Richard Mulcaster
Positions Concerning the Training Up of Children (1581)

Editor's Note

This text is a modified old-spelling edition of Richard Mulcaster's Positions Concerning the Training Up of Children, first published in London in 1581. Richard Mulcaster (1531?-1611) was the first Master of Merchant Taylors' School. This text is an electronic version of one that appears in the printed edition of Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

Though this is an accurate word-for-word searchable text, it is however not a proper electronic representation of the 1581 edition. It does not have the Greek or side notes. Nor is there any attempt made to represent any typographical or other information markers other than lower case and capitals in roman. I have not included italics. I have bolded the title and chapter headings in order that they may be seen more clearly. New pages in the original are indicated in square brackets. The sign {Greek} indicates that Greek word or words or even a passage in Greek appears at that place.

In some instances the text has been corrected, often based on evidence from press-variants. The emendations are few and conservative. See the Toronto edition for details. The spelling has been left as it was found, but all abbreviations and contractions have been expanded, and i/j, u/v and w have been changed to reflect modern practice. The print edition also has an extensive introduction, commentary, word-index (modern spelling), and bibliography; these do not appear here.

William Barker
Department of English
St John's, Newfoundland
Canada A1C 5S7

[*1r] Positions wherin those primitive circumstances be examined, which are necessarie for the training up of children, either for skill in their booke, or health in their bodie.

Written by Richard Mulcaster, master of the schoole erected in London anno. 1561. in the parish of Sainct Laurence Powntneie, by the worshipfull companie of the merchaunt tailers of the said citie. [McKerrow device 222] Imprinted at London by Thomas Vautrollier for Thomas Chare. 1581

[*1v] blank

[*2r] To the most vertuous ladie, his most deare, and soveraine princesse, Elizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, Fraunce, and Ireland, defendresse of the faith &c.

My booke by the very argument, most excellent princesse, pretendeth a common good, bycause it concerneth the generall traine and bringing up of youth, both to enrich their minds with learning, and to enable their bodies with health: and it craves the favour of some speciall countenaunce farre above the common, or else it can not possiblie procure free passage. For what a simple credit is myne, to perswade so great a matter? or what force is there in common patronage, to commaunde conceites? I am therefore driven upon these so violent considerations, to presume so farre, as to present [*2v] it, being my first travell, that ever durst venture upon the print, unto your majesties most sacred handes. For in neede of countenaunce, where best abilitie is most assurance, and knowne vertue the fairest warrant, who is more sufficient then your excellencie is, either for cunning to commend, or for credit to commaunde? And what reason is there more likely to procure the favour of your majesties most gracious countenaunce, either to commende the worke, or to commaunde it waie, then the honest pretence of a generall good, wherein you cannot be deceived? For of your accustomed care you will circumspectlie consider, and by your singular judgement, you can skillfully discerne, whether there be any appearance, that my booke shall performe so great a good, as it pretendeth to do, before you either praise it, or procure it passage. In deede it is an argument which craveth consideration, bycause it is the leader to a further consequence: and all your majesties time is so busily employed, about many and maine affaires of your estate, as I may seeme verie injurious to the common weale, besides some wrong offered to your owne person, to desire your Majestie at this time to reade any [*3r] part therof, much lesse the whole, the booke it selfe being very long, and your Majesties leasure being very litle. And yet if it maye please your most excellent Majestie of some extraordinarie grace towardes a most obsequious subject in way of encoraging his both toilsome and troublesome labour, to take but some taste of any one title, of smallest encumbraunce, by the very inscription, the paw of a Lion may bewraie the hole body in me by the proverbe, in your highnesse by the propertie, as who can best judge, what the Lion is. For the rest, which neither your Majesties time can tarie on, neither my boldnesse dare desire that you should: other mens report, which shall have time to read, and will lend an officious countrieman some parte of their leysure, will prove a referendarie, and certifie your highnesse how they finde me appointed. I have entitled the booke Positions, bycause entending to go on further, for the avauncement of learning I thought it good at the first, to put downe certaine groundes very needefull for my purpose, for that they be the common circunstances, that belong to teaching and are to be resolved on, eare we begin to teach. Wherin I crave consent of my countrey, [*3v] to joyne with me in conceit, if my reasons prove likely, that therby I may direct my whole currant in the rest, a great deale the better. Now if it maye stand with your Majesties most gracious good will to bestow upon me the favourable smile of your good liking, to countenance me in this course, which as it pretendeth the publike commoditie, so it threatneth me with extreme paines, all my paine will prove pleasant unto me, and that good which shall come thereby to the common weale shall be most justly ascribed to your Majesties especial goodnesse, which encoraged my labour, and commended it to my countrey. Which both encoragement to my selfe, and commendacion to my countrey, I do nothing doubt but to obtaine at your Majesties most gracious handes, whether of your good nature, which hath alwaye furthered honest attemptes: or of your Princely conceit, which is thoroughly bent to the bettering of your state, considering my travell doth tend that way. For the very ende of my whole labour (if my small power can attaine to that, which a great good will towards this my cuntrey hath deepely conceived) is to helpe to bring the generall teaching in your Majesties dominions, [*4r] to some one good and profitable uniformitie, which now in the middest of great varietie doth either hinder much, or profit litle, or at the least nothing so much, as it were like to do, if it were reduced to one certaine fourme. The effecting wherof pretendeth great honour to your Majesties person, besides the profit, which your whole Realme is to reape therby. That noble Prince king Henry the eight, your Majesties most renowned father vouchesafed to bring all Grammers into one fourme, the multitude therof being some impediment to schoole learning in his happie time, and thereby both purchased himselfe great honour, and procured his subjectes a marveilous ease. Now if it shall please your Majestie by that Royall example which otherwise you so rarely exceede, to further not onely the helping of that booke to a refining: but also the reducing of all other schoole bookes to some better choice: and all manner of teaching, to some redier fourme: can so great a good but sound to your Majesties most endlesse renowne, whose least part gave such cause of honour, to that famous King, your Majesties father? By these few wordes your highnesse conceiveth my full meaning I am well assured, [*4v] neither do I doubt, but that as you are well able to discerne it, so you will very depelie consider it, and see this so great a common good thoroughly set on foote. I know your Majesties pacience to be exceeding great in very petie arguments, if not, I should have bene afraid, to have troubled you with so many wordes, and yet least tediousnesse do soure even a sweete and sound matter, I will be no bolder. God blesse your Majestie, and send you a long, and an healthfull life, to his greatest glorie, and your Majesties most lasting honour.

Your Majesties most humble and obedient subject

Richard Mulcaster [2*1r]

Author Ipse ad Librum Suum.

Insita naturae nostrae sitis illa iuuandi
Ignauum vitae desidis odit iter.

