Dr. Ajit Kumar Mukhopadhay & Kalyan Chakrabortty

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First Edition  Mahalaya, 22 Aswin 1406 (9 October 1999)
Price  25/- (Rupees Twenty Five Only)
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Pradip Das
Debajyoti Brahmachari
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  1. Preface
  2. Historic Chapter of Chandernagore
  3. The Battle of Chandernagore
  4. Chandernagore of Those Days
  5. The Rise of Chandernagore Group
  6. Educational Awakening
  7. Chandernagore Library
  8. The Jagadhatri Puja
  9. A Quick Recall
  10. Transfer of Power
  11. General Information
  12. Map


This slender volume on Chandernagore (Chandannagar) is brought out on the occasion of the golden jubilee of its independence from the alien rule. We certainly do not claim to be authoritative in our humble venture, we simply recount facts and figures to enable the elderly people to refresh their memories and the younger generation to enlighten themselves about this historic town. In essence this book may serve as a guide to who is who and what is what of Chandernagore known far and wide not only for its French connection, but also for its glorious role during the freedom movement of India. If we succeed in resonating the ethos of the city recognised both in the state and at the centre as a distinct urban entity, we will deem our endeavour amply requited.

Chandernagore produces mixed response - both appreciative and pejorative - from the broad mass of people. We have here two diametrically opposite views on the city from two eminent litterateurs of West Bengal. Tarashankar Banerjee remarked in a novel that in respect of splendour Chandernagore with its 40 watt power pales into insignificance beside the 1000 watt incandescence of Calcutta. But Narayan Gangopadhyay while comparing in an invitation lecture at Chandernagore Library the Strand Road of Calcutta with that of Chandernagore commended the high artistic taste of the Frenchmen and called the English a nation of merchants. Before concluding the preface we acknowledge our sense of gratefulness to the Late Harihar Sett who was synonymous with Chandernagore, the old records of the French and Indian Governments, the official gazeteers and 'Chandanagorer Katha' (The Story of Chandernagore) by Lipika Ghosh for the sundry materials on which we have worked for this book. Our thanks are due to Sri Amal Kumar Mitra and Sri Monimoy Sengupta for their valuable help in correcting the manuscript.

In a country where any qualification without backing is often counterproductive we do not think that this work will create a flutter in the administrative devecotes for the bestowal of a favour upon us. We do nevertheless not cease to leave this memento for the futurity for whom Chandernagore with its polymorphous variety is likely to hold an alluring prospect for self-fulfilment. Sri Chakrabortty Rajagopal Acharia, the then Governor of Bengal, said, "Perhaps one day Chandernagore will merge into Bengal, but if we do not gratefully remember its glorious tradition, Chandernagore will lose all its glory."


9th October 1999
22 Aswin 1406

Dr. Ajit Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Kalyan Chakrabortty

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Historic Chapter of Chandernagore

Though small in extent, Chandernagore is articulate in its tradition. Chandernagore is a separate self-fulfilling chapter in the history of alien rule in India. When the whole of Bengal was under the English rule as a province of the British administered India, Chandernagore being part of it created an independent tradition under the French rule. So from the political or administrative point of view this town of Bengal was an alien land to the Bengalees. Chandernagore has developed and become total of its own even with its small area because of its separate identity; again, being an inseparable part of Bengal in natural outline, its inner nexus with Bengal is inseparable in art, literature, in all respects.

It is not that there was some town named Chandernagore on the western side of the Bhagirathi from very ancient times. No trace of this name could be found before the arrival of the French. As far as is known, the first reference to the name of Chandernagore could be found in a letter written to the then Director, French East India Company, and signed by Martin, Deslandes and Pe'le'e on November 21, 1696. It can be taken for certain from the information about this place occurring in the ancient texts that this city named Chandernagore grew up during the French regime covering mainly these three villages - Borokishanpur, Khalisani and Gondalpara just as the city of Calcutta grew under the British rule with Sutanuti, Calcutta and Govindapur. Apart from the three main villages certain other villages like Sabinara, Chaknasirabad etc were possibly included in Chandernagore.

It is not correctly known how or from which source the name of 'Chandernagore' originated. Opinions differ on this _ many authors have suggested that 'Chandernagore' came from Chandra (moon) or the name of Chandernagore has originated from Chandan (sandal). The Bhagirathi has meandered down the lap of Chandernagore like a part of the moon's orb - the appropriateness of the name of 'Chandernagore' comes from this. But it is known that sandal wood was exported from here in ancient times. Later on a kind of red wood was exported from here in sufficient quantities, that was possibly red sandal. Rudra, the virtuous King of Nadia, collected sandalwood perhaps from this region close to (Hugli) Hooghly. Many people surmise that the name of Chandernagore originated from the sandalwood forest or from import-export of sandalwood. 'Farasdanga' is the other name of Chandernagore. It is taken for granted that the name of Farasidanga or Farasdanga or Fransdongi was rooted in the fact that it was under the French occupation.

The French came to Chandernagore as also Bengal for the first time in 1673. In that year (1673-74) Duplessis, the French Commander, built a house after gathering a plot at Taldanga on the northern part of present Chandernagore with the permission of Ibrahim Khan, the then Nawab of Bengal. That house was surrounded by ditches for self protection against the enemy approximately in the year 1667. At that time either the Dutch satisfying the Nawab with gifts drove out the French, or the French sensing many difficulties in their business left this place.

Then in 1687 the French Commander Deslandes started business at Bandel in Hooghly; but coming across many inconveniences he tried to shift to another place in Hooghly and failed to receive the permission of the Nawab to build a new firm at the very place obtained by Duplessis at Chandernagore. At last in the next year the French received the permission to carry on duty free business in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa on payment of Rs. 40,000/- to the Moghul Government (Aurungzeb was Emperor then). The French East India Company got the legal ownership of Chandernagore from this. From the historical point of view this was the first step to the establishment of the French rule in Chandernagore. Deslandes laid the foundation of Chandernagore.

Gradually Chandernagore expanded with such villages as Borokishanpur, Prosadpur, Shyamplara, Sabinara, Gondalpara etc. This city was surrounded with ditches in the year 1769.

In course of time Chandernagore occupied the topmost position among all foreign settlements of Bengal in trade and commerce. It maintained trade relations with Basora, China, Pegu, Jedda, Surat, Mocha, Tibet, Persia etc. In those days Chandernagore was a bigger centre of commerce than Calcutta.

The first European named Louis Bonnaud who established the indigo plant along with the cultivation of the crop in this country was an inhabitant of Chandernagore. Batakrishna Ghosh, the first founder of a cloth mill amongst Bengalis, was a resident of this place. The factory for manufacturing European tincture and other medicines which Dinanath Chandra established here was the first such organisation in this area. Names of Bengal Chemical, Indian Drugs etc. were even then unknown. Indrakumar Chattopadhyay, the first maker and publisher of a wall map containing locations of places in Bengal, was a man of this place, "Crepar Xaxtrer Orthobhed" by Mansel da Assumpacao, the first printed Bengali book in the world, which was printed and published in Lisbon in Portugal had a rewritten second edition which Father Guerin, a clergyman of this place, printed and published from Srirampur in 1836.

In those days Chandernagore achieved marvellous progress in the cottage industry. All those industrial ventures have perished today, but the textile industry of Farasdanga has kept itself alive even now-in this respect the name of Farasdanga is still uttered along with Shantipur, Bishnupur, Tangail etc.

Chandernagore has created a glorious tradition within its limits in literary activities. Within the span of a little more than half a century about more than a hundred authors have risen-of them four are women. The number of books written by all of them is more than three hundred. About forty newspapers, monthly magazines and other periodicals have been published till now. It is from here that the poetic genius of Roygunakar Bharatchandra found scope for efflorescence under the care of Dewan Rameswar Mukhopadhyay of Gondalpara.

This Chandernagore is sanctified by the memories of many renowned and succesful Bengalees. A period of Rabindranath's early life was passed in the garden house of Moran Sahib of this place. He said in reply to a reception at a meeting held in Chandernagore Nrityagopal Smriti Mandir on Baisakh 21, 1334 (May 1927) "I first came to Chandernagore when I was a boy. That was another epoch of my life. Then I was hidden beyond the crowd of people; no person, no group gave me an ovation - I received affection only from cosmic nature. .......... A boy's pipe sounded with a boyish tune which I remember. The garden house of Moran Sahib was made with great care, there was no magnificence in it, but it had a variegated style of beauty. There was a room on its topmost roof, its doors were open, a glimmer of light on the lustrous leaves on a higher bough of a thick Bakul tree could be seen from there. The play of the impetuous wind from all sides was unhindered there and it seemed from the rooftop that the sport of clouds was taking place in our neighbouring courtyard. I had my rest right at this place and I said calling my beloved at the spot :

"I've built my room here For you, my verse."

Bhudevchandra Mukhopadhyay (celebrated educationist)'s service life started here. It is at this place that he took the post of a teacher after founding a school. Chandernagore has glorified itself welcoming and letting live many savants such as Vidyasagar, Bankimchandra, Madhusadan, Shibnath Shastri, Akshoy Kumar Boral, Nabin Chandra Sen, Suresh Chandra Samajpati, Saratchandra Chattopadhyay, Radhanath Sikdar, Acharya Jagadishchandra, Darpanarayan Thakur, Maharaja Krishnachandra Roy, Lalbehari De, Raja Rammohan, Brahmananda Keshabchandra, Brahmabandhab Upadhyay, Rastraguru Surendranath, Desbandhu Chittaranjan, Haranath Thakur, Mahatma Gandhi, Bipin Chandra Pal, Sri Aurobinda, Sylvan Levy, Motilal Ghosh, Kazi Nazrul etc.

Chandernagore has occupied a special place in the history of India's struggle for independence and service to the nation. This Chandernagore was a distinguished centre of activity of the workers for revolution in the Swadeshi age. The story of Prabartak Sangha established by the freedom fighter Motilal Roy is well known. Chandernagore was the birthplace of that Kanailal who offered self-sacrifice in the holy rite for the freedom of his country. It was here that Rashbehari Basu (great freedom fighter) received his early education.

