M102 105mm Lightweight Towed Howitzer
The M-102 105mm howitzer is used in air mobile (helicopter) and light infantry operations. The weapon carriage is lightweight welded aluminum, mounted on a variable recoil mechanism. The weapon is manually loaded and positioned, and can be towed by a 2 ton truck or High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), can be transported by UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters, or can be dropped by parachute with airborne units. When emplaced, the howitzer's high volume of fire compensates in large measure for the lower explosive weight of the projectile compared to the Army's 155mm and 8-inch howitzers. Since 1964, the Army has acquired 1,150 M-102 towed howitzers. This weapon is being replaced by the M-119-series 105mm howitzer
The 105-mm howitzer M102 is a lightweight towed weapon, which has a very low silhouette when in the firing position. The M102 howitzer fires a 33-pound projectile of semifixed ammunition and at charge 7 will fire 11,500 meters. It has a muzzle velocity of 494 meters per second. The maximum rate of fire is 10 rounds per minute for the first 3 minutes, with a sustained rate: 3 rounds per minute.
A roller tire attached to the trail assembly of the M102 permits the weapon to be rotated 6,400 mils around a firing platform, which provides the pivot for the weapon. The weapon can be elevated from -89 mils(-5 degrees) to a maximum of 1,333 mils (75 degrees). The panoramic telescope has a four power, fixed focus optical system, with 178 mils field of view. It contains dry nitrogen gas to retard fogging and condensation. The parallax shield used during boresighting protects the lens.
The trails are made of aluminum alloy. They are a single box trail in wishbone shape, and serve three purposes, which are: MOBILITY, STABILITY, and STOWAGE OF SECTION EQUIPMENT. The lunette is the towing pintle that allows the weapon to be connected to the vehicle. When towing, vehicle has a fixed or seized tow pintle; remove the lock plate located under the lunette. The drawbar has two positions. The drawbar is lowered for travel, and raised for firing.
There are two lifting brackets to connect slings to, when the howitzer is being lifted by helicopter. A third bracket is located on front yoke. The carriage handles are used by crew members to lifting and shifting the howitzer during loading, unloading, and emplacing the howitzer.
The firing platform attaches to the howitzer lower carriage by using a socket and a locking handle. The eight holes are for the stakes needed to stake the howitzer in position. Platform stakes are issued in three sizes. There are 4 fifteen inch stakes issued. These are used for frozen or rocky terrain, and are normally issued only where needed, such as extremely cold areas. There are 8 twenty four inch stakes issued, and they are used for hard packed ground. Thirty eight inch stakes are used for soft ground and there are 4 issued.
SHELL: The projectile which carries a 'payload' to the target; fitted with a fuze on its nose to trigger its explosion. Payloads included high-explosive, white phosphorus, illumination flares, smoke mixture, 'butterfly' bomblets, or anti-personnel fleshettes.
SHELL-HE: Shell carrying High Explosive. Explodes on the target causing damage by blast effect and by high velocity fragments (shrapnel). Typcally the explosive was cyclonite (RDX), conprising about one half the weight of the shell.
SHELL-WP: Shell carrying white phosphorus. Explodes and scatters burning pieces of phosphorus over the target to cause fire damage, or may be used for the screening effect of the dense white smoke produced by burning phosphorus.
SHELL-SMOKE: Carried a grey smoke mixture; used almost exclusively as a marking round with an airburst fuse. Produced a ball of smoke on detonation.
SHELL-ILLUM: Shell carrying a parachute flare for lighting up an area at night. ILLUM always burst at altitude with a 'soft' ejection charge igniting and pushing the flare out of the rear of the shell body. The flare fell slowly on its parachute, providing illumination, while the shell body travelled downrange and the baseplate of the shell fell somewhat backward along the flight path. Firing ILLUM required the FDC to predict all three impact points in order to prevent injury to friendlies due to falling metal.