Parca cibi, saturata fame, deuota labori,
Prodiga nocturni luminis vrget opus.
Quod, simul ac lucis patiens fore viderit, edit,
Inde licet multo plena timore gemat.
Poenitet emissam per mille pericula prolem,
Quae poterat patriae tuta latere domi.
Iudiciumque timens alieni pallida iuris
Omine spem laedit deteriore suam.
Sed sine sole nequit viui, prodire necesse est,
Curaque quod peperit publica, iura vocant.
Fortunae credenda salus, quam prouida virtus,
Quam patris aeterni dextera magna regit.
Sic sua Neptuno committit vela furenti
Spem solam in mediis docta phaselus aquis.
Sed mihi spes maior, cui res cum gente Deorum,
Quae certo dubiis numine rebus adest.
Perge igitur, sortique tuae te crede, parentis
Tessera parue liber prima future tui.
Et quia, qu… perges, hominum liberrima de te
Iudicia in mediis experiere viis, [2*1v]
Quidnam quisque notet, quidnam desideret in te,
Quo possim in reliquis cautior esse, refer.
Interea veniam supplex vtrique precare,
Nam meus error erat, qui tuus error erit.
Qui neutrius erit, cum, quis sit, sensero, quippe
Nullum in correcto crimine crimen erit.
Ergo tuae partes, quae sint errata, referre:
Emendare, mei cura laboris erit.
Namque rei nouitas nulli tentata priorum
Hac ipsa, qua tu progrediere, via,
Vtrique errores multos, lapsusque minatur,
Quos cum resciero, num superesse sinam?
Cui tam chara mei lectoris amica voluntas,
Vt deleta illi displicitura velim.

R. M.



Cap. 1

The entrie to the positions, conteining the occasion of this present discourse, and the causes why it was penned in English.

Cap. 2

Wherefore these positions serve, what they be, and how necessarie it was to begin at them.

Cap. 3

Of what force circunstance is in matters of action, and how warily authorities be to be used, where the contemplative reason receives the check of the active circunstance, if they be not well applyed. Of the alleadging of authors.

Cap. 4

What time were best for the child to begin to learne. What matters some of the best writers handle, eare they determine this question. Of lettes and libertie wherunto the parentes are subject in setting their children to schoole. Of the difference of wittes and bodies in children. That exercise must be joyned with the booke, as the schooling of the bodie.

Cap. 5

What thinges they be, wherin children are to be trained, eare they passe to the Grammar. That parentes, and maisters ought to examine the naturall abilities in their children, wherby they become either fit, or unfit, to this, or that kinde of life. The three naturall powers in children, Witte to conceive by, Memorie to retaine by, Discretion to discerne by. That the training up to good manners, and nurture, doth not belong to the teacher alone, though most to him, next after the parent, whose charge that is most, bycause his commaundement is greatest, over his owne child, and beyond appeale. Of Reading, Writing, Drawing, Musick by voice, and instrument: and that they be the principall principles, to traine up the minde in. A generall aunswere to all objections, which arise against any, or all of these. [2*2v]

Cap. 6

Of exercises and training the body. How necessarie a thing exercise is. What health is, and how it is maintained: what sicknesse is, how it commeth, and how it is prevented. What a parte exercise playeth in the maintenaunce of health. Of the student and his health. That all exercises though they stirre some one parte most, yet helpe the whole bodie.

Cap. 7

The braunching, order, and methode, kept in this discours of exercises.

Cap. 8

Of exercise in generall and what it is. And that it is Athleticall for games, Martiall for the fielde, Physicall for health, praeparative before, postparative after the standing exercise: some within dores, for foule whether, some without for faire.

Cap. 9

Of the particular exercises. Why I do appoint so manie, and how to judge of them, or to devise the like.

Cap. 10

Of lowd speaking. How necessarie, and how proper an exercise it is for a scholler.

Cap. 11

Of loude singing, and in what degree it commeth to be one of the exercises.

Cap. 12

Of loude, and soft reading.

Cap. 13

Of much talking and silence.

Cap. 14

Of laughing, and weeping. And whether children be to be forced toward vertue and learning.

Cap. 15

Of holding the breath.

Cap. 16

Of daunsing, why it is blamed, and how delivered from blame.

Cap. 17

Of wrastling.

Cap. 18

Of fensing, or the use of the weapon. [2*3r]

Cap. 19

Of the top and scourge.

Cap. 20

Of walking.

Cap. 21

Of running.

Cap. 22

Of leaping.

Cap. 23

Of swimming.

Cap. 24

Of riding.

Cap. 25

Of hunting.

Cap. 26

Of shooting.

Cap. 27

Of the ball.

Cap. 28

Of the circumstances which are to be considered in exercise.

Cap. 29

The nature and qualitie of the exercise.

Cap. 30

Of the bodies which are to be exercised.

Cap. 31

Of the exercising places.

Cap. 32

Of the exercising time.

Cap. 33

Of the quantitie that is to be kept in exercise.

Cap. 34

Of the maner of exercising.

Cap. 35

An advertisement to the training maister. Why both the teaching of the minde, and the training of the bodie be assigned to the same maister. The inconveniences which ensue, where the bodie and soule be made particular subjectes to severall professions. That who so will execute anything well, must of force be fully resolved [2*3v] of the excellency of his owne subject. Out of what kinde of writers the exercising maister may store himselfe with cunning. That the first groundes would be laid by the cunningest workeman. That private discretion in any executor is of more efficacie then his skill.

Cap. 36

That both young boyes, and young maidens are to be put to learne. Whether all boyes be to be set to schoole. That to many learned be to burdenous: to few to bare: wittes well sorted civill, missorted seditious. That all may learne to write and read without daunger. The good of choice, and ill of confusion. The children which are set to learne, having either riche or poore freindes: what order and choice is to be used in admitting either of them to learne. Of the time to chuse.

Cap. 37

The meanes to restraine the overflowing multitude of scholers. The cause why everie one desireth to have his childe learned, and yet must yelde over his owne desire to the disposition of his countrie. That necessitie and choyce be the best restrayners. That necessitie restrayneth by lacke and lawe. Why it may be admitted, that all may write and read that can, but no further. What is to be thought of the speaking and understanding of Latine, and in what degree of learning that is. That considering our time and the state of religion in our time, lawe must needes helpe this restraint: with the answere to such objections as are made to the contrary. That in choice of wittes, which must deale with learning, that wit is fittest for our state, which answereth best the monarchie, and how such a wit is to be knowne. That choice is to helpe in scholing, in admission into colledges, in proceeding to degrees, in preferring to livinges, where the right and wrong of all the foure pointes be handled at full.

Cap. 38

That young maidens are to be set to learning, which is proved, by the custome of our countrey, by our duetie towardes them, by their naturall abilities, and by the worthy effectes of such as have bene well trained. The ende wherunto their education serveth, which is the cause why and how much they learne. Which of them are to learne, when they are to begin to learne. What and how much they may learne. Of whom and where they ought to be taught.

Cap. 39

Of the traning up of yong gentlemen. Of private and publike [2*4r] education, with their generall goods and illes. that there is no better way for gentlemen to be trained by in any respect then the common is being well appointed. Of richmens children which be no gentlemen. Of nobilitie in generall. Of gentlemanlie exercises. What it is to be a nobleman, or a gentleman. That infirmities in noble houses be not to be triumphed over. The causes and groundes of nobilitie. Why so many desire to be gentlemen. That gentlemen ought to professe learning and liberall sciences for many good and honorable effectes. Of travelling into forraine countries: with all the braunches allowance and disallowance thereof: and that it were to be wished, that gentlemen would professe, to make sciences liberall in use, which are liberall in name. Of the trayning up of a yong Prince.