Chandernagore did not lag behind in such activities as religious culture, practice of telling scriptural or mythical stories, play acting, jatra performance, song-tournament, reciting poems celebrating a deity etc. What to speak of politics or patriotism or social reform, Chandernagore jumped headlong into any tide whenever it came in Bengal in any field such as art, literature and culture. The soul to soul relationship between Chandernagore and the whole of Bengal was inseparable for ever.

The people of Chandernagore did not want that Chandernagore would remain under the yoke of French rule even after 1947 when the alien rule ended in India. Freedom movements continued in Chandernagore. On the other hand the hearts of Bengalees were saddened by the pain of losing two thirds of Bengal as a result of partition of the country. Yet that two thirds had been freed from the bondage of foreign rule was the consolation. The existence of alien rule upon this distinguished city of Bengal in that situation stirred the hearts of the Bengalees. Even the Government of India did not want that foreign rule lasted even on a minimal measure of land of India. The French Government declared Chandernagore to be a Free City and handed over the charge of its administration and municipal affairs to some local residents on November 27 in 1947. It was decided on a Referendum in June, 1949 that Chandernagore was in favour of merger with the Indian Union. 99% of the electorate in this referendum favoured merger with India.

Just before the freedom movement of Chandernagore was set ablaze the Government of France effected 'de facto transfer' of Chandernagore to the Government of India. The charter in this regard was signed by Monsieur G.H.Tailleur, the then envoy of the French India Commissioner at Chandernagore and Sri Basanta Kumar Bandopadhyay, I.A.S the newly appointed Administrator of Chandernagore. A Joint Commission of the Indian and French representative was formed in this very month for the settlement of certain issues.

The Government of India appointed Inspector General of Prisons of West Bengal as Inspector General of the Prison of Chandernagore, too, on November 16 in 1950. The Joint Commission expressed their opinion in favour of handing the French sovereign power over Chandernagore to the Government of India and came to a conclusion on different financial affairs on November 27, 1950.

An agreement was signed between France and India recognising the 'de jure transfer' of Chandernagore to the Government of India on February 2 in 1951. Sardar Hardit Singh Malik, Ambassador of India in France, and Monsieur De Le Tournelle, the Chief Executive in charge of the Foreign Affairs Department of France, signed the agreement on behalf of their respective Governments. It was decided that the agreement would be given effect to after it was passed by the French and Indian Parliaments.

Sri Manishi Sen appointed by the Government of India came here to study the financial condition of free Chandernagore on January 18 in 1952 and left after completing his enquiries on March 31. The treaty of vesting the French authority of Chandernagore in the Government of India was passed by the French National Council on April 11, 1952.

After the treaty executed for handing Chandernagore to India was finally approved, Sarder Hardit Singh Malik, the Indian Ambassador in France and Monsieur Alexander Parodi, Secretary General of the French Foreign Affairs Department, signed the letter of approval on behalf of the respective Governments.

A smaller Administrative Council was formed through election by the Municipal Council for the local administrator at that place after Chandernagore had been declared a free city on November 27 in 1947. This Council was conducting the administration. But ending this system for the betterment of administration it was declared in a notification of the Government of India on June 30 in 1952 that Chandernagore would be ruled through an administrator under the Foreign Affairs Department of the Government of India by the President of the nation. Sunilbaran Roy, I.A.S., was appointed Administrator and Bimal Chandra Sen, the Inspector General of Police, was appointed Police Superintendent. Both the Municipal Council and the Administrative Council were resolved. It was decided that an Advisory Body with not more than five members would be formed to help the Administrator who would be its President.

Chandernagore's merger with West Bengal was formally solemnised on October 2, 1954, on the occasion of the sacred birthday of Mahatma Gandhi. The Government of India handed over the charge of Chandernagore administration to the Government of West Bengal in a simple ceremony during the noontime on that day. Sri Upendra Chandra Roy, I.A.S., handed over charge to Sri Nirmal Kanti Roychowdhuri, I.C.S., District Magistrate of Hooghly. Sri Roychowdhuri took that charge as a representative of the Government of West Bengal.

The Administrator of Chandernagore became an ex-officio Additional District Magistrate of Hooghly. Chandernagore remained his headquarters. The Police Superintendent of Chandernagore handed over charge to the Police Superintendent of Hooghly district. The Police Superintendent of Chandernagore was made the Sub-Divisional Police Officer of Chandernagore. Sri Kandarpamohan Roy took the administrative charge of Chandernagore sub-division as the new Sub-Divisional Officer.

The advisory body for Chandernagore which was appointed by the Government of India was abolished. On that day branch offices of the various departments of Government of West Bengal were opened in Chandernagore.

Those citizens of the French Union and French subjects who were residents of Chandernagore just before June 9 in 1952 became Indian citizens, but those who submitted written statements for staying as French citizens within six months of the implementation of transfer treaty were not regarded as Indian citizens.

The new Chandernagore subdivision with four Police stations of Srirampur subdivision - Bhadreswar, Haripal, Tarakeswar and Singur - including Chandernagore was formed under Hooghly district on October 2 in1954. All the laws of the State of West Bengal excluding the Bengal Municipal Act were applied to Chandernagore. The Bengal Municipal Act in an amended form was effective in Chandernagore. All other laws which were operative in Chandernagore before its merger with India have been repealed.

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The Battle of Chandernagore

Nawab Siraj snatched Calcutta from the hands of the English on June 20 in 1756.

The English were then busy lessening the French suzerainty in the Deccan. But the defeat of Calcutta strongly hurt the self respect of the English. Admiral Watson and Colonel Clive set off for Calcutta with 12 ships, 900 European soldiers and 1500 sepoys on October 16 in 1756. They reached Calcutta on December 20.

Clive promised to fly the British flag over Chandernagore in a letter written to the Select Committee of London five days before leaving Madras on October 11, 1756.

The English again snatched Calcutta from the Nawab on January 2, 1757. He was disgusted with the English. The English understood that in case of the French joining the Nawab, the reversal of fortune for the English was inevitable. The English plundered Hooghly to terrorise the French and the Nawab. It was January 10. Renault, the French Commander, saw through the devilry of the English. The fall of Chandernagore would mean the fall of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah, which simply would mean the conquest of Bengal by the English. The mercantile community was in favour of the French. But Pondicherry did not come forward to help Renault. Renault tried to bring home to Pondicherry that Chandernagore was the life breath of the French colonies in the East, the money and merchandise of Chandernagore formed the backbone of the French Commerce. So it would be possible to save the colonial interest of the French empire if Chandernagore was saved.

March 9, 1757. Clive's army of marauders came to the north of Belur. Clive's army set up their tents at Srirampur on March 9 and in the field of Champdani on the south of the French Garden on March 10. Shrewd Clive did not make haste. He was waiting for Watson. The naval might of Watson and the land power of Clive — these influenced the plan of Chandernagore battle. Armstrong and 150 soldiers joined Clive's tent on March 11.

Renault sat waiting for the help of the Nawab at Chandernagore then. The wall inside the Fort was one foot and a half wide, ten feet high. There was no ditch on the east. The ditch around the three sides was four feet deep only, even that was dry and filled with squalor. Laldighi was on the west of the Fort.

There was no engineer inside the Fort, yet Renault managed that work. Aiming at the east, i.e., at the river he placed three cannons. The cannons within the Fort wall had no wheels. A small cannon had no carriage. There were 85 European soldiers inside the Fort in 1756. Pondicherry sent 167 sepoys and 61 European soldiers only. Renault's military might was very weak compared to that of Clive. Ranault sank in all five ships filling them with mud in the Ganges in order that the English might not attack Chandernagore along the waterway.

Leaving Calcutta on March 15 Watson's fleet came to reach the former Prussian Garden of Chandernagore. All the warships — Bridgewater, Kingfisher, Tiger, Kent and Salisbury — were then absorbed in the dream of conquering Chandernagore.

Watson sent orders to Renault to vacate the Fort on March 19. Renault sent a proposal for ceasefire in reply in lieu of money. Then Clive and Watson got the scent of pillage.

In the history of any war a traitor has his own place. There was no exception to this in the case of Chandernagore, too. Terona, the French Artillery Commander of Renault, showed Watson the correct direction of the riverway. With no soldiers, no military equipment Renault fought for ten days at a stretch by dint of his own intelligence.

March 23, 1757. The Fort of Orleans fell at 4 P.M. Renault surrendered.

The English got 28,60,000 pound selling all the materials that lay in the French Warehouse. Clive and Watson only knew the amount of money they collected after plundering the properties of the common people of Chandernagore. For the share was divided into two equal parts. The town was lonely then. The cannon balls made bores on the temple of Nandadulal. All the houses of the town and the Fort of Orleans were razed to the ground by the English soldiers. The temple of Nandadulal and the Church stood raising their heads. The Church was adjacent to the convent. That historic door of 1720 still remains fixed to it. These two buildings which silently stood witness to the battle of Chandernagore teaches tolerance to the people of this place even today.

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Chandernagore of Those Days

The total income of the Government was about 5 lakh 25 thousand rupees here in 1933. It was 5 lakh 22 thousand 7 hundred 48 rupees in 1923, in the earlier year it was 4 lakh 73 thousand 95 rupees. As is known in 1814, 32 thousand 1 hundred 54 rupees could be collected as revenue. An annual income of 12 thousand could be had on leasing the whole of Chandernagore in 1732-33. For each serviceable person at this place there was no income tax, house tax, etc other than annual head tax of eight annas (50p) only. Even in the neighbouring British municipal towns there were taxes on light, water, road etc, but in spite of the availability of those facilities there was no tax here. Even so the income of the municipality was not small here. The municipal income was 94 thousand 6 hundred 48 rupees in 1823, in the earlier year it was 82 thousand 9 hundred 62 rupees. Within this income 65-70 thousand rupees amounted to the tariff on market, ferryghat, hatchery, land deposit, house rent and imported goods. The municipality had an income of 68 thousand 1 hundred 7 franc.

Main share of the Government's Income :

The main share of the government's income could be had of the Excise Department. Below is given a chart about which income came from what head.