BEEHIVE: An anti-personnel, direct-fire shell carrying several thousand small steel darts or 'fleshettes'. Each fleshette is about one inch long and has the appearance of a 1" finishing nail with the nailhead stamped into the form of 4 fins, similar to an arrow. A typical 105mm BEEHIVE has 6000 darts, 3000 of which are loaded pointing forward, 3000 pointing backward. The shell is fired directly at advancing enemy formations similar to an aimed shotgun. At about 50 meters from the muzzle, the round ejects the darts toward the enemy with a medium hard ejecting charge. The forward loaded darts spread into a 45 degree fan traveling forward, while the rear facing darts are forced by their fins to flip around in flight. As the darts flip, they loop away from the GT line, forming a fan of about 60 degrees. Thus 6000 darts fly in a 60 degree fan at about 2000 feet per second toward the enemy. The effect on troops in the open is devastating. Enemy troops about 100 meters from the firing cannon may be pierced by 10-20 darts, those closer may receive 100 or more penetrating stab wounds similar to those inflicted by an icepick.
FIRECRACKER: A 105mm or 155mm or 8inch shell carrying a large number of golfball sized bomblets which it ejects at altitude over the target area. Upon ejection each bomblet opens canted 'umbrella-like' fins and floats spinning to earth. The fluttering, spinning fall has the appearance of a butterfly in flight. Upon impact a spring on the bottom of the bomblet reacts, throwing the bomblet back into the air and starting a time delay mechanism. When the bomblet rises back to about 6 feet above the ground the delay expires and the bomblet detonates with an energy slightly less than an M26 frag grenade. The effect is that of a low altitude TOT, delivered by one shell. The bomblets exploding in quick succession has the sound, at a distance, of a string of firecrackers.
SHORT ROUND: an artillery round which falls short of its target.
"SHOT!": radio signal from battery to FO that his shells are in flight.
SHRAPNEL: high velocity metal fragments thrown off by an exploding shell. The older shrapnel or 'canister' shell which ejected steel balls toward the enemy was superseded in VietNam by the BeeHive round which projected steel darts.
"SPLASH!": radio signal from battery to FO that his shells will impact in 10 seconds.
TREEBURST: Explosion above ground, usually unintentional, due to a shell striking and detonating on trees or other above-ground-level objects.
VOLLEY: the firing of each cannon in a battery.
WALKING BARRAGE: firing between friendlies and the enemy to provide protection while moving the impact point toward the enemy in order to drive him back.
THIS IS DOUG HERIER HE WAS GUN CHEIF OF GUN 3 A BATTERY 1/14TH ARTILLERY LZ GATOR
M101 105 mm howitzer
Development of the 105 mm howitzer M1920 began in 1919, but owing to a shortage of funds it was not placed in production. By the end of the Second World War, 8,536 105mm towed howitzers had been built and post-war production continued at Rock Island Arsenal until 1953, by which time 10,202 had been built. In th emid-1980s the M101 105mm howitzer was finally withdrawn from service, replaced in US Army service by the M102 howitzer which in turn was replaced by the British Royal Ordnance 105 mm Light Gun.
Calibre 105 mm
Barrel length (muzzle to rear face of breech ring) 2.574 m
(bore) 2.363 m
Muzzle brake none
Recoil system hydropneumatic
Breech mechanism horizontal sliding wedge
Carriage split trail
Weight (travelling order, M101) 2,030 kg
(travelling order, M101A1) 2,258 kg
(firing position, M101) 2,030 kg
(firing position, M101A1) 2,258 kg
Length (travelling) 5.991 m
Width (travelling) 2.159 m
(firing) 3.657 m
Height (travelling, M101) 1.524 m
(travelling, M101A1) 1.574 m
(firing) 3.124 m
Ground clearance 0.356 m
Track 1.778 m
Traverse (total) 46°
Rate of fire (max) 10 rds/min
(sustained) 3 rds/min
Max range 11,270 m
he M1911A1 saw widespread service in World War 2 and was used extensively during the
Korean War. It remained the firm favourite of officers and Special Forces during the Vietnam
war where its performance was held in particular regard by the Tunnel Rats, men who
understood the value of heavy firepower in small, confined spaces underground. In Vietnam it
was also used by the South Vietnamese, Filipinos and South Koreans.
