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Making Enemies, Creating Conflict:

Pakistan's Crises of State and Society



Edited by Zia Mian and Iftikhar Ahmad


For Feroz Ahmed

remembered for his intellect and courage





Pervez Hoodbhoy


Chapter 1. The Roots of Violence

Eqbal Ahmad


Chapter 2. The Politics and Dynamics of Violent Sectarianism

Abbas Rashid


Chapter 3. The Karachi Cauldron

Irfan Hussain


Chapter 4. Development and Conflict

Zia Mian & Iftikhar Ahmad


Chapter 5. Jinnah's Vision of Pakistan

Sharif al Mujahid


Chapter 6. Working Towards Pakistan-India Peace

Mubashir Hasan


Chapter 7. Militarisation, Nation and Gender

Rubina Saigol


Chapter 8. Conflict and Violence in the Educational Process

Khurshid Hasanain &

A. H. Nayyar


Chapter 9. Enemy Images on Pakistan Television

I. A. Rehman


10. Nuclear Enemies

A. H. Nayyar