 Different Kinds of Revenue      Rs. 23,906/- only
 Excise and others "               4,39,855/- 
 Registration Fee "                     417/- "
 Water Tax "                         11,057/- "

 Money Received from British Govt. 

 for opium and salt "                28,408/- " 
 Fees of school students "           11,392/- "
 Dues from Municipality "             7,657/- " 
 Other Sources "                         69/- " 
 Total Rs.                         5,22,761/- only

Had all the income of Chandernagore been spent at this place, health, education, beauty etc here could have been augmented to a larger extent. But that did not happen. A total amount of Rs. 2,09,759/- only, Rs. 1,73, 577/- only and Rs. 2,00,135/- only were spent respectively in 1921, 22 and 23. The money due to the rest of income was spent in other cities of the French India. Even in earlier times expenses were incurred for other colonies from the income of Chandernagore. The income of the place 46 years back was 1,98,405 franc only, the expenditure being 14,011 franc.

Like the other three French occupied colonies of India, Chandernagore was under Pondicherry. There was only one Governor for the entire French India. He lived in the principal city of Pondicherry, from time to time he would visit the colonies. There was one Administrator under the Governor in each colony. Though there were courts and magistrates here, a separate judge used to come from Pondicherry for session trials. There was a High court in Pondicherry for filing an appeal. The Collectorates, the Education Department, the Housing Department etc. were all under the said department of Pondicherry. One Inspector from France used to come here every year for inspecting all the affairs. The French Consul who lived in Calcutta had no connection with the administration of Chandernagore.

Formerly the government kept a troop of sepoys to help maintenance of peace in the town. It is known that Chandernagore had two divisions of infantry during 1743-45. Under the terms of the treaty it had no alternative than to keep not more than 15 soldiers.

The laws of this place were not separate, laws were the same in regard to all the colonies and they were drawn up by the Minister of the Interior of France. In the councils of Depute and Senateur of France there was one representative elected by the citizens and representatives of French India in each.

Though no Indian got a place in the Councils of Depute and Senateur, the citizens of Chandernagore had the right to be elected to those seats.

A Municipality was created here on August 1 in 1880. Charles Dumaine became the first Mayor. Now a Corporation has been made in Chandernagore.

There was a post here called 'Notaire' like the Registrar of British India. All the deeds as for testament, sale and purchase, debts and dues were registered by him.

Earlier there were eight police stations in all here - one police Commissioner and one constable under him were the main police officials here. The people of Pondicherry instead of Europeans were found in a majority in all departments. The common residents of this place could not at all like such authoritarianism of the people of Pondicherry.

Only a few orders of capital punishment were given by the judicial system here. An instrument called 'guillotine' was used to carry out capital punishment. Decapitation was done by it. Formerly the guilty sentenced to death were taken to re-union. The guillotine instrument was used here for the last time on July 22 in 1895. Two persons of this place named Sk. Abdul Panjari and Hiru Bagdi were sentenced to death for the first time on January 26 in 1883. The pillory was used to detain some drunkard or arrested criminal of the jail. It was an instrument made of wood with holes into which the two feet of the criminal were forcibly entered.

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The Rise of Chandernagore Group

Chandernagore did not remain a silent spectator during India's struggle for independence. The yell rose straight out of the heart of Chandernagore:

'Liberty or self-rule is our birthright.' That story is similar to the elixir of heaven.

It was the last half of the nineteenth century, Vivekananda's animated message moved from lip to lip :

'A nation in bondage cannot have any religion. Freedom is its only religion. Let all other gods remain asleep for the next fifty years. Motherland is the only object of veneration.' Chandernagore's longing for freedom inspired the youth force of the country.

1905 - Chandernagore rose to a man to stop the partition of Bengal. On the vanguard of this movement were such men as Charuchandra Roy, Bholanath Das, Bonomali Pal, Surendranath Pal, Motilal Roy, Srischandra Ghosh, Manindranath Nayek. Kanailal Dutta, Basanta Bandyopadhya and many others.

In the history of India's struggle for freedom Chandernagore was a wonder in respects of independence and distinction. Chandernagore took the role of a guide in the liberation movement of the country. Chandernagore grasped the signal of the rise of the nation. She was not only overwhelmed with love for freedom, but the story of her self-surrender at the lotus feet of the country was enviable.

1906 - Chandernagore got associated with the Calcutta Group-'Yugantar'.

1907 (Dec 6) - A plan was chalked out to blow up the train of Andrew Frazer.

1908 (Apr 11) - The revolutionaries hurled bombs at the house of Tardival, the Mayor of Chandernagore. The bombs did not explode. Tardival got respite for the time being. Khudiram was hanged to death on August 11. Kanailal was excuted on November 10. The revolutionary consciousness of Chadernagore roared.

1909 - Chandernagore promised to advance the cause of armed revolution. Srischandra, Motilal were behind the scene.

1910 (Feb 14) - Aurobindo came to Chandernagore. He was kept concealed in several houses of Chandernagore.

1911 - Bomb making was started in Chandernagore. Nagendranath Ghosh, Manindranath Nayek, Suresh Chandra came forward at the intentness of Sris Chandra. The management was vested in Motilal. The chief centre of bomb making was at the house of Arun Som of Boraichanditala. Ashutosh Neogy, Sagarkali Ghosh, Charu Rakshit, Manik Rakshit, Satyacharan Karmakar etc. gave all out help to bomb making.

Chandernagore got connected with Anushilan Samity on the trail of this bomb making.

Chandernagore group or bombers influenced from behind Delhi conspiracy case, Rajabazar bombing case, Beneras conspiracy case and Lahore conspiracy case. The Nixon Report says on the bomb of Chandernagore :

(1) 1911, March 2 : Attempt to kill Denham at Dalhousie Square.

(2) 1912, December 12 : Attempt to kill Abdar Rahaman at Midnapur.

(3) 1912, December 23 : Attempt to kill Lord Hardinge in Delhi.

(4) 1913, March 27 : Attempt to kill Gordon at Maulavibazar.

(5) 1913, May 17 : Attempt to kill Gordon in Lahore.

As a result of swearing on secrecy many items of news remain unknown to history. The police failed to know that the bomb of Trailokya Maharaj was supplied by Chandernagore. The date on which Bankim Chowdhuri died was September 30. Bombs of Chandernagore were used during the attempt to kill Basanta Chatterjee.

1914 - 26 August : Mauser pistols and 46000 cartridges of Calcutta Roda & Company were plundered. A few pistols and cartridges came to Chandernagore.

1915 - Bombs reached Meerut army barrack under the supervision of Manindra Nayek. Bishnu Ganesh Pingla was arrested with ten bombs on March 23. Those ten bombs were enough for blowing up half of the regiment. Rashbehari Bose, the heroic son of Chandernagore, planned and led the country wide Sepoy Meeting on February 21.

1916 - Twenty young men of Chandernagore joined the battle field of France as volunteers during the First World War.

1925-30 - Durgadas Sett's thoughts on native land brought about a transformation in Chandernagore's thoughts on revolution - publicity of native market and native goods was arranged through Shilpa Samabay.

1930 - Chandernagore responded to Gandhiji's Civil Disobedience Movement. Makhanlal died at the hands of Tegart's gang of killers on September 2.Chandernagore was getting restless in a suppressed spirit of vengeance.

1933 (Mar 9) - Dinesh Majumdar, Sachin Kargupta, Nalini Das and Biren Roy hid themselves in Chandernagore. Monsieur Cannes was murdered by an assailant's bullet.

1942 (Aug 7) - No influence of Quit India Movement was felt in Chandernagore. But there was activity against the famine. A women's organisation came into being for the first time in Chandernagore.

Chandernagore felt the restlessness of getting empathic with the nation, the age and sharing their weal and woe. Chandernagore served as midwife's land to Bengal's endeavour for revolution.

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Educational Awakening

As far as can be known, one hundred years ago the education system of Chandernagore was mainly confined to the 'pathsalas' (primary schools) of local Gurumahasayas (teachers) and there was no dearth of such pathsalas. Later on gradually the missionaries of the European clergy tried to spread education and a few free schools were also established by them. At first even in these schools Bengali was the only subject of study. Later gradually French language education was started.

It is heard that there was a small school founded by the missionaries for the Bengali boys on the south of the place where there is a Convent now and where there is the house of the Late Chakkanlal Sinha. The school on the south-west corner of Laldighi which comes within hearing was probably existent even one hundred years ago. Bengali and French were freely taught there. The name of a teacher known as Piru Sahib can be had. The former Dupleix College - the first name of which was St. Mary's Institution - was also established by the missionaries. It was established by Father Barthet at least a hundred years before. It was first situated on the north of the road which was known as Rue de Barrabazar before the Rue General Martin. Some people say that the school on the corner of Laldighi had been shifted to that place. The school known as Dupleix College is now under the Government. There is a French Section in it. At the initial stage a lottery was arranged for its improvement. The names of Father Barthet and Father Alfenso are specially worthy of mention. Nandadulal Bose among the local people is known to have helped for its improvement. When this school was had its name as 'St. Mary's Institution' and its sobriquet was French School. The small school of those days gradually developed. Father Barthet was the founder of this school. With the addition of classes one by one when F.A. class was opened it was named Dupleix College. It was called so in the name of famous Dupleix, the erstwhile administrator of Chandernagore, later when the college was founded separately, it came to be known as Dupleix School. Probably from 1901 the school bore the name Dupleix. This school was renamed Kanailal Vidyamandir after the name of the revolutionary Kanailal Dutta, a student of this school, on May 17, 1948 just before the liberation from the French rule. On the first day of the Centenary Celebration of the school the ceremony was inaugurated by Dr. Brajakanta Guha, the Vice Chancellor of Burdwan University. Dr. Guha uncovered the marble bust of Kanailal in the school campus and garlanded it. Later the newly constructed Science Building was opened and an exhibition was inaugurated.

The names of Father Fritz, Father Barthet, Father Alphenso and Brother Hanoriere are specially mentionable in connection with the spread of education on the western model at this place. It is heard that Father Fritz was the first organiser of the beginning of English education here. As in some other places the missionaries here were the founders of western type schools, it can be said. The late Bhudeb Chandra Mukhopadhay, the noted educationist, established a primary school here about one hundred years ago.