Cap. 40

Of the generall place, and time of education. Publike places, Elementarie, Grammaticall, Collegiate. Of bourding of children abroad from their parentes houses, and whether that be best. The use and commoditie of a large, and well situate training place. Observations to be kept in the generall time.

Cap. 41

Of teacher and trainers in generall, and that they be either Elementarie, Grammaticall, or Academicall. Of the Elementarie teachers abilitie, and entertainement. Of the Grammer maisters abilitie and his entertainment. A meane to have both excellent teachers, and cunning professors in all kindes of learning, by the division of colleges according to professions: by sorting like yeares into the same roumes: by bettering the studentes allowance and living: by providing and maintaining notable well learned readers. That for bringing learning forward in his right and best course, there would be seven ordinarie ascending colleges for Toungues, for Mathematikes, for Philosophie, for Teachers, for Physicians, for Lawyers, for Divines, and that the generall studie of Lawe would be but one studie: Every of these pointes with his particular proofes, sufficient for a position. Of the admission of teachers.

Cap. 42

How long the childe is to continue in the elementarie ear he passe to the toungues, and grammer. The incurable infirmities which posting hast worketh in the whole course of studie. How necessarie a thing sufficient time is for a scholer. [2*4v]

Cap. 43

How to cut of most inconveniences wherwith schooles and scholers, maisters and parentes be in our schooling now most troubled. Wherof there be two meanes, uniformitie in teaching and publishing of schoole orders. That uniformitie in teaching hath for companions dispatch in learning, and sparing of expenses. Of the abbridging of the number of bookes. Of curtesie and correction. Of schoole faultes. Of friendlinesse betwene parentes and maisters.

Cap. 44

That Conference betwene those which have interest in children: Certainetie of direction in places where children use most: and Constancie in well keeping that, which is certainely appointed, be the most profitable circumstances both for vertuous manering and cunning schooling.

Cap. 45

The peroration, wherin the summe of the whole booke is recapitulated and proofes used, that this enterprise was first to be begon by Positions, and these be the most proper to this purpose. A request concerning the well taking of that which is so well ment.


Positions Concerning the Training Up of Children.

First Chapter.

The entrie to the positions, conteining the occasion of this present discourse, and the causes why it was penned in English.

Whosoever shall consider with any judgement the maner of training up children, which we use generally within this Realme cannot but wish, that the thing were bettered, as I my selfe do: though I do not thinke it good here to displaie the particular defectes, bycause I am in hope to see them healed, without any so sharp a rehersall, (for the error being once graunted and well knowen straight way craveth helpe without aggravation, and that way in helping must needes be most gracious, which the partie helped confesseth least greivouse.) If I should discover all those inconveniences, wherby parentes and maisters, teachers and learners, do but enterchaunge displeasures, if I should rip up those difficulties, wherby the traine it selfe, and bringing up of children is marvellously empeached, I might revive great gaules, and even therby worse remedie the greifes. And though I remedied them yet the partie pacient might beare in minde, how churlishly he was cured, and though he payed well for the healing, [2] yet be ill apayd for the handling. Wherfore in helping thinges, that be amisse I do take that to be the advisedest way, which saveth the man, and sowreth not the meane. If without quoting the quarrelles, I set down that right, wherunto I am led, upon reasonable grounds, that it is both the best, and most within compasse, the wrong by comparison is furthwith bewraied, and the chek given without anie chiding.

I have taught in publike without interrupting my course, now two and twentie yeares, and have alwaie had a very great charge under my hand, which how I have discharged, they can best judge of me, which will judge without me. During which time both by that, which I have seene in teaching so long, and by that which I have tryed, in training up so many, I do well perceive, upon such lettes, as both my selfe am subject unto, and other teachers no lesse then I, that neither I have don so much as I might, neither any of them so much as they could. Which lettes me thinke I have both learned, what they be, and withall conceived the meane, how to get them removed. Wherby both I and all other maie do much more good, then either I or anie other heretofore have don. Wherin as I meane to deale for the common good, so must I appeal to the common curtesie, that my good will maie be well thought of, though my good hope do not hit right. For I do but that, which is set free to all, to utter in publike a private conceit, and to claime kindnes of all, for good will ment unto all: as I my selfe am ready both freindly and favorably, to esteme of others, who shall enterprise the like, requiring every one, which shall use my travell, either as a reader, to peruse, or as a reaper to profit, that he will think well of me, which may cause him allow: or if he do not, that yet he will be sorie for me, that so good a meaning had so meane an issue.

I do write in my naturall English toungue, bycause though I make the learned my judges, which understand Latin, yet I meane good to the unlearned, which understand but English. And better it is for the learned to forbeare Latin, which they neede not, then for the unlearned to have it, which they know not. By the English both shall see, what I say, by Latin but the one, which were some wrong, where both have great interest, [3] and the unlearned the greater, bycause the unlearned have not any but only such English helpes, the learned can fetch theirs from the same fountaines, whence I fetch mine. My meaning is principally to helpe mine owne countrie, whose language will helpe me, to be understood of them, whom I would perswade: to get some thankes of them, for my good will to do well: to purchace pardon of them, if my good will do not well. The parentes and freindes with whom I have to deale, be mostwhat no latinistes: and if they were, yet we understand that tounge best, wherunto we are first borne, as our first impression is alwaie in English, before we do deliver it in Latin. And in perswading a knowen good by an unknowen waie, are we not to cal unto us, all the helpes that we can, to be thoroughly understood? He that understands no Latin can understand English, and he that understands Latin very well, can understand English farre better, if he will confesse the trueth, though he thinke he have the habite, and can Latin it exceading well. When mine argument shall require Latin, as it will eare long, I will not then spare it, in the degree, that I have it, but till it do, I will serve my countrie that waie, which I do surely thinke will prove most intelligible unto her. For though the argument, which is dedicate to learning, and must therfore of force use the termes of learning: which be mysteries to the multitude, maie seeme to offer some darknes and difficultie in that point: yet it is to be construed, that the thing it selfe must be presented in her owne colours, which the learned can discry, at the first blush, as of their acquaintaunce, who must be spoken to in their owne kinde: as the unlearned must be content to enquire, bycause we straine our termes to have them intitled. And yet, in all my drift, for all my faire promise, I dare warrant my countrie no more, then probabilitie doth me, which if it deceive me, yet I have it to leane unto, and perhaps of such pith, as might easely have beguiled a wiser man then me. But till I prove beguiled, I will dwell in hope, that I am not, to deliver my minde with the better courage, and therby to shew that I thinke my selfe right. For the greatest enemy, that can be to any wel meaning conceit is, to mistrust his own power, and to dispaire of his good speede where happy fortune makes evident shew. [4]

Chapter 2.

Wherfore these positions serve, what they be, and how necessarie it was to begin at them.

