Chronology of Life and Times of Friedrich List

Compiled by Suzanne Klebe

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1775      American Revolution process begins

1776      Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations

1777      Frederick II of Prussia stops Hessian mercenaries from
          crossing territory. 
          Von Steuben arrives in America

1780      Catherine II of Russia, under influence of Vergennes from
          France, and Prussian ambassador, forms League of Armed
1783      Peace of Paris ends American Revolution

1787      Schiller publishes Don Carlos

1789      French Revolution

1791      Poland establishes lst Constitution in Europe in
          Revolution, involvement of Kosciesko.  

          Alexander Hamilton issues Report on Manufacturers

1792      Russia takes Poland

1793      Execution of Louis XVI in France

1793-4    Reign of Terror in France; execution of Lavoisier, etc.

1794      Carnot, Monge and Chaptal come in to power in France. 
          Chaptal a chemist, follower of Lavoisier.  Invited to
          America by G. Washington -- meets Alexander Hamilton. 
          Writes book in 1805 on The Industry of France. Later,
          Chaptal gives List Hamilton's book (1824) as List
          prepares to leave for America, to join Lafayette. 

1794      Above form Ecole Polytechnique in France

1798      Malthus publishes book on Population

1799      Napoleon in power

1801      JQ Adams Ambassador in Prussia  -- writes in diary
          about seeing Schiller plays: Don Carlos, Wallenstein,
          Cabale und Liebe

1804      Hamilton killed by Aaron Burr

          Von Humboldt in Philadelphia

1805      Schiller Dies

1805      Chaptal publishes book The Industry of France

1806      Battle of Jena -- Napoleon defeats Prussia.
          Prussian reformers, led by Baron von Stein come in.
          Schiller's networks.
          Wars of Liberation.

1809      Metternich becomes Foreign Minister of Austria

1812      US and Britain at war; creates American Navy.

          Napoleon defeated in Russia

1814      Brits burn White House
          Defeat Napoleon -- march into Paris

          Baron von Stein proposes protective tariff in Prussia --
          38 different German entities.  Proposes eliminate tariffs
          and put up protective tariff against Britain.

1815      Congress of Vienna
          Holy Alliance -- Russia, Prussia and Austria
          Concert of Europe

          Cast of Characters:
               Metternich -- Austria
               Casterlaegh -- Britain
               Alexander I -- Russia
               Frederick Wilhelm -- Prussia
               Bourbons -- France

1815      100 Days of Napoleons return, ended by Waterloo

1815      Sylvanus Thayer and Winfield Scott come to Vienna, meet
          Von Humboldt -- take maps of Ecole Polytechnique back to
          America to form West Point, on model designed by Von

1817      David Ricardo publishes book on Political Economy

1817      List appointed Professor at Tuebingen in Wuerttemberg
          after he makes proposals for reforms in civil service and
          state aid to industry. Mentor is Wangenheim; he is later
          forced out by Metternich. 

          List begins correspondence with Von Cotta -- publisher of
          Schiller's works. 

1818      Rothschild loan at 5% to Prussia; King calls for tax
          increase -- industrialists petition. 

1819      Student demonstrations results in Carlsbad Decrees 

          Prussian reformers forced to resign

          Economic collapse in Europe; banking panic in US

          List enters political scene in prominent way -- gets 5000
          signatures on petition at Fair and forms Handelsverein. 

          List meets Von Humboldt, reps of Von Stein

1820      Constitutional Revolts in Spain, Naples, and

          Canning makes proposal to US to join Britain against
          interventionist policy of Holy Alliance. Offers support
          to Spanish Revolutionaries if they give Britain right to
          Cuba and possibly Puerto Rico.  List later exposes
          fraud of Canning's "liberal" guise in his letters to

          List denounced as "dangerous revolutionary" by Austrian
          ministers; loses chair at university.  Accused of "acting
          in interests of foreign state" and "corruption" -- forced
          to resign from Handelsverein. List says: "I planted a
          seed from which a constitution may grow."

          List elected to Wuerttemberg assembly -- proposes state
          credit for industry; easing taxes; annual budget.  Thrown
          off and given 10 month sentence in prison.

1822      Canning in as British Foreign Minister
          List proposes to Von Cotta that he publish Chaptal's book
          in German

1823      France intervenes in Spain.

          Monroe Doctrine - rejection of Canning's offer
          Lafayette's letter to Adams  -- attacks "Unholy Alliance", but
            warns against US becoming a "cock boat to a British man-of-war".
          Lafayette invited to tour US 

          List serves sentence, agrees to lose citizenship, and
          leaves for America to join Lafayette on his tour.
          Goes to Paris before he leaves -- given Hamilton's book
          by Chaptal. 

1825      Erie Canal completed after 10 years in US.  Lafayette
          tours.  Joined by List.

          Von Motz begins internal improvement in Germany

          Election of JQAdams president of US, vs. Jackson
1826      List writes for German language weekly in Pennsylvania --
          the Readington Adler -- attacks Holy Alliance

1827      List writes to Ingersoll, head of Pennsylvania Society of
          Manufacturers -- later these letters are 
          published as "The American System of Economics"

1828      US passes Tariff of 1828 -- demonstrations

          Von Cotta negotiates for enlargening customs unions in
          Von Cotta founds Augsberger Allegemaine Zeitung,
          newpaper, that List and Henrich Heine write for.

1830      Revolutions in Europe: July Revolution in France, puts in
                         King Louis Philippe after Lafayette
                         Republican move shelved.  Citizen King
          Polish Revolution.  Lafayette attempts to support. Edgar
          Alan Poe volunteers, Chopin supports, later Marie Curie

          Holy Alliance agrees to partition Poland.

          Belgium formed, revolts from Deutch.  List had been in
          prison in Ausberg with Belgian patriot.

1831      Prussian Treaty with Belgium, ends Dutch Naval monopoly

          List in France.  Writes detailed program for French
          economy -- including national credits for development,
          commercial banks, railroads

1832      List appointed US consul to Hamburg.  Appointment
          rejected, he is told by US Ambassador Martin Van Buren.

1834      List appointed US consul to Leipzig.  Fairs there. 
          Friendship with Schumanns who live there.

          Jan 1:  Zollverein formed.  Initially 18 members.

1837      List returns to France; private meetings with Louis
          Phillipe for development of France.  Similar plans for
          Belgium (proposed railroad from Belgium to India). 
          French proposals considered "fantastic" (ie unreal) by
          Louis' advisors. 

1841      List writes National System of Political Economy. 
          Bitterly attacked by British press.  Goes into 3 editions
          in first few months.  Published in French, Hungarian,

1844      List's "The Politics" published.  Attacks "crafty and
          spiteful commercial policy of England."  For Germany,
          proposes: thoroughly efficient transport facilities by
          river, canal, and railway under united management --
          creation of a German fleet and the adoption of a
          universal German flag -- founding of German colonies
          abroad -- national supervision of emigration -- estab. of
          German foreign consulates -- regular line of German
          steamships -- commercial treaties with US, Holland, etc.

          Outrage in Britain

          Inclusion of Belgium in Zollverein

1846      British controversy around lifting Corn Laws

          List goes to Britain to assess situation

1847      List dies, a supposed suicide.


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