Banga Vidyalaya is another main school after Dupleix College here. It was established on the Akshay Tritiya day on Baisakh 20, 1288, with three boys only at a small rented house of Kanailal Khan at Barasat Tematha. The late Govinda Chandra Kundu living at Barasat first established a Pathsala at the stable of Girish Chandra Srimani. Himself being unable to run it for lack of support from the people he requested the late Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay to be interested in the education of local boys. Rakhaldas established this primary school with the assistance of Kalidas Bose, Srishchandra Bose, Ramanath Bandyopadhyay, all residents of Gondalpara and Amritalal Bandyopadhyay, a resident of Telinipara. The late Dinanath Mukhopadhyay was appointed its first teacher. Among those who helped in the construction of the present building the names of Gopalchandra Mukhopadyay, Durgacharan Rakshit and Kanailal Khan are specially worthy of mention.

There were two primary schools, one established in 1885 by Durga Charan Rakshit in his own name and the other bearing the name 'Nrityagopal Sett Prathamik Vidyalaya' was founded in his father's name in 1922 by Harihar Sett.

There were many non-Govt. pathsalas here, the two of them established by Sri Ashutosh Neogy are mentionable only. The pathsalas of Ashubabu were free, along with boys girls also received education here.

There were only one free Govt. pathsala and another non-Govt. pathsala known as 'Kashiswari Pathsala' here exclusively for girls. The first was managed by the French Government and the second by a committee known as 'Chandernagore Sikshasamiti'. The latter was established on Shravana 25, in 1318 Bengali Sal with the financial help of Rs. 2000/- only from Jogeschandra Chattopadhyay, an advocate of Mandalay and a resident of Gondalpara, at the initiative of a few gentleman like Upendranath Chattopadhyay. Its building was built on the land donated by Abinash Chandra Bandyopadhyay mainly with the financial assistance of Kamalkrishna Pal. It attained enough progress due to the endeavour of its secretary, Basanta Kumar Bandyopadhyay.

Apart from these two there were two more small free pathsalas for girls in the localities known as Palpara and Bibirhat. The first was conducted by Palpara Suhrid Samiti and the second by Santan Sangha. Both these pathsalas moved towards the path of progress due to the care and labour of two great women. These two women were the wife of Ashutosh Dutta and the wife of the late Saratchandra Datta. The pathsala of Palpara was created as a common pathsala for the children first by Krishna Kishore Datta about 50 years ago. The second was established by Sarat Chandra's wife in 1916.

Another girls' school known as 'Aghorechandra Sett Prathamik Vidyalaya' was established here. The establishment of a women's institution with a girl students' hostel was attempted here in order that junior and senior girls, even aged women, could receive proper instruction on various essential subjects. Necessary apartments were built on a little less than 4 bigha plot at the centre of the town purchased from the municipality for this. 'Krishnabhabini Narisiksha Mandir' was established (1926) by Harihar Sett in his mother's name. This was the first girls' high school in the district. Besides, there is an educational institution established and managed by Prabartak Sangha. There is arrangement for both boys and girls to stay and receive education here.

A provision for French education to some extent was there in those schools earlier where arrangement for Government grants existed. People had to go to Pondicherry from here for studying French law, medical science or for higher education. But some students only used to go to Pondicherry for appearing at the law examination as there was no special facility for earning money by dint of that kind of education.

A school for Ayurbedic education fusing elements of the east and of the west bearing the name of Baidya-Bed Vidyalaya was established here by Kabiraj Mahendranath Gupta in 1328 B.S. There were provisions for the students to stay here and receive western scientific education with Ayurbed.

There was a music school in Chandernagore in 1250 B.S. It was established by Basantalal Mitra, Raja Ram Bandyopadhyay was its first teacher. Chandernagore has suffered much damage due to its abolition in 1920.

Schools for teaching Sanskrit have existed here since earlier time. It is heard that there was a Sanskrit school at Lalbagan established by Indranarayan Chowdhuri where now Dr. Baridbaran Mukhopadhyay and his kins have a garden. A scholar named Iswarchandra Bhattacharya set up a Sanskrit school in Nanda Dulal Temple about a hundred years ago. The Sanskrit schools of Bhairabchandra Vidyasagar of Hatkhola and Shiromoni of Panchanantala were famous. There was a Sanskrit school under the name of 'Bhabadev Shiromoni Tol' in Narua area. In the last named neighbourhood the Sanskrit schools of Shyamacharan Goswami and his father were famous a long time ago. These Goswamis, both father and son, were distinguished scholars and well versed in scriptures. In the area named Goswamighat in the town lived the greatest number of educated people well versed in scriptures. In the locality of Gondalpara the art and science of logic was much cultivated more than a hundred years ago. It is known that there were ten schools for teaching the art of logic at this place in those days.

Kalidas Chatuspathi was founded by Kalicharan Das (1910). Mr. Das donated thirty thousand rupees for this. He was not a very rich person, but it is not known if any one before him had donated so much at this time for the spread of education. Sadhucharan Mukhopadhyay, Charu Chandra Roy and Bhringeswar Srimani were previously the trustees of this Sanskrit school.

In 1861 the order of the sisters of St Joseph of Cluny (Roman Catholic) had founded the St Joseph's Convent for girls at Chandernagore. It was the oldest educational institution in the area. No account of the history of modern education of Chandernagore will be complete without a reference to the pioneering work of the convent in women's education in the area. Through the years the school has retained its excellent tradition of exemplary dedication. St Joseph's Convent has been on the banks of the River Hooghly and is a testimony to the pioneering work in the field of education. Several generations of students have passed through its portals and are ready today to be found in different parts of the world. The Bengali and English Sections of the school continue to offer quality education to all communities and it remains an important educational institution of Chandernagore. St Joseph's can also be proud of its dispensary and health services to the local population as well as of its contribution towards educating the poorer sections of people of Chandernagore. The building which first bore the name St Joseph's Convent has now branched into buildings on every side of the campus. These buildings have been erected to accomodate the Sister-Institutions, St Anthony's Secondary School, the dispensary and its annexe, St Mary's School, all under the management of St Joseph's Convent. The members of the Staff in each school are responsible, devoted and efficient teachers, as is proved by the excellent results in ICSE Public examinations.

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Chandernagore Library

To speak about libraries, 'Chandernagore Library' is the oldest and biggest of all. It was established by Jadunath Palit in 1873. At the initiative of a few gentlemen like the said Mr. Palit, Mahendranath Nandi, Motilal Sett etc. the play 'Pronoypariksha' was staged in a fancy theatre brought into being then. The desire for acting by the theatre committee having come to a close, under the auspices of such gentlemen as Trigunacharan Palit. Mahendranath Nandi, Harimohan Sur this library was established with the money collected from the sale of the stage and its props. Though its management devolved on the educated and distinguished persons of the city from its infancy to the present time, its condition deteriorated in etween. After that, having come under the newly constituted executive committee it gradually became an object of pride in Chandernagore. Among its friends and well wishers reference may be made to a person who being associated with its weal and woe for a long time held it to his bosom to keep it alive in the days of its greatest misery. He was the late Pramathanath Mitra. Unfortunately he could not live to see how much people gave in response to what he wanted for his dearly cherished library.

Having been shifted from several rented houses here and there for about half a century, it has got its own building now known as 'Nrityagopal Smritimandir and Chandernagore Library' at the centre of the city. Its fund is not scanty at all and the number of its books has increased sufficiently. The reading room attached to it has also been developed. The authorities have tried and are trying their best for popular education, for incentive to studies among the boys and the youth and for abetting proficiency in their oral communication. Now it has occupied a high place among the non-govt. libraries in the suburbs. Even so, it is doubtful if there is any library on a par with it in the state.

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The Jagaddhatri Puja

The formal difference between Durga and Jagaddhatri occurs in 'Maya tantra' (2nd & 4th Section) and Jagaddhatri is mentioned with reference to Durga in Krishnananda's ' Tantrasar.' The ruling to perform the special puja of the goddess on the ninth lunar day of the light fortnight in the month of Kartick has been referred to in 'Smritiratnahar' by Brihaspati Roymukut and in 'Kritya Tattarnab' by Srinath Acharya Churamoni of the 15th-16th century.

The ancient history of Jagaddhatri Puja in Chandernagore is unknown even today. It is heard that Indranarayan Chowdhuri introduced the Jagaddhatri Puja in Chandernagore in the manner of King Krishnachandra of Krishnanagore. The time of the beginning of the Jagaddhatri Puja in Krishnanagore was 1762. It was the last year of the reign of Nawab Mirkashem. Indranarayan Chowdhuri died in 1756. So Indranarayan Chowdhuri could by no means introduce the Jagaddhatri Puja in Chandernagore in 1763. The beginning of the Jagaddhatri Puja in Chandernagore probably dates back earlier than 1750. Indranarayan performed the Jagaddhatri Puja at his own house in Chandernagore, at that time Krishna Chandra used to come to borrow money from Indranarayan. Perhaps Krishna Chandra was attracted to the greatness of Jagaddhatri at this time.

In 1780 Bengal Gazette of James August Hickey was the first newspaper of this country. The newspaper was silent about the Jagaddhatri Puja. Anyway, 'Friends of India' published a report on the community Jagaddhatri Puja in 1820. The date of the community Jagaddhatri Puja in Chandernagore was 1790. In those days Robert Clive called Loxmigonj of Chandernagore the 'Granary of Bengal'. The Jagaddhatri Puja at Chaulpotty (Rice Market) in Loxmigonj is probably the historic example of the ancient community Jagaddhatri Puja. The Jagaddhatri Puja of Chandernagore bridges the past and the present. A spontaneous universal merry making contributes to the success of the Jagaddhatri Puja of Chandernagore.

The fourhanded goddess is carried by the lion every where, an elephant lies at the feet of the lion. The idol has an old fashioned shaping, i.e., the face cutting is of a longish pattern; it has large eyes spread upto the ears and the four hands display conch, discus, shaft and bow respectively. The exterior colour of the goddess is that of the rising sun. The snake is her sacred thread. She is seated on a lotus. The potter's technique of building the idol is commendable indeed. The maximum height of the idol is twenty two feet. One of the main attractions of the Jagaddhatri idol of Chandernagore is the ornamental decoration of the goddess with sola and the beautiful canvas of mats with paintings at the back of the image. The idol of the goddess assumes a unique beauty with the beautiful cloth, veil, ornaments and crown made with pith by the florist artistes of this place and Katoa. The wonder of illumination is after all a primeval glory of Chandernagore .