My purpose is to helpe the hole trade of teaching, even from the very first foundation: that is, not only the Grammarian, and what shall follow afterward, but also the Elementarie, which is the verie infantes train, from his first entrie, untill he be thought fit to passe thence to the Grammar schoole. My labour then beginning so low, am I not to follow the president of such writers, as in the like argumentes, have used the like methode? The maner of proceding which the best learned authors do use, in those argumentes, which both for the matter be of most credit, and for the maner of best accompt, kepeth alwaie such a currant, as they at the first laie downe certaine groundes, wherin both they and their readers, whether scholers onely, or judges alone, do resolutely agree. Which consent enureth to this effect, that they maie therby either directly passe thorough to their ende without empeachment: or else if any difficulty do arise in the way, they may easely compound it, by retiring themselves to those primitive groundes. The Mathematicall, which is counted the best maister of sound method, of whome all other sciences do borow their order, and way in teaching well, eare he passe to any either probleme or theoreme, setts downe certaine definitions, certaine demaundes, certaine naturall and necessarie confessions, which being agreed on, betwen him and his learner, he proceedeth on to the greatest conclusions in his hole profession, as those which be acquainted with Euclide and his freindes, do verie wel know. Wil the naturall philosopher medle with his maine subject, before he have handled his first principles, matter, forme, privation, motion, time, place, infinitie, vacuitie, and such other, wherunto Aristotle hath dedicated eight whole bookes? What shall I neede to take more paines in rehersall of any other writer, whether Lawyer, Physician, or any else, which entreateth of his peculiar argument learnedly, to proove that I am first to plant by positions, seeing the verie divine himselfe, marcheth on of this foote and groundeth his religion upon [5] principles of beleefe? I professe my selfe to be a scholer, wherby I do know this methode, which the learned do kepe, and I deale with an argument, which must needes at the first be verie nicely entertained, till proofe give it credit, what countenaunce soever hope maie seeme to lend it, in the meane while. I maie therfore seeme to deale against mine owne knowledge, if I do not fortifie my selfe with such helpes, as upon probable reason, maie first purchace their owne standing, and being themselves staid in place of liking maie helpe up all the reste.

I am specially to further two degrees in learning, first the Elementarie which stretcheth from the time that the child is to be set to do any thing, till he be removed to his Grammar: then the Grammarian, while the child doth continew, in the schoole of language, and learned tounges, till he be removed for his ripenes, to some Universitie: which two pointes be both of great moment.

For the Elementarie: Bycause sufficiency in the child, before he passe thence, helpes the hole course of the after studie, and insufficiencie skipping from thence to soone, makes a very weake sequele. For as sufficient time there, without to much hast, to post from thence to timely, draweth on the residew of the schoole degrees, in their best beseeming time, and in the ende sendeth abroade sufficient men for the service of their countrie: so to hedlong hast scouring thence to swiftly at the first, (for all that it seemeth so petie a thing,) in perpetuall infirmity of matter, procureth also to much childishnes in yeares to be then in place, when judgement with skill, and ripenes with grayhaires should carie the contenaunce. And is not this pointe then to be well proyned, where hast is such a foe, and ripenes such a freind? Where pushing forward at the first before maturitie bid on, will still force that, which followeth till at the last it marre all?

For the Grammarian: As it is a thing not unseemely for me to deale in, being my selfe a teacher, so is it verie profitable for my countrie to heare of, which in great varietie of teaching doth seeme to call for some uniforme waie. And to have her youth well directed in the tounges, which are the waies to [6] wisdome, the lodges of learning, the harbours of humanitie, the deliverers of divinitie, the treasuries of all store, to furnish out all knowledge in the cunning, and all judgement in the wise, can it be but well taken, if it be well perfourmed? or can it but deserve some freindly excuse, yea though good will want good successe? If occasion fitly offered by the waie, cause me attempt any further thing then either of these two, though I may seeme to be beside my schoole, yet my trust is that I shal not seeme to be beside my selfe.

Now then dealing with these matters which appertaine to men, and must be allowed of men, if they deserve allowance, or wilbe rejected by them if they seeme not to be sound, whether have I neede to proceede with consent or no? For what if some shall thinke their penny good silver, and will not admit mine offer? neither receive teaching at the hand of so meane a controwler? what if some other graunt, that there is some thing amisse in deede, but that my devise is no meane to amend it? what if disdaine do worke me discredit, and why should he take upon him? A petie companion, I confesse, but till some better do deale, why may not my petinesse fullwell take place? And if the ware which I do bring, prove marchandable, why may I not make shew, and offer it to sale? Such instances and objections wilbe offered, with whom seeing I am like to encounter, why ought I not at the first to resolve those, which will relent at the voice of reason? and so entreat the other, which make more deintie, to be drawen on, as my deutie being discharged towardes the thing, by argumentes, towardes them, by curtesie, if there be any strayning afterwardes themselves may be in fault?

But bycause I must applie my positions to some one ground, I have chosen the Elementarie, and him rather then the Grammarian: for that the Elementarie is the verie lowest and first to be dealt with, and the circunstances being well applyed unto him, may with very small ado, be transported afterward to the Grammarian or anie other else. And under the title of the particular circunstance, (though it seeme peculiarly to appertaine to the Elementarie, by waie of mine example, which I do applie unto him primitively) yet I do travell commonly with [7] the generall considerations in all persons which use the same circunstance, in anie degree of learning, as the places themselves hereafter will declare. Which I do both to ende these positive arguments at once, and to make the precept also somwhat more pleasant to the reader, having the entertainement of some forreine, but no unfit discourse.

The positions therfore which I do meane, be these and such other. At what time the child is to be set to schoole. What he is to learne when he is at schoole. Whether all be to be set to schoole. Whether exercise be to be used as a principle in trayning. Whether young maidens be to be set to learne. How to traine up young gentlemen. How to procure some uniformitie in teaching. Of curtesie and correction. Of private and publike education. Of choise of wittes, of places, of times, of teachers, of schoole orders. Of restrayning to many bookish people, and many other like argumentes, which the nature of such discourses useth to hale in by the waie. Wherin I require my countreymens consent, to thinke as I do, and will do mine endevour to procure it, as I can, before I deale with the particular praeceptes, and schooling of children. Which while I do, as I follow the praesident of the best writers, for the methode, which I chuse, so for the matter it selfe I will use no other argument, then both nature and reason, custome and experience, and plaine shew of evident profit shall recommend to my countrie, without either manifest appearaunce, or secrete suspicion of a fantasticall devise: considering it were an argument of verie small witte knowing fantasticallnes to disgrace the man, and impossibilitie to displace the meane: in so necessarie a thing as I pretend this to be, to entermingle either fantasticall matter, for all men to laugh at, or impossible meane, for as many to muse at. If earnest desier to have some thing bettered, do cause me wishe the amendement, I hope that will not be accounted fantasticall, unles it be to such, as do thinke themselves in health when they are deadly sicke, and feeling no paine, bycause of extreme weaknes, do hold their freindes halfe foolish, which wishe them to thinke upon alteration of life. [8]

Chapter 3.

Of what force circunstance is in matters of action, and how warily authorities be to be used, where the contemplative reason receives the check of the active circunstance, if they be not well applyed. Of the alleadging of authors.