Seeking a lightweight replacement for the M1 Garand and the M1918A2 BAR, The Army selected the M14 rifle in 1957. Production of the M14 rifle was halted in 1964, by which time 1,380,874 had been manufactured. The M14 7.62 mm rifle is a magazine-fed, gas operated shoulder weapon, designed primarily for semi-automatic fire. It was the standard service rifle until it was replaced in the late-1960s by the 5.56mm M16A1 rifle. At one time the standard issued rifle for Marines, the M14 is now used primarily in the Competition in Arms program, or for drill and ceremonial purposes. The M16 replaced the M14 as the Table of Organization rifle for the Marine Corps during the Vietnam War.
M14, basically a product improved M1 Garand, performed well as a infantry rifle. The M14 had an effective range of 500 yards (460m). The M14 used a standard NATO 7.62mm cartridge in a 20-round magazine. The M14 was the standard Army infantry rifle, until replaced by the mass fielding of the M16 5.56mm rifle in 1966-1967. Some M14s were equipped with a bipod for use as a squad automatic weapons. However, the M14 displayed an erratic dispersion pattern, excessive recoil, and muzzle climb when fired as an automatic rifle.
M14A1. The Army designed the model M14A1 to overcome these problems, but it was too light to become a truly successful replacement for the M1918 series BAR, and production was halted in 1963. The M14A1 featured a full pistol grip and a folding forward hand grip.
M14 National Match (1959) was used in the semi-automatic mode only. The M14NM had special sight parts and barrels selected especially for accuracy
General dissatisfaction with the M14 and numerous studies led the Army to the development of a light weight weapon capable of firing a burst of small caliber bullets with a controlled dispersion pattern. Although opposed by the Ordnance Corp, the Armalite AR-15 was adopted by the Secretary of Defense as the 5.56mm M16 rifle. The M16 was selectable for full and automatic fire. The M16 was to have had the same effective range as the M14 rifle it replaced, but it was most effective at a range of 215 yards (200m) or less. The M16 used a 5.56mm (.223 cal.) cartridge in 20- or 30-round magazines. There were a number of problems encountered during initial fielding, but better training, preventive maintenance, and several design changes, resulted in the weapon that has become the standard issue rifle of the US Army , with some 3,690,000 having been manufactured.
Primary function: Infantry weapon
Manufacturer: Colt Manufacturing and Fabrique Nationale Manufacturing Inc.
Length: 39.63 inches (100.66 centimeters)
Weight, with 30 round magazine: 8.79 pounds (3.99 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 5.56mm (.233 inches)
Maximum range :3,600 meters Maximum effective range:
Area target: 2,624.8 feet (800 meters)
Point target: 1,804.5 feet (550 meters)
Muzzle velocity: 2,800 feet (853 meters) per second
Rate of fire:
Cyclic: 800 rounds per minute
Sustained: 12-15 rounds per minute
Semiautomatic: 45 rounds per minute
Burst: 90 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 30 rounds
Unit Replacement Cost: $586
M60 7.62mm Machine Gun
The M60 Machine Gun has been the US Army's general purpose machine gun since 1950. It fires the standard NATO 7.62 mm round and is used as a general support crew-served weapon. It has a removable barrel which can be easily changed to prevent overheating. The weapon has an integral, folding bipod and can also be mounted on a folding tripod.
Length: 42.4 inches (107.70 centimeters)
Weight: 18.75 pounds (8.51 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 7.62mm (.308 inches)
Maximum effective range: 3609.1 feet (1100 meters)
Maximum range: 2.3 miles (3725 meters)
Muzzle velocity: 2800 feet (853 meters) per second
Rates of fire:
Cyclic: 550 rounds per minute
Rapid: 100 rounds per minute*
Sustained: 100 rounds per minute*
(* with barrel changes at each 100 rounds)
Unit Replacement Cost: $6,000
M79 grenade launcher
The M79 grenade launcher is a single-shot, break-open, shoulder-fired weapon. It is breech-loading and fires a 40mm grenade. It has an open, fixed front sight and an open, adjustable rear sight.
The M203 was designed and procured as the replacement for the M79 grenade launcher of the Vietnam era