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Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, ColoradoRise of Nation State England

Rise of Nation State England
Wales and Scotland -
Edward I, Llewellyn, Snowdonia

Wales and Scotland
Scottish and Welsh hill folk grew up as separate people, kept their own rulers, language and tradition. Welsh land is rugged mountainous land. There are very few areas flat enough to be plowed and sown with crops - along river valleys and on the Isle of Anglesey. Up in the hills, scattered tribes of herdsmen lived. Wales and Scotland, unprotected by sea, faced frequent attacks from the neighboring English.

Edward I (1272 - 1307)
Under Edward I, the English made their great assault on Welsh and Scottish freedom. Edward tried to master the mainland of Britain.

"Warlike as a leopard, Edward shines out like a new Richard."

Edward IEdward I, Philip IV
Left: Edward I is pictured "creating" his son, Edward Prince of Wales. The scene
symbolizes the English acquisition of the principality of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd.
Right: King Edward I faces king Philip IV of France.

When Edward I became king, Snowdonia was ruled by a powerful chief named Llewellyn (Llywelyn). He had recently re-conquered most of central Wales. In a treaty made with Edward's father, Henry III, Llewellyn had agreed to pay homage to the English King as his overlord. But when Edward came to the throne the Lord of Snowdonia, Llewellyn missed the coronation ceremony and proudly refused to renew his homage.

Edward declared war. Llewellyn retired to the safety of the mountains. He was soon starved into surrender when Edward's ships cut off corn supplies from Anglesey. The King treated Llewellyn fairly. Once he had paid homage, he was left in control of Gwynedd, but he had to give up his other lands.

David was Llewellyn's brother. Complaining at the harsh treatment of his countrymen by English officials, David rebelled in the spring of 1282. Llewellyn joined him, reluctantly, and all Wales rose in revolt. The King now decided to crush the troublesome Welsh once and for all.

David Llywelwyn
The death of Llywelyn ab Forwerth in 1240. His sons, Gruffydd (a bastard) and David look on. It took Llywelwyn's grandson, Llywelyn ab Gruffydd, almost a decade to reassert undivided princely rule in Gwynedd.

Llewellyn was killed in a skirmish December 1282. Llewellyn's head was sent in triumph to London and fixed on a spear above the Tower. Six months later, David was captured and executed.

The Welsh were no longer independent, but to this day they have kept alive their Celtic language and many old customs.

Castles Among the Conquered
To strengthen his hold on Wales, Edward built castles round the fringes of Snowdonia. Instead of having a single square keep, like earlier stone castles, Edward's architects planned concentric defenses - Inner ward. Here any attackers who got past the main gate would be caught between two showers of arrows. In these later castles, towers curving outward made it easy for defenders inside to shoot along faces of the wall. Edward I's great Welsh castles still stand today as monuments.

Edward II, Prince of Wales
Edward II was born in 1284. When the young Edward was seventeen, his father gave him the title "Prince of Wales." Ever since, the king's eldest son has received the same honor.

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Mr. Sedivy's Lecture Notes & Historical Info

The Celts
| Gallic He-Men | Celtic Culture, Trade, Religion, Women |
| Threat of the Celts - Celtic Battles and Conquests |

- Rise of Nation State England -
| Roman Conquest of Britain | Christianity in Britain |
| Customs: Thanes, Churls, Thralls, Wergeld, Folk-Moot |
| Dark Ages: Alfred the Great, Edward the Elder, Athelstan |
| The Return of the Vikings |
| Kings of Britain: Aethelred, Cnut, Edward the Confessor |
| Bayeaux Tapestry, William the Conqueror,
Edward the Confessor, Harold Godwinson, Harold II
| The Crusades: Richard Lion Heart, Pope Urban |
| King John, Innocent III, Archbishop Stephen Langton |
| Magna Carta / First Parliament |

Wales and Scotland
| Wales: Edward I, Llewellyn, Snowdonia |
| Scotland: Alexander III, John Balliol,
William Wallace, Robert Bruce, King Edward II

The 100 Years War
| Edward III, Longbows at Crecy, Edward IV, Black Prince |
| Henry V, King Charles VI, Battle at Calais, Treaty of Troyes |

More Information
| Other Kings of the Dark and Middle Ages:
William II, Henry I, Henry II
| The British Monarchy's Peerage: Dukes, Viscounts,
Marquess, Earls, Baronets, and Barons

Class Activities
Roman Conquest Comparison
Battle of Agincourt

Related Information
Mr. Sedivy's World History - The Middle Ages
The Complete Bayeux Tapestry
Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages / Crusades
The Hundred Years War
King Henry VIII
The Interesting Life of Elizabeth I
The Stuarts - James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II
Oliver Cromwell



Highlands Ranch High School 9375 South Cresthill Lane Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80126 303-471-7000

Mr. Sedivy's History Classes
| Colorado History | American Government | Advanced Placement Modern European History | Rise of Nation State England | World History |
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