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A Quick Recall ....... 1673 - 1954

1673 - The French first came to Chandernagore, precisely to Bengal. A person named Duplessis after taking permission from Ibrahim Khan secured 20 Arpents (French measurement) of land at Borokishnapur at a cost of Rs. 401/- only.

1676 - Streynsham Master, a representative of the British Company who later became the Governor of Madras visited this place on September 13.

Chandernagore was surrounded by a trench in this year. It is commonly believed that it was in this year that the French came here for the first time.

1686 - Martin, the chief of the French Company of Pondicherry, sent a person named Deltor from there with coins worth 40,000 ‘ecu' currency to purchase goods from Chandernagore.

1688 - The French Company came here for the second time. It was in this year that 942 hectaire of land was purchased for Rs. 40,000/- only from the Moghul Emperor, Aurangzeb, and permission to build an office of a business organisation was received from him.

The Augustine community built a shrine for worship in this year.

1690 - Francis Louis Boureau Deslandes was born.

In a warrant written to a staff of Boro - Krishnapur, the capital of Boro Pargana, under Ibrahim Khan, the Nawab of Dacca, dated May 29 the information of the Director of the French Company having purchased 61 bighas of land could be found.

1691 - Boureau Deslandes was appointed the Supremo of this place.

The deed plan for the construction of an office, a warehouse, a building and a wall was prepared by an architect named Jesuit Dutchetz and the construction having started at a cost of Rs. 26,000/- only was completed the next year.

1693 - The decree of the Moghul Badsah about the permission for free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa could be had in the month of January (14th instant). The French East India Company legally got the ownership title of Chandernagore from this time and this was the foundation of the French Administrative Rule here.

1694 - Monsieur Martin came to his son in law, Monsieur Deslandes, at Chandernagore on February 15.

1696 - Just as the English and the Dutch built forts in Calcutta and Chinsurah taking advantage of the rebellion of Sobha Singha, so the French built a fort named Fort d'Orleans at Chandernagore.

As far as can be known, a reference to this name of 'Chandernagore' could be had in a letter dated November 21 written to the then Director and jointly signed by Martin, Andre Boureau Deslandes and pelee.

1697 - Construction of the fort having been completed the colony was well protected.

1698 - The permission for anchoring French ships at Hooghly, Pipli, Baleswar, Hizli which Martin received after leaving Chandernagore during the time of Jasser Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, was renewed by the Emperor.

1699 - The appointment of foreign missionaries was prohibited from this time and in place of that arrangement for appointing Capuchins was made.

1700 - 15 bales of cloth were exported in a ship named Phelypeaux.

1701 - Monsieur Deslandes left handing over charges to Pierre Dulivier. From this time Chandernagore came under the rule of Pondicherry.

1705 - The French entered into a conflict with the Dutch over the seizure of the Dutch ship named Phoenix Deu'r.

1706 - Chandernagore was placed under the control of Jean Samuel Delabat from this time. Hamilton, the traveller, visited Chandernagore.

1708 - Flacourt remained in the post of Director General.

1709 - Abbate D.Matteo Ripa visited Chandernagore. Information about a Jesuit monastery and farm could be had.

1711 - Claude Boisvin d'Hardancourt remained as Director General at this time.

1713 - Mrs. Rebecca Russell, wife of Governor Russell and sister of Governor Ieyar, died here on April 14. Governor Russell left Chandernagore after his recovery on May 29.

1715 - The deed for the purchase of the village Krishnapur by D'hardancourt and Blanchelies was made on March 1.

1717 - D'hardancourt died at Chandernagore.

1720 - J.S. Delabat got the post of Director General.

The Roman Catholic Clergymen of Tibet mission built the church adjacent to the Convent.

1721 - Francois de la Bouexiere, Ecuyer was appointed Director General.

1722 - Delabat was reappointed Director General.

1723 - The name of De la Blanchetiere as Director General could be found.

1724 - Delabat died at Chandernagore.

1726 - The religious shrine of the Italian Mission was built at a place where Friar Marcus, the famous Geographer, lived for many years and where St. Mary's convent is situated at present.

1728 - F.D. de la Blanchetiere remained placed in the post of Director General. Sishuram Bandopadhyay was born in the village of Mankundu in this year.

1729 - De la Blanchetiere died at Chandernagore. Guillaume Guillandeu got the charge of this place.

Indranarayan Chowdhuri sent a shipload of rice and other commodites to Pondicherry.

1730 - Francois Dirois was appointed Director General. He tried for the first time to surround the place with forts, but could not succeed.

A proposal for the purchase of Prosadpur and its adjacent village was passed in the Council on February 10 and afterwards the company purchased them from Ramram Chowdhuri.

Indranarayan Chowdhuri was appointed courtier of the company.

1731 - Joseph Francois Dupleix was appointed Intendent or Governor. The population was approximately 1,00,000.

1732 - The company purchased the village named Sabinara (8 bighas 15 cottahs) from Ramcharan Sur for Rs. 348/- only on September 12.

Indranarayan Chowdhuri was first granted lease of Chandernagore on an annual rate of Rs. 12,000/- only.

1734 - The annual rate imposed on Indranarayan was raised to Rs.14,000/- only.

Rasu, the famous composer of songs, was born to a respectable Kayastha family at Gondalpara.

1735 - Indranarayan Chowdhuri received a gold medal from the King of France.

1736 - The rate of annual tax for lease was raised to Rs. 15,000/- only.

1737 - Jagannath Prosad, the eldest son of Indranarayan Chowdhuri, was granted lease at a rate of annual tax of Rs. 15,000/- only.

1738 - Nrisingha, the brother of Rasu, the composer of songs, was born.

1740 - The temple of Sri Sri Nandadulal was built and established by Indranarayan Chowdhuri. He also founded a guest house probably in this year or in the previous year.

1741 - Dupleix was married to Jeanne Albert on April 17 at Chandernagore. People called him Jona Begum. Dupleix was transferred to Pondicherry as Governor and Duval de Leyrit was appointed in his place.

1742 - Dupleix came to visit Chandernagore for the last time.

1744 - Chandernagore reached the height of development. At this time it was a bigger centre of commerce than Calcutta.

1748 - Several mansions of the city were destroyed by the Maratha freebooters.

1749 - The famous mosque of Molla Hazi's garden was founded at this time by Molla Hazi.

Mauchet prepared a sketch of Fort d'Orleans and places thereafter.

1751 - Niti Bairagi or Nite Vaisnava (Nityananda Das Bairagi) was born at the house of Kunjadas Vaisnava.

1752 - A treaty between the Dutch and the French was executed.

1753 - References to a hospital and an orphanage of the Jesuits could be found. The number of Catholic inhabitants at this time was four thousand.

1755 - The Danes left Gondalpara for Srirampur and most probably the French took the settlement.

1756 - Renault de St. Germain was appointed Governor.

Indranarayan Chowdhuri died.

The French Government offered refuge to 3,000 Portuguese men, women and children coming from Calcutta and took charge of their maintenance.

1757 - The English and the French were involved in a battle and the English occupied Chandernagore. Robert Clive attacked over land and Admiral Watson by water. The date was March 18.

The Bridgewater, the Kingfisher, the Tiger, the Kent and the Salisbury under the command of Watson reached Gondalpara from Kaugachi. Chandernagore came into the hands of the British on March 23.

In the letter of March 30 that Clive wrote to the Nawab he used the name of 'Francedongi' in place of Chandernagore.

It is known from the Consultation Book of the Britishers dated September 5 that they ordered the pay master for defraying all expenses for the supply of whatever was necessary for the destruction of all forts and palaces of Chandernagore.

1763 - Under the terms of the Paris Treaty Chandernagore was again returned to the French.

1765 - The French company gifted lands to the Jesuits.

1766 - Catherine (later known as Madam Grand) came to Chandernagore.

1769 - The first French East India Company went into liquidation. M. Chevalier was appointed the Chief of Chandernagore.

By his order the entire city was encirled with ramparts and a site plan was prepared.

1777 - Louis Bonnaud, one of first indigo planters in India, came to Chandernagore in this year and started indigo business.

Peerlessly beautiful Miss Noel Catherine Verlee was married to George Francis Grand on July 10.

1778 - A battle started between England and France on March 18. When this news reached Calcutta on July 6, the Englishmen occupied Chandernagore again without any obstruction.

1779 - Sir Robert Chambers, a judge of the Supreme Court of Calcutta, was appointed a judge of Chinsurah and Chandernagore.

1783 - Chandernagore came under the occupation of the French again. In accordance with the terms of the Versailles Treaty a fort was dug out.

1784 - At this time (probably in 1191 Bengali Sal) Ramkanai built a platform in Sarkar Bagan for the festival of 'Rash'.

1785 - Approximately a 21 year old Brahmin young woman practised 'Sati' (act of dying together).

1787 - Dangereaux was appointed Administrator of this place. A terrific riot took place here.

1788 - F. Nicolas was appointed Governor-Administrator of this place.

1789 - Montigny was appointed Governor.

An advertisement was issued in Calcutta Gazette on September 17 to the effect that Montigny, the Governor of Chandernagore, had declared that the slave-trade of the place was abolished.

Grandpee, the eminent traveller, came to visit Chandernagore.

1789 - A rebellion similar to that of the wellknown French Revolution took place here. Just as King Louis XVI took refuge in Versailles, the Governor when attacked by the people at the instance of a lawyer fled to the village resort of Gourhati. Just as the excited mob of Paris brought back the King and his Queen Marie Antoinette with pomp and splendour, so also was the Governor taken back to Chandernagore. At last, the Governor sought help from the English lest he met the same fate as Louis. All the trouble ended when they sent a troop of soldiers.

1790 - On being buried with her dead husband a Muslim woman died on July 29.

1791 - The former ‘arpent' measurement was abolished by law.

1792 - Fumeron was appointed Governor of this place.

1793 - Though a battle was waged between France and England on February 8, the news reached this place in the month of June. Chandernagore was again occupied by the Britishers.

At this time Richard Birch was appointed Director, Judge and Magistrate by the Governor General and his Council of Calcutta and De Bretal was appointed Deputy Director.

At this time all movable properties of the French Government including even the palanquin of the Governor were sold out by the English Government.

