Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, Colorado
Rise of Nation State England
- King John -
Innocent III, Archbishop Stephen Langton
John was the worst king ever to have sat on the English throne.
After the Lion Heart's death, Philip was gaining strength and confidence.
He continued the war against John. Out of all the French lands ruled
by his father and brother, John was left with just Poitou and Gascony,
part of the duchy of Aquitaine.
The Great Seal of King John. The legend reads: "John
by the grace of God king of England and lord of Ireland."
Famous Quotes about King John:
"John, nature's enemy."
"He plundered his own people."
"Cruel towards all men."
"Hell itself is fouled by the ... Presence of John."
"No man may every trust him."
As feudal lords of England, a king was entitled to certain payments
from his tenants - a relief take over his father's estate, larger
reliefs than previous kings had done. The same happened with "scutage,"
the payment kings could claim instead of military service. In all
John collected as many scutages (eleven) as Henry II and Richard
I put together, and in less than half the time. There were no laws
fixing limits to feudal payments, but each king was expected to
follow the practice of previous rulers.
Pope Innocent III
Innocent III, refused to accept John's choice of a new archbishop
of Canterbury. No English king since the Conquest had failed to
get an archbishop he wanted. Innocent would not give way. In 1208,
he put England under an "Interdict," which meant all churches were
locked and no services held except baptism of infants and confession
for the dying.
Pope Innocent III
John reopened some monasteries and sent the clergy packing. Innocent's
reply was to excommunicate the King (expel him from the Church).
Not until 1213 did John give in and accept Langton. But monks, who
wrote most of the chronicles, believed that a king who was excommunicated
must be an evil monster.
A powerful group of barons had been plotting against John for
some time. They had been forced to pay vast sums, and had been denied
proper justice in his court. Hoping to prevent bloodshed, Archbishop
Stephen Langton got the rebels to draw up a list of grievances and
present them to the King.
John Was Furious!
John could not prevent the rebels from occupying London. He fled
to Windsor Castle and asked for peace, knowing it was useless to
resist any longer. On June 15, the two sides met in a meadow called
Runnymede, beside the River Thames, between Staines and Windsor.
King John is shown accompanied by his dogs, taking
pleasure in hunting deer in the forest. John had a passion for the
hunt,which he pursued even at times of political crisis.
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Mr. Sedivy's Lecture Notes
& Historical Info
| Gallic He-Men | Celtic
Culture, Trade, Religion, Women |
| Threat of the Celts - Celtic Battles and
- Rise of Nation State England -
| Roman Conquest of Britain | Christianity
in Britain |
| Customs: Thanes, Churls, Thralls, Wergeld,
| Dark Ages: Alfred the Great, Edward the
Elder, Athelstan |
| The Return of the Vikings |
| Kings of Britain: Aethelred, Cnut, Edward
the Confessor |
| Bayeaux Tapestry, William the Conqueror,
Edward the Confessor, Harold Godwinson, Harold II |
| The Crusades: Richard Lion Heart, Pope
| King John, Innocent III, Archbishop Stephen
| Magna Carta / First Parliament |
Wales and Scotland
| Wales: Edward I, Llewellyn, Snowdonia
| Scotland: Alexander III, John Balliol,
William Wallace, Robert Bruce, King Edward II |
The 100 Years War
| Edward III, Longbows at Crecy, Edward IV,
Black Prince |
| Henry V, King Charles VI, Battle at Calais,
Treaty of Troyes |
| Other Kings of the Dark and Middle Ages:
William II, Henry I, Henry II |
British Monarchy's Peerage: Dukes, Viscounts,
Marquess, Earls, Baronets, and Barons |
Roman Conquest Comparison
Battle of Agincourt
Mr. Sedivy's World History - The Middle
The Complete Bayeux Tapestry
Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages
The Hundred Years War
King Henry VIII
Life of Elizabeth I
The Stuarts - James I, Charles I, Charles
II, James II