Auden's poet is about the German invasion of Poland which started World War
Two. The invasion started on September 1, 1939.
line 14: From Luther until now
Martin Luther doctrines free Germany from the influence of the Pope.
line 16: Find what occurred at Linz,
Hitler visited the school Linz on March 13, 1938. The Anschlurs occurred
and Austria was annexed to Germany.
line 23: Exiled Thucydides knew
Thucydides was an Athenian general relieved of his command. He wrote the
history of Peleponnesian Wars. He was a critic of post Periclean Athens'
line 47: The lights must never go out,
The ironic play of words on British Foreign Secretary statement in 1914
that "The lamps are going out all over Europe and we shall not see them lit
again in our life time.
line 59: What mad Nijinsky wrote
line 60: About Diaghilev
Nijinsky was the famous dancer who wrote "Some politicians are hypocrites
like Diaghilev, who want does not universal love, but to be loved alone."
Diaghilev (1872 - 1929) was a Russian ballet producer.
line 96: Of Eros and of dust,
Eros is ancient Greek god of love.
E#102: "An Affirming Flame"
"Some says the Commonwealth would have fallen even without the Nietzschean
treachery. They underestimate both the Commonwealth and the Nietzschean."
* Yin Man-Wei, "The Rise and Fall of the Commonwealth", CY 11942