1798 - The congregation house for worship of Gopinath was built by Jadavendu Ghosh (Jadu Ghosh) in the month of Falgun in the Bengali year 1205.

1799 - Manufacture of opium was banned here.

1802 - A few months after the liberation of Chandernagore from the British rule accordinig to the provisions of the Amiens Treaty the two states were again engaged in a battle and it again was occupied by the English.

1807 - The Shiva temples of Palpara were established by Mahabharat Pal.

Rasu, the composer of songs, died.

1808 - A nonagenarian old woman of a Kayastha family died herself with her husband. This was the last self-sacrifice of a woman with her husband in Chandernagore.

Sisuram Bandyopadhyay died.

A French drama entitled L'Avocat having been translated into Bengali was acted here.

The Nabachur Nabaratna temple of GoswamiGhat which is wellknown as the "Temple of Bride and Bridegroom" and in which is enshrined the Omkar Pitcher of Prabartak Sangha was established by Gourmoni Dasi, the wife and infant widow of Baidyanath Sarkar, a younger brother of Debicharan Sarkar.

1809 - Nrisingha, the composer of songs, died.

1814 - Under a census 41, 377 people were registered.

1816 - The French regained Chandernagore from the Britishers. The Commissioner appointed by Louis XVIII, the king of France, took it from Mr. Gordon and Colonel Loveday representing the British Government.

M. Ravier was appointed Chef de Service.

An agreement was signed at the time of disposal of the city to the French that three hundred boxes of opium could be had of the British Government on an average sale basis in Calcutta.

1817 - Premnarayan Basu founded the platform for the Rash festivel of their deity Sri Sri Radha-Madanmohan.

1819 - M. Dayot was appointed Chef de Service.

1822 - Cordier was appointed Administrator.

1823 - Bishop Reginald Heber came to visit Chandernagore and found a noiseless, inactive, wondrous spectacle of silence and desolation.

Pellissier was appointed Chief of this place.

1826 - Cordier was appointed Administrator.

1828 - Kashinath Kundu established the trinity of Siva temples.

Crocquet was temporarily appointed Chef de Service.

1829 - Cordier was appointed Administrator for the third time.

A reference could be had of Capuchins' having an Alms house.

1832 - Comite de Bienfaisance was established to help the poor and the distressed. A sort of unknown virus fever raged.

1836 - Neil was appointed Chief temporarily.

Bedier was appointed Chef de Service.

The census figure this year was 31,235. 216 Europeans were living among them.

The first printed book in Bengali "Crepar Xaxter Orthobhed" rewritten and edited by Father G.F.M Gue'rin was published. This was the second edition and eclipse - calculation from 1836 to 1940 was appended to it.

1837 - Neil agian temporarily worked as Chief.

1838 - Auguste Bourgoin was appointed Chief.

1839 - Under a treaty with the British arrangement for the payment Rs. 20,000/- only by the English Government to the French instead of salt was made from August 1.

1841 - St. Hilaire was appointed Administrator.

Durgacharan Rakshit was born on September 20.

1843 - St. Pourcain was appointed Chef de Service on a temporary basis.

1844 - Law de Clapernon was appointed Chef de Service.

1845 - The British Government by their order No. 1086 dt. April 23 granted the demand for a total right to assessment of taxes which the French paid for all the landed properties.

1847 - The four Siva temples of Barasat were founded by Kashinath Srimani.

1848 - A. Vigneti was appointed Chef de Service.

1852 - The census figure was fixed as 32,670.

1853 - Drouin de Lhuis on behalf of the King of France and Cowley in favour of Queen Victoria of England concluded a treaty in the city of Paris on the delimitation of boundaries of Chandernagore between the English and the French on March 31. By this the English had to give away 36 bighas and received 191 bighas.

1855 - La Claverie was temporarily appointed Chef de Service. Later I. Hayes was permanently appointed.

1856 - Maras was appointed Chef de Service.

1857 - Law de Clapernon was reappointed Chef de Service.

1860 - I. Hayes was reappointed Chef de Service.

Garbati School was founded by Haran Chandra Chattopadhyay, Chandrasekhar Gangopadhyay, Umesh Chandra Ghosh and others.

1862 - Teaching upto ‘Brevet Elementaire' in the French Section of Ecole St. Marie (Kanailal Vidyamandir at present) was started first.

1863 - Father Barthet came to Chandernagore. A severe storm broke out on the day of Shasthi during the Durgotsav in the month of Aswin.

1865 - Derussat was appointed Chef de Service. The Governor of Madras granted right to exchange telegraphic messages between the rulers of Chandernagore and Pondicherry free of cost.

1867 - The convent house was donated by Alfred Curjon to spread female education.

1868 - Three persons were appointed Chef de Service one by one during this year. First, came Herve - on a temporary basis, the second was Bayet, the third was Durand.

1869 - The Duke of Connaught while on a visit to India came to Chandernagore.

1871 - A map of Chandernagore was prepared by the English Government.

With the financial help of a few gentlemen, the present hospital was established by Dr. Morgain. The hospital began to function in 1878 - this reference could also be had.

The first Bengali drama "Pronoy Pariksha" (Test of Love) was acted according to theatrical convention in Chandernagore under Jadunath Palit as Director.

1873 - "Chandernagore Library" was founded under the auspices of Jadunath Palit, Mahendranath Nandi, Harimohan Sen etc. in response to a proposal by Triguna Charan Palit.

The mosque of Urdibazar was established by Sheikh Harmanu.

1874 - The impact of the famine of Bengal spread here.

1875 - The construction work of the present Roman Catholic Church was started under the supervision of Brother Joachim at the initiative of Rev. Father Barthet with the financial help of the Government and money collected from lottery and common people.

Ferier was appointed Chef de Service. Edward the Seventh, the King of England, on a visit to India as the Crown -Prince, came to Chandernagore.

1877 - The population was fixed as 22,539 by the census.

1878 - Sergent was appointed temporary Chef de Service.

1879 - E. Feriez was appointed to the post of Chef de Service.

1880 - Eudel was appointed Chef de Service.

A French news paper entitled Le Petit Bengali was published for the first time. Chandernagore Municipality was created on August 1. Monsieur C. Dumaine was elected the first Mayor.

1881 - Banga Vidyalaya was founded at Barasat on the day of Akshay Tritiya.

1882 - Minegoon, the Prince of Burma, took shelter here after escaping secretly from Beneras. Hospital Morgain was shifted to the present house. The first Bengali newspaper - "Prajabandhu" (weekly) - edited by Tincorinath Bandyopadhyay was published in Chandernagore for the first time.

1883 - Clement Thomas was appointed to the post of Chef de Service.

Census fixed the population at 26,715.

Mr. Dinanath Das was placed as the first Bengali Mayor.

Sheikh Abdul Panjari and Hiru Bagdi were given capital punishment. This was the first capital punishment of this place (Jan 26).

Being concerned with the rumour that Chandernagore would be placed in English hands the citizens appealed to the Chief of the French Republic on May 1 in order that Chandernagore was not transferred.

1884 - After the construction of the Church was completed it was dedicated to Sacred Heart by Dr. Paul Gaethals, the Archbishop of Calcutta.

1885 - The Primary School named Ecole Durga was founded by Mr. Durgacharan Rakshit.

The Brahma Worship Temple of Bagbazar was established by Aghore Chandra Das and Krishnamohan Das.

The weekly journal entitled "Dhumketu" was published under the editorship of Mr. Shibkrishna Mishra.

The great festival of Sri Sri Khunti was started by the Goswamis with great pomp and splendour.

1886 - An English journal entitled "The Beaver" was published.

1887 - Sarine was appointed Chef de Service.

In this very year another person named Declin Sibour came as Administrator.

A canopy and a resthouse were built on the ghat of the Duttas by Tarasundari, the Queen of Bhukailas.

1888 - Le Cardinal was temporarily appointed Administrator. The old clergymen left Chandernagore.

Chandernagore Sporting Club was established. Mr. Nandalal Dutta was appointed its first Chief. Gaganchandra Bhar was its Captain. The Administrator of Chandernagore was its President.

1889 - Monsieur Bonnet was appointed Administrator. An English newspaper entitled "The Amateur Workshop" was published.

1891 - The Bengali monthly magazine "Bangaprova", was printed at Adwaita Press and published by Bipinbehari Koley.

1892 - A Protestant Church was founded.

Monsieur Aubroy Lecomte was appointed Administrator.

A newspaper entitled "Chandernagore Prokash" was published.

1893 - Mr. Durga Charan Rakshit established an Ayurvedic Charitable Dispensary.

1894 - Being accused of homicide a person named Sarat Chandra Bhattacharya was guillotined.

1895 - F. Lecost was appointed Acting Administrator.

The last capital punishment by guillotine was meted out this year.

1896 - An orphanage was established. Gyansharan Chakravorty received Prem Chand Raychand Scholarship for the first time from Chandernagore.

Mr. DurgaCharan Rakshit received the award of Chevalier de La Legion de Honneur for the first time in Chandernagore.

1898 - M. Echalier was appointed Administrator.

Chandernagore suffered great losses due to the earthquake that took place in Bengal.

Mr. Durgacharan Rakshit breathed his last.

1901 - Bouchard was appointed Administrator for the time being. Alex Deville was permanently appointed Administrator. A journal titled " Swasthya Sakha" was published.

It could be learnt from the census report of this year that the number of British subjects in Chandernagore was 10,999.

The name "Ecole de St. Marie" was changed into College Dupleix.

1902 - Monsieur V. Bernard was appointed Administrator.

1903 - Monsieur F. Albert was appointed Acting Administrator.

1904 - Monsieur Bernard was again appointed Administrator.

A separate centre for treatment of Plague was temporarily established.

1905 - Dr. Maratray was appointed Acting Administrator.

1906 - E.Ponge was appointed Administrator.

1907 - Monsieur H. Gizzonnier was appointed Administrator.

Comite Republicain Radical de Chandernagore was established under the Presidentship of Mr. Ashutosh Mukhopadhyay to serve moral, financial, agricultural, industrial, commercial interests of the citizens and also to serve political and other titular ends.

The Mayor became the President of Comite de Beinfesance from this year.

1908 - The F.A. class in College Dupleix was abolished.

Kanailal Dutta of Chandernagore was hanged to death by the British.

