicial divisions. Appointments and promotions shall be based on merit and fitness, demonstrated by examination or by other evidence of competence. Civil Service employees' workplaces, benefits, pay, and Federal public sector union activity may be regulated as Congress may, by law, provide for. Federal public sector unions shall not have the power to strike or engage in work slow-downs and all terms of public sector union agreements and costs shall be available for public inspection. Any Civil Service employee who invokes constitutional protection as it pertains to their public duties and responsibilities shall immediately be removed from their position.
(24) To provide for and maintain all needful government departments or agencies to carry out only their authorized powers and responsibilities under this Constitution.
(25) To provide for and maintain the Federal Marshal Service to enforce all Federal laws, border security and the collection of revenue thereof, conduct intelligence and counter-intelligence operations, and all other security and protective duties that Congress may, by law, provide for except for any duties that could infringe on the police power of the individual States without their consent. The Federal Marshal Service shall operate under the joint control of the Departments of the Treasury and Justice.
(26) To provide for and maintain the Coast Guard to enforce or assist in the enforcement of all applicable Federal laws on, under, and over the high seas and waters subject to the jurisdiction of this Federation and shall maintain a state of readiness to function under the command of the Navy in time of war or when ordered by the President. The Coast Guard shall normally operate under the control of the Federal Marshal Service.
(27) To provide for and maintain a Boundary Relations Commission to resolve and mark international land and water borders and to handle other routine cross boundary issues as Congress may, by law, provide for.
(28) To define what constitutes a state secret and insure that the classification of "state secret" does not cover-up incompetence, corruption, fraud, waste, abuse, or crimes committed by elected or appointed officials and Federal agencies and set protections and procedures for those who expose or report it.
(29) To dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations concerning Federal lands and property but nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of this Federation or of any particular State.
(30) To charter corporations, unions, or other private entities provided that said charter does not violate State laws where they are located.
(31) To award needed government contracts to carry on the business of this Federation, contribute to the national security and defense, or research for public health and shall award said contracts by competitive bidding except if the bidder has exclusive proprietary rights, in case of war, a national emergency, or disaster where there is an imminent threat of life, limb, or property. Except for those parts pertaining to state secrets or protection of proprietary information all said government contracts shall be available for public review.
(32) To make all laws to execute only the foregoing powers vested by this Constitution in this Federation, or in any department or officer thereof.
Except where provided for elsewhere in this Constitution or Article of Amendment, Federal lands and property, any territories or other protectorates, or reserved to the States the Congress shall not have the power:
(1) To pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, any law impairing the obligation of contracts, or any law denying or impairing the right of property, nor shall any State be required by the Federation to waive their sovereign immunity for any reason or purpose, nor disregard any State law unless preempted by Federal law or made null and void by a Supreme Court decision.
(2) To lay any capitation or other direct tax on any corporation, business, farming operation, or private enterprise, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.
(3) To require any tax or duty to be laid on articles exported from any State.
(4) To give preference by regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; or shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
(5) To draw money from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published every month.
(6) To grant any title of nobility and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any foreign power.
(7) To appropriate money for any internal improvement intended to facilitate commerce; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys, and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and the improvement of harbors and the removing of obstructions in waterway navigation; in all which cases such duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby as may be necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof.
(8) To nationalize, mandate, fund, insure, subsidize, bailout, or guarantee loans for any State, political subdivision, or any other private or public person or entries for any reason or purpose.
(9) To set minimum or other wages, price controls, or to pay unemployment benefits; or pass any law that mandates workplace or employee benefits, terms of union contracts, health, safety, leave, and retirement policies except for Federal Civil Service employees.
(10) To make any law abridging, prohibiting, or regulating the freedom of the People to produce, trade, and engage in commerce of legal goods and services (except where specified elsewhere in this Constitution or Article of Amendment), the private ownership of any amount of gold, silver, platinum, or other precious metal used in commence or savings or to make anything a tender in payment of debts or issue currency not backed by gold, silver, platinum, or other precious metal.
