Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, Colorado
Rise of Nation State England
- Kings of Britain -
Æthelred II, Cnut, Edward the Confessor
King Æthelred II (978 - 1016)
The king, Ethelred, was not cut out to be a war leader. Today he is
remembered as Ethelred "The unready," but in fact, he was know as the
"Unraed," which meant "without good advice." Ethelred collected extra
taxes and bribed the invaders to go away with large sums of money called
"Danegeld" (Dane payment). The Viking leaders rewarded their warriors
and sailed away. But, they were soon back for more.
Silver penny of King Æthelred II. Many of these
coins have been found in Scandinavia,
where they were taken as danegeld payments.
Year after year, the Vikings seemed content to come just for Danegeld.
But finally, Swein Forkbeard, King of Denmark, decided to conquer
England. Ethelred came back, but he soon faced an army led by Swein's
son Cnut / Canute. Tired of the struggle, the English accepted Cnut
as their king. He was only 23 years old.
King Cnut the Great (1016 - 1035)
Cnut / Canute was strong and cruel. He grew up in a hard world, surrounded
by violence and bloodshed. Cnut's subjects feared him. But in time,
they also learned to respect him as a king who ruled firmly and justly.
To give himself a link with the English royal family, Cnut married
Emma, Ethelred's widow. (Looks like Emma gets around!)
Left: King Cnut and his queen, Emma of Normandy, the
widow of King Æthelred II, present a gold altar cross to the
New Minisiter c.1031. Right: Silver penny of Cnut, king of the English,
Danes, and Norwegians.
Cnut called together a great assembly of nobles and Church leaders.
He promised to rule fairly and to keep the laws of Edgar.
English nobles were allowed to keep their estates and positions of
Cnut also promised to help the Christian faith.
True to his word, he built churches.
For most of his 19-year reign, he was King of Denmark and England.
The English were safe from Viking attacks when Cnut reigned! Cnut
died in 1035, leaving Harold and Harthacnut, his two sons. Seven years
later, both sons were dead and Cnut's great North Sea empire had broken
Edward the Confessor (1042 -1066)
The English crown went to Edward, son of Ethelred. Edward grew up
in Normandy for safety. Edward knew less about England than the Danish
Kings that he followed. He was the great, great, great grandson of
Alfred, and this won him support. (The Norman Conquest.)
The coronation of Edward the Confessor on Easter Day
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Mr. Sedivy's Lecture Notes
& Historical Info
| Gallic He-Men | Celtic
Culture, Trade, Religion, Women |
| Threat of the Celts - Celtic Battles and
- Rise of Nation State England -
| Roman Conquest of Britain | Christianity
in Britain |
| Customs: Thanes, Churls, Thralls, Wergeld,
| Dark Ages: Alfred the Great, Edward the
Elder, Athelstan |
| The Return of the Vikings |
| Kings of Britain: Aethelred, Cnut, Edward
the Confessor |
| Bayeaux Tapestry, William the Conqueror,
Edward the Confessor, Harold Godwinson, Harold II |
| The Crusades: Richard Lion Heart, Pope
| King John, Innocent III, Archbishop Stephen
| Magna Carta / First Parliament |
Wales and Scotland
| Wales: Edward I, Llewellyn, Snowdonia
| Scotland: Alexander III, John Balliol,
William Wallace, Robert Bruce, King Edward II |
The 100 Years War
| Edward III, Longbows at Crecy, Edward IV,
Black Prince |
| Henry V, King Charles VI, Battle at Calais,
Treaty of Troyes |
| Other Kings of the Dark and Middle Ages:
William II, Henry I, Henry II |
British Monarchy's Peerage: Dukes, Viscounts,
Marquess, Earls, Baronets, and Barons |
Roman Conquest Comparison
Battle of Agincourt
Mr. Sedivy's World History - The Middle
The Complete Bayeux Tapestry
Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages
The Hundred Years War
King Henry VIII
Life of Elizabeth I
The Stuarts - James I, Charles I, Charles
II, James II