1909 - Monsieur H. Lagroua was appointed Administrator.

A newspaper titled "Matribhumi" started its publication.

1910 - Under the auspices of gentlemen like Charuchandra Roy, Srish Chandra Ghosh etc. a festival and an exhibition were arranged in connection with the celebration of the goddess of learning at the garden-house in Bagbazar of Mr. Nakurchandra Kar. It was named "Saraswata Utsav."

Kalicharan Das founded "Kalidas Chatuspathi" at a cost Rs. 30,000/- only. None had earlier donated so much money for the spread of education.

Sri Aurobindo Ghosh came to Chandernagore. Staying at Chandernagore for more than a month under the care of Motilal Roy he left for Pondicherry.

1911 - Monsieur Guizzonier was appointed Administrator for the second time.

A Primary School for girls named "Kashiswari Pathsala" at the initiative of some gentlemen such as Upendranath Chattopadhyay was established with the financial assistance of Jogesh Chandra Chattopadhyay in the name of Jogesbabu's mother.

Chanderngore Sporting Club won the Trades Cup. A body named "Boro Political Union" was established to serve the interest of the inhabitants of the area known as Boro.

1912 - Monsieur J. Barbier was appointed Administrator. Tapwater works was established for the first time.

1913 - Monsieur Lagroua was made Administrator for the second time.

A newspaper titled "Darshak" was published.

1914 - Monsieur Vergnol was appointed Administrator.

1915 - Monsieur C.Vincent was appointed Administrator.

The President of France gave to the residents of French India right to war on December 30.

A fortnightly journal entitled "Prabartak" under the editorship of Mr. Manindranath Nayek was published.

"Santan Sangha" was established with a view to serving the country making the life of a worker a model by Arun Chandra Dutta.

An exhibition titled "A'posien de Chandernagore" was held in the building of "College Dupleix" to help the soldiers injured in the great war of Europe at the initiative of a few local official and non-official gentlemen in response to a proposal of Monsieur Delrieu, the local Chief Justice. Lord Carmichael, the Governor of Bengal, and Monsieur Martin, the Governor of French India, came to visit the exhibition.

1916 - Twenty Bengali sons went as voluntary soldiers to the battlefield of France during the great war of Europe on April 16.

Jogindranath Sen, the first Bengali, laid down his life as a soldier in the battlefield of France in the great war of Europe on May 22.

"Gondalpara Anath Bhandar" was established by Pearymohan Bandyopadhyay, Upendranath Mondal and Pannalal Bandyopadhyay.

'Bhakunda Sahajya Samiti' was founded.

"Chandernagore Samajbhukta Tilijati Hitoishi Sabha" was established.

1918 - The foundation of 'Medical Relief Committee' and the beginning of its work were made by Harihar Sett.

The re-establishment of College Dupleix having been settled with the financial help of Harihar Sett, the decision of the Governor was published in the Journal Official on August 31.

1919 - Following the rumour that Chandernagore would be transferred to the British Government the inhabitants informed the President of the Republic of France of their unwillingness to accept it.

Because of the high rise in the price of rice 'Rice Supply Committee' was established under the Presidentship of Harihar Sett.

1920 - Jaillet was appointed Administrator.

An English journal titled'The Standard Bearer' was first published by Prabartak Sangha.

The members of the first list having differed from those of the second list over the election of Deputy Mayor six members of the second list - Harihar Sett, Dr. Yogneswar Srimani etc. - resigned en masse.

'Nrityagopal Smritimandir' comprising Chandernagore library and a hall for public use was established by Harihar Sett in the name of his father. This building was opened by Sir Surendranath Bandopadhyay and entry into the house of Chandernagore Library was made under the Presidentship of Mahamahopadhyay Haraprosad Shastri.

'Dustha Brahman Sahajya Sabha' was founded.

'Prabartak Sangha' was established by Motilal Roy.

1921 - Monsieur Clayassen was appointed Administrator.

'Prabartak Narimandir Ashram' was established.

The census figure was fixed at 25,423.

A canopy with a room for bathing facility for the common people was built by Shyamacharan Rakshit on Chowdhury Ghat in the name of his father, Durgacharan Rakshit.

A school named Baidya Ved Bidyalaya for the extension of Ayurbed education was established at Palpara by Mohendranath Gupta.

1922 - A free school known as "Nrityagopal Sett Prathamik Vidyalaya" was established by Harihar Sett and handed over to the Government.

'Dasabhuja Sahityamandir' was established at the iniitiative of certain gentlemen such as Nanigopal Chattopadhyay, Satcowrie Sur etc.

'Tantubay Samiti' was established to serve the interest of the weaver caste.

Two charitable dispensaries named 'Sambhuchandra Sevasram' for free treatment of the distressed on the northern and southern part of the city and a women's treatment clinic at the centre were set up.

1923 - A gilded silver pitcher with "OM" etched on it was set up on the day after Akshay Tritiya by Prabartak Sangha.

'Kayastha Sabha' was established mainly at the initiative of Kaliprosanna Bose.

1924 - V. Champion was appointed Administrator..

Use of electric light was first started in this year.

1925 - 'Aghorenath Sett Abaitanik Prathamik Vidyalaya' was founded by Harihar Sett and handed over to the Government.

The Fortnightly ‘Nabasangha' got a new lease of life.

The great festival comprising an exhibition and the fair of Akshay Tritiya was started by Prabartak Sangha. Mahatma Gandhi came to Chandernagore for the first time at the invitation of Prabartak Sangha in this year.

1926 - ‘Lalbagan Balika Vidyalaya' was founded at the residence of Bholanath Das due to the effort of certain gentlemen as Krishnalal Das etc.

‘Krishnabhabini Narisiksha Mandir' was established by Harihar Sett in his mother's name. This was the first girls' high school in the district.

1927 - ‘Matribhumi' was published as a new venture. ‘Premiere Telegraph and Commercial College' was founded.

Mahatma Gandhi came to Prabartak Sangha for the second time on December 31.

1928 - Monsieur J. Pernon was appointed Acting Administrator. Later Champion again was appointed Administrator.

‘Sambhuchandra Sevasram' was closed.

1929 - The raid of Gondalpara was done by the British Police. Makhanlal Ghosal was shot dead by the police.

Establishing a guest house ‘Sambhuchandra Sevashram' in the name of his grandfather Harihar Sett gave it away to Chandernagore Municipality.

The fortnightly ‘Nagarik' was published for the first time.

An English monthly journal titled ‘The Prabartak' was published.

1931 - Monsieur H.Vendome was appointed Administrator.

Later he died here.

‘College Dupleix' (College Section) was re-established mainly at the initiative of Charuchandra Roy.

1932 - Monsieur R.Bertheux was appointed Administrator.

‘Sevak', a fortnightly magazine, was published.

1933 - Monsieur Cannes, the Police Commissioner, was killed by an assailant's bullet.

The Loxmigonj Ghat was built by Bhanubala Dasi for the use of women in memory of Jadunath Pal and her husband, Haridas Pal.

‘Tarakdasi Narikalyan Bhaban' adjacent to Krishnabhabini Narisiksha Mandir was founded by Harihar Sett. It was opened by Madame Juvern, wife of the Governor of French India.

‘Prabartak Bidyarthi Bhaban' was established by Prabartak Sangha.

1934 - ‘Shuksanatan Adarsha Sikshalaya' was established.

Saratchandra Kundu founded ‘Meghnad Pathsala' in his father's name.

Monsieur R. Herou was appointed Administrator. Dr. Hrishikesh

Rakshit recieved D.Sc. degree for the first time.

‘Ramkrishna Centenary' was observed under the aegis of Chandernagore Library.

1935 - 'Prabartak Narimandir Balika Vidyalaya' was founded.

A junior high school for girls named ‘Sulekha Matrimandir' was established.

1936 - Monsieur T. Chambon was appointed Administrator.

Jogeschandra Chattopadhyay established ‘Ambica Charan Chattopadhyay Smriti Mandir' to perpetuate the memory of his father.

1937 - The 20th Bengali Literary Conference was held at Chandernagore Library. Rabindranath inaugurated it. Harihar Sett was elected President, and Narayan Chandra De and Krishnalal Das Secretaries of the Reception Committee. Hirendranath Datta occupied the seat of the Principal President.

‘Sevak' was published de novo.

‘Chandernagore School of Arts' was established by Gosthabehari Das.

Monsieur C.F Baron was appointed Administrator.

A fortnightly journal titled ‘Prajasakti' was first published as the organ of Praja Samiti.

1938 - Monsieur A.Menard was appointed Administrator.

1940 - Monsieur C.F. Baron came again as Administrator. The silver jubilee monthly function of "Prabartak Patrika" was held.

When France ceased fighting Germany during the Second Great war under the command of Monsieur M. Petain, General Monsieur De Gulle formed a National Committee for British co-operation and an idea that Monsieur M. Bonvin, the Governor of the French colonies in India, would co-operate with that Committee was made known to the representatives of the people by the Administrator of Chandernagore on September 17.

In spite of income tax having been imposed two years back, a special law about income tax was codified with effect from 1941.

When Anandamoy Gangopadhyay, the nephew of Kanti Prokas Gangopadhyay, a resident of Sarishapara, died of T.B., his wife, Durgarani Debi, slit her throat with her own hands to die with her husband and the couple was burnt on the same funeral pyre in the cremation ground.

1941 - Monsieur J. Massoutier was appointed Administrator.

‘Bangabhasa Sanskriti Sammelan' was held at the auspices of Chandernagore Library.

1945 - The college section of College Dupleix was newly named College de Bussy. (For separation of it from the school section bearing the same name.)

1946 - Monsieur M. Bazin was appointed Administrator. He remained in the post till 1947. Instead of two lists of electors only one list was made.

‘Narua Sikshaniketan' was founded.

1947 - On the 15th August when the British Government relinquished the state right of India, the French Government on the same day formed a council named Chandernagore Administrative Council and handed over economic freedom and slight administrative responsibility to Chandernagore. They nominated Harihar Sett as President and Debendranath Das, Sudhangshushekhar Datta, Arun Chandra Datta, Ekcowrie Datta and Sailendranath Mukhopadhyay as Vice Presidents.

The Indian national flag was hoisted for the first time in the Administrator House on that day.