Some well meaning man, when he will perswade his countrie to this or that thing, either by penne or speache, if he find any good writers authoritie, which favoreth his opinion, he presumeth streight waie therby both his owne perswasion to be sufficiently armed, and his countries execution to be strongly warrranted. Which his assuraunce is sometime chekt by wisdome, sometime by experience: By wisdome, which forseeth, that the circunstance of the countrie will not admit that, which he would perswade: by experience, which giving way at the first to some probability, is in the end borne back by unfitting circunstance. So that in those cases, where authorities perswade, and circunstances controwle, such as use writers for their credit, must feare circunstance for her chek. Bycause the misse in circunstance makes the authour no authour, where his reason is altered, and the alledger no alledger, where discretion wanteth. Seeing therfore my selfe deale with these two pointes of authoritie and circunstance, both to confirme mine owne opinion the surer, and to confute the contrarie sounder, where difference in opinion, shall offer to assaile me, I thought it good in the verie entrie to say somwhat of both, considering their agreement doth promise successe, and their disagreement doth threaten defeat.

I do see many very toward wittes, of reasonable good reading, and of excellent good utteraunce, both forreine abroad, and freindes at home marveilously overshoot themselves by overruling the circunstance, and overstraining authoritie. For upon some affiaunce in their owne wittes, that they see all circunstances, and some small assuraunce, that the authours which they reade, do soothe all that they say: they will push out in publike certaine resolute opinions, before either their wittes be setled, or their reading ripe: which is then to be thought wisely ripe, when after the benefit of many yeares, after much [9] reading of the most and best writers, after sound digesting of that, which they have red, and applying it all to some certaine ende: time hath fined their judgement, and by precise observing and comparing, both what others have said, and what themselves have seene, hath made them maister the circunstance. Which mastering of the circunstance, is the only rule, that wisemen live by, the only meane, that wisedome is come by, the only ods betwen folie and witte. The marking wherof is of so great a force, as by it eche countrie discovereth the travellour, when he seeketh to enforce his forreine conclusions, and clingeth to that countryman, which hath bettered her still, by biding still at home. It discrieth the young student, which is ravished with the object, eare he can discern it, and honoreth the wise learned, whose understanding is so staied, as he may be a leader. The consideration of circunstance is so strong in all attemptes, where man is the subject, as it maketh of all nothing, and of nothing all. The skill to judge of it is so lingring, and so late, bycause man is the gatherer, and so long eare he learne it, as it seemes to be reserved, till he be almost spent. It is not enough to rule the world, to alleadge authorities, but to raunge authorities, which be not above the world, by the rule of the world, is the wisemans line.

I am to deale with training, must I entreat my countrey to be content with this, bycause such a one commendes it? or to force her to it, bycause such a state likes it? The shew of right deceives us, and the likenes of unlike thinges doth lead us, where it listeth. Differences and ods discover errors, similitude and likenes lead even wise men awrie. The great philosopher Aristotle in fining of reason, maketh the abilities to discerne these two pointes, where thinges like be unlike, and where the unlike be like, two of his principall instrumentes to trie out the trueth. Which skill to discern so narrowly, as it is not in all, so where it is, there is great discretion, there will nothing be brought from authoritie to practise, but that circunstance will praise, and yet hardly winne. For though circunstance in our countrie and others do seeme verie like, nay rather almost one, yet if our countrie do admit, where any ods appeareth, though it offer the relenting, when it comes to proufe, she aventureth [10] her selfe, and we which perswade, have great cause to thanke her, that she will harken unto us, as she also will thanke us, if she praise at the parting. Wherfore seeing the ground is so slipperie to deale by authoritie, and therfore to approve it, bycause such a one sayth it, till judgement have subsigned, and circunstance sealed, I thought it good, as I said before, to speake somwhat therof, that I may therby stay my selfe the better, marching by them, and thorough them: and also remove some scrupulouse opinion, that I use them not strangely, when I use them so, as they wishe themselves to be used.

But for the better understanding, with what warynes authoritie is to be used, may it please you to consider, that there be two sortes of authours wherwith we deale in our studie: wherof the one regardeth the matter only, and by inevitable argument enforceth the conclusion. In this kinde be the Mathematicall sciences, and all such naturall philosophie, as proceedeth by necessitie of a demonstrable subject. The other joyneth the circunstance with the matter, as Morall, and politike Philosophie, as the Professions, as Poetes, as histories do, when they enforce not the necessitie of their conclusion, by necessitie of the matter, though by the fourme of their argument, which concludeth of force, in matters of least force. The argumentes of those Artes and Professions, which be in this second kinde, do depende upon apparence in probable conjecture, and be creatures to circunstance, wherin as man is the mainest subjecte, so the respectes had to man have the raine in their hand.

Hence commeth it that lawes in severall landes do differ so much, that Phisicke in severall subjectes is so severall in cure, that Divinitie in ceremonies admitteth change, where the circunstance is observed, and yet the truth not tainted. Hence it commeth that in diversitie of states, there be diversities of staie, whereby men governe, bycause circunstance commaundeth. Wherunto, he that affirmes, must still have an eye, bycause it sheweth, what is seemely and convenient, not in great states alone, but also in the meanest thinges of all: bycause it moderateth both what soever men do: and in what soever respect they do. In the first kinde of authours and authorities, [11] the truth of the matter maintaines it selfe, without he said or he did: bycause it is true by nature, which staied it, not by authour which said it. And being so setled, it ministreth of it selfe no matter to debate, or at the least verie litle. For in pointes of necessitie, naturally inferred, the difference of opinion is no proufe at all, that the matter is debatable, but it is a sufficient argument of an insufficient writer, if he penne his opinion, or of an ungrounded learner, if his error be in speeche, which harpeth still about some outward accident, and never perceth the inward substance. So that in such conclusions there is but one currant, what forceth the matter, and not what sayeth the man: what commandes the immutable truth, and not what commendes the changeable circunstance. All the controversie is in the second kinde, where circunstance is prescription, wherin the writers credite oftimes authoriseth the thing, and the truth of the thing doth make the man an authour: wherin unles he take verie good heede, which is the alleadger, he may do his writer exceeding great injurie, by bringing him to the barre, and forcing that upon him, which he never dreamed on, and harme himselfe to, who mistaking his ground, misplaceth his building, and hazardeth his credit.

Hence commeth it, that so many fantasticall devises do trouble the world, while everie man being desirous to breede somwhat worthy of commendacion either for shew of learning, or for shield of opinion, bringeth in the poore writers, and enjoyneth them speach, where in deed they be mute: and if they could speake, they would aske the alledger why he did so abuse them. A generall and a verie hard case in these our dayes, when the most erronious opinions be fathered upon the most honest writers, which meant nothing lesse, then that which is threpte upon them. In matter of Pollicy this man wrote thus, and was verie well thought of, an other in some schoole pointes gave his censure in this sorte, and became of account. Transport the circunstance the allowance is misliked, the alleadger laughed at: and yet the worthinesse of the writer not empayred at all, when he is rightly weyed, bycause he was forced: In this kinde of argument wherin I presently deale, it is no proufe, bycause Plato praiseth it, bycause Aristotle alloweth [12] it, bycause Cicero commendes it, bycause Quintilian is acquainted with it, or any others else, in any argument else, that therfore it is for us to use. What if our countrey honour it in them, and yet for all that may not use it her selfe, bycause circunstance is her check? Nay what if the writers authoritie be alledged without consideration of their owne circunstance? who then offereth his countrey the greatest wrong? is it not he which wringeth the writer, and wreasteth his meaning? And yet such alledgers there be, which passe it over smoothly, till they be espyed, where then their owne weaknes appeareth, the writers worthinesse is evident, and his wrong revenged, by discovering the wreaster. Wherfore he that will deale with writers so, as to derive their conclusions to the use of his countrey, must be verie well advised, and diligently marke, that their meaning, and his applying be both of one ground, and also how much of their opinion his countrey will admit, which, as she will not be forced by idle supposalles, so pronounceth she him to be but a fleeter, who so ever shall offer to force her that waye. If the matter be well pikt, and properly applyed, she embraceth it forthwith, and gives it the growing. Whether I shall perfourme so much my selfe, as I require in others, I dare not warrant, but I will do my best, to use my authour well, and to observe the circunstance, and not once to profer any thing to my countrey, which shall not have all those foundations, that I promised before, so much as I can, Nature to lead it, reason to back it, custome to commend it, experience to allow it, and profit to preferre it.