(11) To place any restrictions on exploration, mining, or recovery of natural resources, water, oil, or other minerals on non-Federal lands and property or inside of twelve nautical miles off the ocean, river, or lake coasts (which may be regulated by the States) or to regulate the production, distribution, or use of State or privately owned oil, natural gas, or other non-nuclear energy sources.
(12) To enforce traffic laws or regulate, enforce, control, or prohibit use of tobacco, drugs, alcohol, gaming, or lotteries except on Federal lands and property, any territories or other protectorates, or at the international borders only to enforce customs and immigration laws.
(13) To levy any tax, either earned or unearned from any legal source, or fee on any person's income from, or contribution-earnings or payments to, any public or private education, retirement, pension, or health-care plan; or create income taxes, payroll taxes, alternative minimum taxes, estate taxes, corporate taxes, wealth taxes, capital gains taxes, inheritance or gift taxes, and non-cash barter transactions on any person's or business' income from the sale or transfer of their lawful capital assets to include homes, farms, investments, and businesses.
(14) To abolish or interfere within any State the domestic institutions or police powers thereof or create any general criminal code.
(15) To mandate what benefits, goods, or services a public or private entity, private or public school system, or private business firm has to provide to the public or their employees or shall make any law that imposes a tax or other penalties on a failure to purchase goods or services. (16) To regulate the ownership, content, or political speech on any method of communication or require any type of "fairness doctrine" for political speech on any method of communication.
(17) To make any law applicable to a Citizen of the Federation that is not equally applicable to any Member of Congress or State Legislator; the executive branch including the President, Vice President, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and all other officers of the Federation including those provided for under this Constitution and by law, and inferior officers to the President established by law; or justices of the Supreme Court, including the Chief Justice, and judges of such subordinate courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.
(18) To pass any appropriation, law or earmark that politically or financially benefits any individual Member of Congress, their immediate family, any Citizen or group of Citizens, any public and private organizations, any individual Congressional District, State or political party except for laws of relief that correct any injustice done either on purpose or accidentally to a Citizen.
(19) To pass any law granting to any association, corporation, unions or individuals any exclusive rights, privileges, and immunities; to setup any affirmative action or quota set aside programs or grant monopolies or perpetuities except for service or other contracts to carry on the business of the Federation.
(20) To enumerate or classify any individual by any criteria as a reason for discriminating against, or granting preferential treatment to, any individual or group for any purpose including, but not restricted to, age of majority, race, sex, creed, color, religion, or national origin because forcefully imposed diversity is not a measure of strength but a measure of weakness of a nation.
(21) To require any language other than English to be the national official language and shall be used for all public acts including every order, resolution, vote, or election, and for all records and judicial proceedings of this Federation. Each State may designate one or more official languages within its borders but shall bear all costs for translation to English for the use or records of this Federation.
(22) To pass any unfunded mandates or create an obligation or duty on any Citizen, State, or other public or private entity to make expenditures; or shall the legislative power be construed to allow Congress to place any condition on the expenditure or receipt of appropriated funds unless the requirement imposed by the condition would be within its power if enacted as a regulation.
(23) To control, deny, or mandate the requirements or qualifications for membership in any private group or organization.
(24) To transfer any sovereign powers to any international institution, wealth, or political power from one group of Citizens to another group of Citizens.
(25) To regulate the administration of State jails and prisons or abolish any method of capital punishment in any State.
(26) To prohibit the lawful use of racial or other profiling for law enforcement, criminal, public safety, or national security and defense purposes.
(27) To regulate wetlands or place any restrictions on State or other public or private lands to include management of animal or plant life except on Federal land and property or territories and other protectorates.
(28) To provide for or to maintain any domestic intelligence gathering or surveillance, agencies, militia, secret police, military forces, or allow any elected or appointed government official to act separate from or independent of the Federation.
(29) To make any law that imposes a tax or other penalty on failure to purchase any mandated goods or services.
(30) To conscript a State's officers directly or issue directives requiring the States to address particular problems, nor command the States' officers or those of their political subdivisions, to administer or enforce a Federal regulatory program.
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