Again C.F.Baron, Governor of French India, coming to Chandernagore on November 27 declared Chandernagore as Ville Libre or Free City. Now a municipality cum administrative council with far greater power was formed with 25 people, among them Harihar Sett was elected President and earlier mentioned five peosons along with Dr. Ashutosh Das were elected Vice-Presidents. In the first day's sitting of this council the education of the students of the Primary Sections of the Government and non-govt. schools and also of Primary Schools was made free. Ten percent of the students of higher classes were made free. The two taxes - head tax and cycle tax - of the municipality here were abolished.

1948 - Monsieur Goummain was appointed Administrator.

‘Chandernagore College' in place of College de Bussy, ‘Kanailal Vidyamandir' in place of College Dupleix was renamed, the ground in front of the hospital was named ‘Mahatma Gandhi Park' and 34 roads were given new names.

Debendranath Das was elected President and Arun Chandra Datta, Sudhansushekhar Datta, Devendranath Chattopadhyay, Brahmabaran Ghosh, Dr. Sudhakar Sett and Sailendranath Mukhopadhyay were elected Vice-Presidents of the administrative council and also Ashutosh Mukhopadhyay and Anadibhusan Bandyopadhyay were given the posts of Secretaries.

The publication of a journal titled ‘Chandernagore Gazette' under the editorship of Sailendranath Pal, a member of the municipality, was started by the administrative council.

1949 - Monsieur Mouzon was appointed Administrator.

The national flag of India was hoisted in the council house on January 26.

Bibirhat Model School (Junior High School), the Science laboratory and Teachers' Training Department at Chandernagore College were inaugurated.

Jayprokash Narayan was accorded a reception on the ground in front of the hospital. Harihar Sett presided over the function.

A Referendum was held on June 19 to ascertain the desire of the people of Chandernagore regarding their consent or refusal to stay within the French Union. In all 7,608 persons exercised their franchise, of them 7,473 persons refused to stay whereas 114 persons agreed and 21 ballot papers were rejected. So it was decided that Chandernagore was in favour of joining the Indian Union.

Sachindranath Modak, Secretary of Chandernagore Congress Committee, discussed the future of Chandernagore with the President of the Indian National Congress. Later a delegate from Chandernagore was invited to the 55th session of the Congress. This was a first in the history of Chandernagore.

1950 - Monsieur G.H. Tailleur was appointed Administrator. He was the last French Administrator. The De Facto Transfer of Chandernagore to the Government of India was effected on May 2. Monsieur Tailleur on behalf of the French Government and Basanta Kumar Bandyopadhyay, the newly appointed Administrative Director of India, signed this charter.

A newly built house named 'Sukumar Smriti Prathamik Bibhag' adjacent to Banga Vidyalaya was opened by Sailendra Kumar Mukhopadhyay on July 16.

1951 - Tincowrie Mukhopadhyay was elected President and Sailendranath Majumdar, Dr. Ram Chandra Kumar, Dr. Santosh Kumar Rakshit. Dr. Hirendra Kumar Chattopadhyay, Provat Kumar Palit and Santosh Kumar Bhar were elected Vice-Presidents of Chandernagore Administrative Council. Baidyanath Bhor and Amiya Kumar Chattopadhyay were elected Secretaries.

Dr. Kailasnath Katzu, Governor of West Bengal, inaugurated the newly built Operation Theatre of Chandernagore Hospital and laid the foundation of the Maternity Ward.

The whole city was divided into five wards. The Reserve Bank of Calcutta returned to Harihar Sett Rs. 1,30,565 in lieu of the stock certificate offered to him along with all movable and non-movable properties at the time of handing over of Krishnabhabini Narisikshamandir to the French Government in 1943. He deposited it at Chinsurah Treasury.

The organisation named Institute of Vocational Training was established in Chandernagore on its removal from Tribeni.

The Coconut Nursery was established by West Bengal Government.

Basanta Kumar Bandopadhyay, the Administrator, having been transferred, Sunilbaran Roy came to his place as the new Administrator.

An organisation was established by Bankim Chandra Bandyopadhyay, the Drawing Teacher of the French Section of Kanailal Vidyamandir, for teaching drawing to the children. Later it was named "Sishukala Bhaban".

An organisation for teaching girls music and dance was established by Rabindra Manas Samiti.

A committee known as 'Text Book Committee' was formed for selecting texts, taking examinations etc. of the Education Department. Narayan Chandra De was elected its President.

A treaty was signed between India and France recognising the De Jure Transfer of Chandernagore to the Govt. of India on February 2. Haridit Singh Malik, the Indian Ambassador to France, and Monsieur De le Tournelle, the Chief Executive in charge of the French Foreign Affairs Department, signed this treaty on behalf of the respective Governments.

1952 - The transfer treaty was approved by the French National Council on April 11.

It was declared in a notification of the Government of India on June 30 that Chandernagore would be ruled by the President of India through an Administrator under the Foreign Affairs Department of the Government of India.

Just after this both the Municipality and the Administrative Council were resolved.

The Telephone service was introduced in Chandernagore.

1953 - Dr. Harendra Kumar Mukhopadhyay, the Governor of West Bengal, inaugurated the newly built maternity ward of Chandernagore Hospital on January 2.

A marble bust of martyr Kanailal Dutta was set up on Strand Road on March 8.

The reading room of Chandernagore Library was constructed.

"Shuksanatan Adarsha Sikshalaya" assumed the name of "Dr. Shital Prosad Ghosh Adarsha Sikshalaya."

"Ushangini Balika Bidyalaya" was founded with the financial help of Sourendramohon Mukhopadhyay in his mother's name.

Sri Sri Satyanarayan Jiu temple and Agarwal Ghat were built by Rameswarlal Agarwal, Bansidhar Agarwal and Hazarilal Agarwal to perpetuate the memory of their father, Ramrichhapal Agarwal and mother, Munni Devi.

1954 - Chandernagore was formally merged with West Bengal on October 2, the sacred birthday of Mahatma Gandhi. The administrative charge was handed over to Nirmalkanti Roychowdhuri, District Magistrate of Hooghly, serving as a representative of West Bengal Government.

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Transfer of Power

The Nation, June 16, 1949 :

"The referendum at Chandernagore has naturally aroused a keen interest among the teeming millions of her neighbour. It is not in the nature of an isolated event, but represents phase in the struggle for national self-determination in South-East Asia."

Amrita Bazar Patrika, June 16, 1949 :

"To the many historical events we of this generation have witnessed will be added another on June 19, 1949, when the 'free town' of Chandernagore, 21 miles from Calcutta goes to the polls to decide whether it will continue to remain within the French Republic or will be reunited with India."

Amrita Bazar Patrika, June 20, 1949 :

"Thus after 250 years of French occupation, Chandernagore will be liberated through ballot boxes, and a new chapter will open where it will play its part fully as an integral limb of Mother India."

"The referendum in Chandernagore is the first of its kind held by the French Government to determine the future of the French occupied territories in India."

The Statesman, June 21, 1949 :

"That the referendum in Chandernagore - first of the French Settlemens to vote on its future political status - would result in a large majority for merger with India was long considered almost certain. That does not detract from the occasion's importance, nor from the pleasure which it will naturally cause all over India."

Statement of Service Transfer

"In accordance with the agreement concluded during the conference held in Calcutta on 18th April 1950, ratified later on by the Government of India and the Council of French Ministers on April, 28, 1950.

To-day, May 2, 1950, the Administrator G. H. Tailleur, Delegate of the Commissioner of the Republic for French India, Chandernagore has transferred his powers to Mr. B. K. Banerjee, Administrator appointed by the Government of India to replace him.

The inventory of furniture has been taken charge of without remarks.

It has been given to Mr. B. K. Banerjee the remaining records and the keys of the Treasury Cash-room."

(Sd.) G. H. Tailleur
Administrator-delegate retiring.

(Sd.) B. K. Banerji
Administrator in-coming

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Area : 20 sq km.

Location : 22052/N/88022/E

Population : 1.40 Lakh

Airport : Calcutta Airport

Rail : Frequent local trains from Howrah Station via main line.

Road : 37 km. from Calcutta via G.T. Road or Delhi Road.


Month Rainfall
Temperature in Centigrade
Max.   &   Minimum
JANUARY 12 26.8 13.6
FEBRUARY 28 29.5 16.5
MARCH 34 31.3 21.5
APRIL 51 36.3 25.0
MAY 134 35.8 26.5
JUNE 290 34.1 26.3
JULY 331 32.3 26.1
AUGUST 334 32.3 26.1
SEPTEMBER 253 32.3 26.1
OCTOBER 127 31.8 23.9
NOVEMBER 34 29.5 18.4
DECEMBER 5 27.0 14.2


Indian Standard Time is followed in Chandernagore which is 5.30 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.

12 noon in India = 6.30 hours in London = 1.30 hours in New York = 9.30 hours in Kuwait = 8.00 hours in Moscow = 7.30 hours in Rome = 15.30 hours in Tokyo = 11.30 hours (previous day) in Sanfrancisco = 16.30 hours in Sydney.

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Map of Chandernagore

1) Chandannagar Station, 2) Municipal Corporation, 3) Telephone Bhawan, 4) SDO Office, 5) Fire Brigade, 6) Police Station, 7) Rabindra Bhawan, 8) Stadium, 9) Kuthir Math, 10) Institut de Chandernagore, 11) BT College, 12) Chandannagar Hospital, 13) Post Office, 14) St Joseph's Convent, 15) Chandannagar College, 16) Women's Polytechnic, 17) Barasat Gate, 18) Nritya Gopal Smriti Mandir, 19) Civil Court, 20) Loxmigonj Market, 21) Strand, 22) Laldighi, 23) Nanda Dulal Temple, 24) Ferry Ghat, 25) Kanailal Vidya Mandir, 26) Chandannagar Cemetery, 27) Cremation Ghat, 28) Rashbehari Basu's House, 29) State Bank, 30) Prabartak Ashram, 31) Chandannagar Sporting Club, 32) GIRI-DOOT Adventure Film Archive, 33) Employment Exchange, 34) Urdibazar Masjid, 35) Church, 36) Krishna Bhabini Nari Siksha Mandir, 37) House of Kanailal Dutta.

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