But here by the waye, I must advertise my reader thus much, that I thinke a student ought rather to invest himselfe in the habite of his writer, then to stand much upon his title, and authoritie, in proofe or disproofe, seeing who knoweth not, that all our studies be generally detters to the first devise, and fairest deliverie? Therfore to avoide length therby, I will neither use authoritie, nor example, seeing matter is the maine, and not the mans name, saving onely where one mans deposition upholdes or overthrowes: and the ground of the example is so excellent in that kinde, as it were to much unkindenesse, not to let the person be knowen, where the fact [13] is so famous. I wil reste upon reason the best, where I finde it, the next where that failes, and conjecture is probable, to prove such thinges, as reason must paterne. If the triall be in proofe, and experience must guide it, I will binde upon proofe, and let triall be the tuche.

For with the alledging of authours, either to shew, what I have read or to tuche common concordes, where any thing is to much, and nothing is enough, I meane not at all to buisie my selfe. Bycause we heape but up witnesses, which be nothing needefull, in such cases, as be nothing doubtfull, when we use many gaie names all agreeing in one, and none saying but so: wheras the naturall use of testimonies is, to prove where doubt is, not to cloye, where all is cleare. In such cases for want of sound judgement, a catalogue of names, and a multitude of sentences, which say but that is soothed, and no man denyes, are forced to the stage, to seeme to arme the alleadger, which fighteth without foe, and flyeth without feare.

In pointes of learning, which be wonne from quarrell, or resolute groundes, which be without quarrell, and neede no assurer, I referre my dealing to the judgement of those, which can trace me, where I tread, and shall finde my truth, without the authours name, whom they will confesse to be well alleadged, when I saye, as he sayeth, and prove as he proveth, either by habite got by reading, or by likenesse in judgement, though I never red.

If controversie arise, and be worth the recounting the matter shall not sleepe: if it hange of the man, and without him be lame, the man shall not slyp: but otherwise, no. Those that be learned know that witnesses, and wise mens names be verie good ware, where the question is, whether such a thing be done, and they be said to know it, and that Rhetorick takes testimonies for a principall proofe, and verie neare the harte, as Logick placeth them in the outmost of her argumentes, being themselves of small pith, though their stuffe be worth praise, and both bind and loose, where reason beares the swaie, and probabilitie is to purpose. I do honour good writers but without superstition, nothing addicte to titles. But for so much as Reason doth honour them, they must be content [14] to staie without them selves, and use all meanes to preferre her to presence, as their ladie and mistresse, whose authoritie and credit procures them admission, when they come from her. It is not so, bycause a writer said so, but bycause the truth is so, and he said the truth, the truth gives him title, and that is it, which must passe, strong enough of it selfe, and oftimes weakned in the hearers opinion, though not in it selfe, by naming the writer: which commonly proves so when the hearer is wedded unto names, and sworn to authoritie, not so much eying the thing which is uttered, as the persons title by whom it is uttered. If truth did depend upon the person, she would oftimes be brought into a miserable plighte, and looke rufully upon it, being constrained to serve fansie, and to alter upon will, wheras she is still one, and should be bent unto, neither will her selfe bend, howsoever opinative people do perswade them selves.

This the learned and wise know, whose curtesie I crave, as I wish them well: for whose helpe and health, I undertooke this paine, whose wisedom I appeal to, if either diffidence do wrangle, or ignoraunce do quarrell. As for the unlearned, I must needes overtreat them, not to stand with me in pointes, where they cannot judge themselves, if not for mine owne, yet for their sakes, which beleve me themselves, and will give their word for me. In such pointes, as be intelligible to both, I must praie them both to waie me well, and ever to have before them, that my will wisheth well, howsoever I perfourme, wherin will deserves well, and weaknes prayeth excuse.

Chapter 4.

What time were best for the child to begin to learne. What matters some of the best writers handle, eare they determine this question. Of lettes and libertie wherunto the parentes are subject in setting their children to schoole. Of the difference of wittes and bodies in children. That exercise must be joyned with the booke, as the schooling of the bodie.

The first question that of any necessitie commeth in place, seemeth to be at what yeares children be to be put to schoole: for neither would they be differred to long for leasing [15] of their time, nor hastened on to soone, for hindering of their health. The rule therfore must be given according to the strength of their bodies, and the quiknes of their wittes joyntly.

Such of the auncient writers, both Greek and Latin, as either picture us out the platfourmes of the best framed common weales: or do lend us the looking on of some such a paragon as in some particular kinde, they devise to be peerelesse, before they call it in question, when their youth shall begin to learne, they do fetch the ground of their traine exceeding farre of. As, what regard is to be had to the infante, while he is yet under his nurse. Where they moile themselves sore, with the maners and conditions of the nurse, with the fines or rudenes of her speeche: with the comelynes of her person and favour of her face. And in controversie about milkes, sometime they preferre the mother, if her health, her complexion, her kinde of life, will best fit for her owne: sometime they yeeld: but with great choice to the forreine nurse: if any just circunstance do discharge the mother, whom nature unletted seemes to charge most. Againe they examine what companie is to be choosen for him, when he doth begin first to crepe abroad, wherby that good may begin betimes, which must continew longe, and is greatly furthered by choice of companie, that pikked and choice play fellowes may succede after a fine and well fitted nursery. Againe, they debate in good sadnes, what an exquisite traine is to be devised for him, when he is to go to schoole, either private, or publike, though they still preferre the publike as most beseeming him, which must live among many and never be recluse. And such other considerations they fall into, which do well beseeme the bringing up of such a one, as they did but wishe for: and we may not hope for: but by no meanes can be applyed to our youth, and our education, wherin we wishe for no more, then we hope for to have. Nay they go further, as whether may not wishers? and appoint the parentes of this so perfect a child, to be so wise and so well learned, as is in verie deede most consonant with their platte, but to farre surmonting the modele of my positions. Wherfore leaving those meanes, which they do but devise, to bring up those people, which they do but patterne, I meane to proceede [16] from such principles, as our parentes do build on, and as our children do rise by, to that mediocritie, which furnisheth out this world, and not to that excellencie, which is fashioned for an other. And yet the pretence of these so fine picturers, by pointing out so absolute a president, is, to let us behold thereby, both wherin the best consisteth: what colours it is best knowen by: what a state it keepeth: and also by what ready meane, we may best approche neare it, bycause dispaire to obtaine the verie best it selfe, discourageth all hope. For that missinge any one of these so fined circunstances, as our frailtie will faile either in all, or in most, then we marre the whole moulde. Howbeit we are much bounde to the excellent wittes of those divine writers, who by their singular knowledge, approching neare to the truest, and best, could most truly, and best discern, what constitution they were of: and being of a good civill inclination, thought it their parte, to communicate that with their posteritie, which they from so nighe, had so narrowly decifred, as available to others, for this onely cause, if there ensewed no more of it, that in despaire of hitting the highest, yet by seeing where it lodged, with verie great praise, they might draw neare unto it. For as it is but for paragons to mount quite above all, so is it worthy praise to rest in some degree, which declareth a pearcher, though abilitie restraine will, that it cannot aspire wherunto it would.

