Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, Colorado
World History -
National Monarchies: France
The Bourbon family had ruled France since the 16th century. During
this time, there were religious wars. Monarchs (Catholic) fought
against Nobles, Protestant (Huguenots). In 1562 there was a war
between Huguenots and Catholics. This was the start of 30 years
of civil war. On August 24, 1572 mobs of Parisians killed 1000s
of Huguenots at the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre - 1572. Click
the painting for an enlargement.
Left: Henry III of France struggled to throw off
the influence of his
Lieutenant General and adviser supported by Spain, Henry of Guise.
Right: Henry of Navarre became Henry IV of France.
Henry IV (1589 - 1610)
Henry IV was the first Bourbon family ruler. He was a Huguenot but
converted to Catholicism. In 1598, the Edict of Nantes (pronounced:
Nahnt) gave religious freedom and equal rights to the Huguenots,
and brought order after the Civil War. Henry was a nice all-around
guy. He brought prosperity. Henry was brave, smart, and very well-loved.
He was murdered in 1610 by a religious fanatic.
Kneeling statue of King Louis XIII at Notre Dame.
Louis XIII (1610 - 1643)
Louis XIII was nine years old when he took over. His mother, Marie
de Medici, ruled France until he was old enough. In 1615, Louis
XIII took over but the Huguenots revolted. Louis XIII was timid,
sickly, and depressed. He spent most of his time trying to assert
himself to his mother and to Richelieu. His wife was Anne of Austria,
daughter of the King of Spain. She was selected by Louis' mother,
but he never liked Anne.
Louis XIII dedicated his entire kingdom to the Virgin.
In the commemorative
medal, the kneeling king symbolically offers the Virgin his crown.
Richelieu was a Catholic cardinal who became chief minister and
brought the monarchy new strength. He was a great statesman. Richelieu's
main goals were to strengthen the king's authority, and stop Hapsburg
expansion. He could be ruthless. Royal power was more important
to him than religion was. Shy Richelieu would have France fight
on the side of the Protestants against the Catholics - to maintain
the Balance of Power. This shows he was more interested in the power
of the monarch than in religion.
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