## New Lifter Designs based on ion-drift theory

by Evgenij Barsoukov

• Contents:

• ## 3-electrode  AC/DC lifter proposal

Any theory is good only if it allows to improve some technolgoy.
Equation F=i*d/k suggests, that it is desirable to maximaze amount of available charge (and corespondingly current)
without increasing d or V.

For this we need to de-couple charge generation from ion-aceleration. This could b
be achieved by  simple 3-electrode AC-DC lifter design. Instead of
corona wire we use two winded together wires, one of which is
insulated with sufficiently thick teflon insulation (lets call
it "base"). We apply between this 2 electrodes AC voltage sufficient
to produce sustained barrier discharge. Because of very small
distance between electrodes required AC voltage would be quite small,
say 5 kV. It can be further reduced by coating the insulation with
ferroelectric material pelets but for preliminary test it is not
necessary.

Now, as we already have our plasma, we only need to "suck" out of it
ions of one polarity. For this we place with distance d (much larger
than usual, say 100 mm, a collector and apply DC voltage between
it and not-insulated wire, "emmiter" (which should be +). This way we
should achieve noticeable current betwen emmiter and collector at
quite large distances d but reasonably small DC and AC voltages
applied and those get much higher F=i*d/k at lower power. Is this a
way to radically improve thrust/power ratio and escape from the
need of magic lifter electrode confuguration and very high voltages
needed for initiation of corona? Some cool experimentator is required

3-electrode impulse ionization lifter

Using AC/DC 3-electrode arrangement holds promice to achieve high current
between corona wire and collector at  large distances d between them
(low current is the bigest problem in creation highly efficient yet compact high-d lifters).
Rememnber, that force/power ratio ef=d/(k*V) is directly proportional to distance
between wire and collector d. But due to low current at high d lifter using this property
requires very long wire/colllector to achive significunt force (F=i*d/k).

First trials of 3 electrode AC/DC lifter by Saviour indicated that
there is an exceesive ozone formation when barrier discharge is involved.
This could be solved by decreasing distance between two AC-electrodes to
reduce plasma volume. However, anohter method could be - to generate usual
small-volume corona using  second collector (C0) with very small
distance d0 (say 10 mm) to corona wire W for preliminary ionization.

But then all ions buit on the wire would be "consumed" by this second
collector C0 (as it is much nearer then the usual one). To prevent that, we
should switch OFF voltage between W and C0 before (!) ions will reach C0.
This means, Impulse voltage E(C0) would be applied between C) and corona wire, while
continuous voltage E(C) would be applied between corona and usual
collector C (at large d, say 90 cm) to "pick up" all generated ions.
Here is the schematic of impulse waveform which should be applied between
collector0 and corona wire:

What would happen:

1) Short impulse of voltage E(C0) is applied at short distance d0,
high corona current starts between C0 and W due to small distance
between them and correspondingly high fild intensity near corona
wire. Impulse duration should be short, so +ions originated from wire
can not reach the C0 during this time.
"Ionizing impulse" duration such as to provide that ions do not
reach C0 yet could be easily calculated from ion velocity equation v=
k*E/d0 which gives flight time dt = d0^2 / k*E(C0).

1a) Note that due to short impulse duration no arching can happen, so
d0 can be less then usual 30 mm.

2) When impulse has ended, we have lots of positive ions in the air
between W anc C0. Because there is no more negative charge at C0, the
only way for ions is to move to C.

3) Ions move to C, producing large thrust in correspondence with
F=i*d/k

4) Next ionizing impulse is applied after all ions have reached C
which will happen after dt2= d^2/k*E(C1).

What we have achieved - we practically would have corona-current
defined by distance d0, while the thrust would be defined by d.
Time average current would still be less then that if E(C0) would be
applied continuously, but hopefuly higher then pure E(C) current.
This could solve two problems

1) increase thrust at large d (without sacrificing the good
efficiency which is proportional to d ef=d/(k*E(C))), so we reduce
the necessary size of the whole electrode array.

2) Reducting minimal allowed wire/wire distance. Due to small
distance between actual ion-producing electrodes W and C0 we can
reduce requirement to wire/wire spacing.
Right now we are confined to 10 cm (optimistically, and tested
only for d=30mm) between corona wires due to field interraction
between them which increase corona onset voltage. But if primary
ionizing impulse collector C0 is as near to corona wire as another
corona wire, we would have negligible interferance from that second
corona wire. This could allow much more compact ionic propulsion
device.

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