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Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, ColoradoRise of Nation State England

Rise of Nation State England
The Celts - Gallic He-Men

"Kelt or Selt?"
Germans call them Keltn; French soften it to Celts. The Celts are a group of related tribes linked by language, religion, and culture, that gave rise to the first civilization north of the Alps. The Celts were located from Spain, Black Sea, North Sea, and the Mediterranean.

Names of Celtic Rivers:
Danube, Rhine, Seine, Thames, Shannon, London, Lyon Celtic

City / Town Names:
Geneva, Paris recalls the Parisii.

Celtic Contributions
The Celts introduced the use of iron to northern Europe.
Celts were the first to give shape to handsaws, chisels, files, and other tools we use today. (Standard 4-foot-8 1/2-inch railroad, span of their chariots, rotary flour mill)
They created Europe's first major industrial revolution.
Celts introduced soap to the Greeks and Romans.
The Celts invented chain armor.
The Celts were the first people in Britain to make pottery on a wheel, and to ride horses and use chariots.
They were first to shoe horses.
They also devised a cagey put-off for paying up: Since Celts saw no real break between life and death, a debt could be carried over into the other world.

Appearance of Ancient Celts
Gallic he-men bleached their hair. They wore jewelry, and loved loud tunics and checked cloaks. Some wore chain mail. Others fought naked - clad only in torques, or sacred collars, and bracelets, with limed locks stiffened like a horse's mane, and sporting formidable mustaches.

That their "barbarian" speech would grate on Greco Roman ears was only to be expected of outlanders who wore not the "civilized" toga but the trousers of a horse-riding people. Celtic champions would strut before the foe, brandishing their arms, boasting of their prowess, and hurling taunts and insults. They not only looked big; some were big. The Celts exercised "girth control" - a fat warrior was fined.

Iron Age Ring Forts in Meath
Hill of Tara, Meath. Iron Age ring forts enclosed within a hill known as "the royal enclosure." Pre-Christian Irish kings were coronated in the left-hand circle.

Celtic Power
The Celts never managed to forge an empire. Celts controlled major transportation routes and charged Romans duties or tributes for the use of the routes. Southern merchants most likely offered a diplomatic gift to assure that the route would stay open. One "krater" was 460 pounds, and held 1200 bottles of wine.

Over 20,000 Gauls crossed the Hellespont into Asia Minor. Trier on the Moselle - bands ranged as far afield as Sicily and Egypt.

"The whole race ... is madly fond of war,"
comments the Greek geographer Strabo.

Feasting when not fighting, or hunting, or trying to outdo one another wrestling, gaming, or racing their treasured horsed, hotheaded Celtic warriors often turned feasts into bloody brawls. Diodorus Siculs, the Greek historian, tells us:

"They cut off the heads of enemies ... and attach them to the necks of their horses. Singing in triumph as they carried off these trophies, they nailed them upon their houses. They embalm in cedar oil the heads of the most distinguished enemies, and preserve them carefully in a chest, and display them with pride to strangers ... Gathering in a chieftain's hall, sitting cross-legged on wolf skin, they would consume prodigious portions of wild boar. And guzzle wine, beer, or mead until they fell 'into a stupor or a state of madness.'"

Presenting the traditional hero's portion was a chief of protocol's nightmare. Greek historian Posidon tells us:

"When the hindquarters were served up, the bravest hero took the thigh piece, and if another man claimed it, they stood up and fought in single combat to the death."

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Mr. Sedivy's Lecture Notes & Historical Info

The Celts
| Gallic He-Men | Celtic Culture, Trade, Religion, Women |
| Threat of the Celts - Celtic Battles and Conquests |

- Rise of Nation State England -
| Roman Conquest of Britain | Christianity in Britain |
| Customs: Thanes, Churls, Thralls, Wergeld, Folk-Moot |
| Dark Ages: Alfred the Great, Edward the Elder, Athelstan |
| The Return of the Vikings |
| Kings of Britain: Aethelred, Cnut, Edward the Confessor |
| Bayeaux Tapestry, William the Conqueror,
Edward the Confessor, Harold Godwinson, Harold II
| The Crusades: Richard Lion Heart, Pope Urban |
| King John, Innocent III, Archbishop Stephen Langton |
| Magna Carta / First Parliament |

Wales and Scotland
| Wales: Edward I, Llewellyn, Snowdonia |
| Scotland: Alexander III, John Balliol,
William Wallace, Robert Bruce, King Edward II

The 100 Years War
| Edward III, Longbows at Crecy, Edward IV, Black Prince |
| Henry V, King Charles VI, Battle at Calais, Treaty of Troyes |

More Information
| Other Kings of the Dark and Middle Ages:
William II, Henry I, Henry II
| The British Monarchy's Peerage: Dukes, Viscounts,
Marquess, Earls, Baronets, and Barons

Class Activities
Roman Conquest Comparison
Battle of Agincourt

Related Information
Mr. Sedivy's World History - The Middle Ages
The Complete Bayeux Tapestry
Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages / Crusades
The Hundred Years War
King Henry VIII
The Interesting Life of Elizabeth I
The Stuarts - James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II
Oliver Cromwell



Highlands Ranch High School 9375 South Cresthill Lane Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80126 303-471-7000

Mr. Sedivy's History Classes
| Colorado History | American Government | Advanced Placement Modern European History | Rise of Nation State England | World History |
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