But to returne from this so exquisite, to our ordinarie traine, I perswade my selfe, that all my countreymen wishe themselves as wise, and as well learned, as those absolute parentes are surmised to be, though they be content with so much of both, or rather with so litle, as God doth allot them: and that they will have their children nursed as well as they can, without question where, or quarrelling by whom: so as they may have that well brought up by nurture, which they love so well, bequeathed them by nature. And that till the infant can governe himselfe, they will seeke to save it from all such perilles, as may seeme to harme it any kinde of way, or by companie or by occasion: and that with such warinesse, as ordinarie circunspection may, or can worke, in considerate and carefull parentes. And finally that for his well schooling, they that cannot, will [17] wish it, they that can, will have it, with small charge if they may, if they may not with some coste, and very carefully commend the silly poore boy at his first entry, to his maisters charge, not omitting even how much his mother makes of him, if she come not her selfe and do her owne commendacions. So that for these antecedents, as they in precisenes do passe us, so we in possibility go farre beyond them. For our hope is at ankar, and rides in assuraunce, their wishe wandereth still, not like to win the rode. These and such like circunstances they handle formally as in an absolute picture, I tuche but by the waye, as being quite of an other perswasion, nothing given to the unpossible, where possibilitie must take place, though the unpossible Idaea, offer great force to fansie. Wherfore I will now take my leave of them, and retourne to my question, when children be to be set to learning. A thing in reason very worthy to be wayed, and in perfourmaunce, very like to prove good, both for health of the bodie, and helpe of the minde, and so much the rather to be well entreated, bycause it is the very first principle, which enterteneth our traine. My countrey parentes then, being so naturall to their children, both for care before schoole, and for choice in schooling, I will commend to their charge, all that, which is to be considered in their first infancie, and tendrest spring, before they be thought fit, to be set to learning, which they will diligently looke to, I am very well assured. Bycause every thing drawes liking, while it is pretie and young, and specially our owne which hath nature to sollicite, and needeth no exhorting, to have it well cherished, where there is no daunger, but in to much dalying, neither yet any feare, but in to fond cokkering.

But in very good earnest, when shall our boye be set to schoole? In all considerations, wherin upon the resolution, something must be executed, and done, this thing is necessarily to be first enquired, whether all, or most, or any of all the circunstances, which be incident to the execution, be in, or without the parties power, which is to execute, so as he may either proceede at his owne libertie, if nothing withstand him, or may not proceede, if he be thwarted by circunstance. For otherwise the liberty to passe on, or the restraint, to staie, being not agreed [18] upon, he that directs by rule may be chekt by arrest. And where he biddes on thus, circunstance maye replie, Ifayth sir no. Wherfore I leave those parentes to their owne discretion, in whom will seekes libertie, to do as she would, and circunstance commandes her, to do as she may. The parent would have his child begin to learne at such a time: circunstance sayes, no. He would have him learne with such a man: some cause contrarieth. In such a place, in such a sorte: his power is to poore, to compasse that he coveteth. Be not all these lettes, and what so ever is so laid, to stop will of his will, where neither counsell can give precept, nor the parent can execute, being so strongly overcharged? It is even like, as if one should saye, the freeman and the bond, be not both in one case. Preceptes be for freemen, which maie do as ye bid them, but circunstance bindes, and wilbe obeyed. Wherfore I must once for all, warne those parentes, which may not do as they would, upon these same lettes which I have recited, or any other like, that they take their oportunitie, when so ever it is offered, bycause occasion is verie bald behind, and seldome comes the better. And seeing circunstance is their bridle, when they feele the raine loose, course it on a maine, and take the benefit of time, the oportunitie of place, the commoditie of the teacher, the equitie of the maner, and what so ever condition else, wherin the freedom of circunstance doth seeme to befreind them. For saving with such a note as this is, I cannot direct them, which can give no counsell, but where necessitie is in ward, and libertie keepes the keyes.

But if the parent want nothing necessary, for his childes bringing up, neither a place, both convenient for receit, and commodious for distaunce, wherin to have him taught: nor a teacher, sufficient for cunning, and considerate, for either curtesie, or correction, who can traine him up well: nor fit companions, as so fit a place, and so good a maister may picke out of choice, which will throng unto him: And if the child also himselfe, have a witte apte to conceive, what shalbe put unto him: and a body able to beare the travell, which belonges unto learning: me thinke it were then best, that he began to be doing, when he maie well perceive, without travelling his [19] braine, thorough the hardnes of the thing, and neede not be toiled to the wearines of his bodie, thorough the wise handling, of his advised maister. For being in the schoole, he may do somwhat very well, though not very much, wheras roming about, he might hap to do ill, and that very much.

At what yeares I cannot say, bycause ripenes in children, is not tyed to one time, no more then all corne is ripe for one reaping, though mostwhat about one. Some be hastinges and will on, some be hardinges, and draw backe: some be willing when their parentes will: some but willing, when they will them selves, as either will to do well, upon cherishing wisely, or pleasure to play still, upon cokkering fondly, hath possessed their mindes.

But he that deserveth to be a parent, must dispose himselfe to be also a judge, in all these cases: and who is so ill freinded, as he hath not one, with whom to conferre, to learne by advise, the towardnes and time of his young sonnes schooling, if he be not able to looke into it himselfe? They that limitte the beginning to learne by some certaine yeares, have an eye to that knowledge, which it were pitie were loste, say they, and may easely be gayned in those young yeares. I agree with them, that it were great pitie, to lease any thing, that neede not be loste, without great negligence, and may be well gotten, with very small diligence, not endammaging the child. But more pitie it were, for so petie a game, to forgoe a greater, to winne an houre in the morning, and lease the whole daie after: as those people most commonly do, which start out of their beds to early, before they be well awaked: or knowe what it is a clocke: and be drousie when they are up, for want of their sleepe.

If the childe have a weake bodie, though never so strong a witte, let him grow on the longer, till the strength of his bodie, do aunswere to his witte. For experience hath taught me, and calleth reason to record, that a sharp young witte hastened on to wounder at, for the quiknesse of his edge, hath therby most commonly bene hastened to his grave, thorough the weaknesse of body: to the greife of the freindes, whose delite is cut of, and some wite of their witte, for overhasting their child: Nay, what if it hath pleased God to lend him longer [20] life? he never sinketh deepe, but fleeteth still above, with some quicknesse of conceit, continuing that wonder, which he wanne in his childhood: never burdened with much to ballase his head: but still aunswering at reboundes, the fairest crop of so hasty an harvest. Sometime his witte will grow worse, the wonder will vanishe, the bodie will prove feeble, and soone after perishe.

But now if he live, with all these infirmities, of decaying witte, decreasing wonder, puling bodie, he lives with small comfort, in such a world of weaknesse, which usually commeth of to much moisture, the corrupter of such carcasses, the most vile, and violent massacrer, of the most, and best studentes, generally for want of travell, saving onely to their braine, which the more it is occupyed, the sorer it stilleth, and the sorer it stilleth, the sooner it killeth, the moe the more pitie. Wherefore I could wishe the wittier childe, the lesse upon the spurre, and either the longer kept from learning, for turning his edge, as a to sharp knife: or the sklenderer kept at it, for feare of surfait, in one hungring to have it. Yet must not this quickling be suffered to do nothing at all, for feare he grow reasty, if that nothing be dumpishe, and heavie: or passe beyond reclaime, if it be dissolute, and wanton.

The meane conceiver, in some strength of bodie, is the best continuer, and as he serves all places best, in his height of learning, so in all respectes, ye may venture on his schooling, when it shall please you, with but ordinarie regard.

A dull witte in a strong body, if ye like to have it learne, as by learning ye finde it: so till some degree, it may well learne, for necessarie service in the rest of his life: and may be hastened on boldly. For the bodie can beare labour, it is so well boaned, and the witte will not cloye, it so hardly receiveth. The sharpenesse of witte, the maister will sound by memorie, and number: the strength of the bodie, the mother will marke, by complaint, and cause.

A weake witte and as weake a bodie, is much to be moaned, for the great infirmity, and can hardly be helpt, bycause nature is to weake: and therfore it must be thought on, as in a case of despaire, againe against hope: if any thing be goten, [21] a greife to the freindes, which cannot amend it: small joye to him selfe, which cannot avoide it.

A strong witte, in as strong a bodie, is worthy the wishing, of the parentes to bring foorth, of the teacher to bring up. For as it is a thing of it selfe not ordinarie, so where it lighteth, it gives us the gaze, and bides all beginninges, but that which is to soone, bycause God hath provided that strength in nature, wherby he entendes no exception in nurture, for that which is in nature. Such spirites there be, and such bodies they have, if they will, and may so keepe them, with orderly regard, which is extreme hard unto them. For that oftimes they will not do so, but distemper their bodies with disordinate doinges, when pleasures have possessed them, and rashenesse is their ruler. Oftimes they maie not, thorough varietie and weight of important affaires, which commaundeth them too farre in some kinde of calling. But where so ever they light, or what so ever waye they take, they shewe what they be, and alwaye prove either the verie best, or the most beastly. For there can scantly be any meane in those constitutions, which are so notably framed, and so rarely endued. And therefore those parentes which have such children must take great heede of them, as the tippes of evill, if they chuse that waye, or the toppes of good, if they minde that is best. For the middle and most moderate wittes, which commonly supplie eche corner in eche countrey, and serve most assaies, some ordinary meane will serve to order them: but where extraordinarie pointes begin to appeare, there common order is not commonly enough.

This is my opinion concerning the time, when the child shall begin to learne: which I do restraine to the strength of witte and hardnes of body: the one for to receive learning the other not to refuse labour: and therfore I conclude thus that the parent himselfe ought in reason to be more then halfe a judge of the entrie to schooling, as being best acquainted with the particular circunstance of his owne child. Yet I do not allow him to be an absolute judge, without some counsell, unlesse he be a very rare father, and well able to be both a rule to himselfe, and a paterne to others. Bycause mostwhere men [22] be most blinded: where they should see best, I meane in their owne: such a tyrant is affection, when she hath wonne the field, under the conducte of nature, and so imperious is nature, when she is disposed to make affection her deputie.

But now for so much as in setting our child to schoole, we consider the strength of his bodie, no lesse then we do the quicknesse of his witte, it should seeme that our traine ought to be double, and to be applyed to both the partes, that the body may aswell be preserved in his best, as the minde instructed in that, which is his best, that the one may still be able to aunswere the other well, in all their common executions. As for the training up of the minde, the waye is well beaten, bycause it is generally entreated on in every booke, and beareth the honour and title of learning.

But for the bettering of the body, is there not any meane to maintaine it in health, and cheifly in the student, whose trade treads it downe? Yes surely, A very naturall and a healthfull course there is to be kept in exercise, wherby all the naturall functions of the body be excellently furthered, and the body made fit for all his best functions. And therfore parentes and maisters ought to take such a waie, even from the beginning, as the childes diet, neither stuffe the bodye, nor choke the conceit, which it lightly doeth, when it is to much crammed. That his garmentes which oftimes burden the bodie with weight, sometimes weaken it with warmth, neither faint it with heat, nor freese it with cold. That the exercise of the body still accompanie and assist the exercise of the minde, to make a dry, strong, hard, and therfore a long lasting body: and by the favour therof to have an active, sharp, wise and therwith all a well learned soule. If long life be the childes blessing for honoring his parentes, why should not the parentes then, which looke for that honour, all that in them lyeth, forsee in youth that their children may have some hope of that benefit, to ensue in their age, which cannot take effect, unlesse the thing be begon in their youth? Which if it be not by times looked unto, they afterwardes become uncapable of long life, and so not to enjoye the reward of their honour, for any thing that their parentes helpe to it, though God will be true, and perfourme that [23] he promiseth, how so ever men hault in doing of their duetie. And yet tempting is pernicious, where the meane to hit right, is laid so manifest: and the childes honour to his parentes beginnes at obedience in his infancie, which they ought to reward, with good qualities for honour, and may worke them like waxe, bycause they do obey. This negligence of the parentes for not doing that, which in power they might, and in duetie they ought, gives contempt in the children some colour of justice, to make their requitall with dishonour in their age, were it not that the Christian religion doth forbid revenge: which in presidentes of prophanisme we finde allowed, where both curtesie to such parentes, as failed in education of their children is countercharged by lawe: and dissolute parentes by entreating ill, are well entertained of their neglected children: the unfortunate children much moaned for their chaunce, that they came to so ill an ende: and the undiscrete parentes more rated for their charge, which they looked so ill to, wherby themselves did seeme to have forced such an ende.

The minde wilbe stirring, bycause it stirres the body, and some good meane will make it to furnish very well, so the choice be well made, wherin: the order well laid, wherby: and both well kept, wherwith: it shalbe thought best trained. The body which lodgeth a restlesse minde by his owne reste is betrayed to the common murtherers of a multitude of scholers, which be unholesome and superfluous humors, needelesse and noysom excrementes, ill to feele within, good to send abroad.

Neither is it enough to saye, that children wilbe stirring alwaie of themselves, and that therefore they neede not any so great a care, for exercising their bodies. For if by causing them learne so and sitting still in schooles, we did not force them from their ingenerate heat, and naturall stirring, to an unnaturall stilnesse, then their owne stirring without restraint, might seeme to serve their tourne, without more adoe. But stilnesse more then ordinarie, must have stirring more then ordinarie: and the still breding of ill humours, which stuffe up the body for want of stirring, must be so handled, as it want no stilling to send them away. Wherfore as stilnesse hath her direction by order in schooles, so must stirring be directed by well appointed [24] exercise. And as quiet sitting helpes ill humors to breede, and burden the bodie: so must much stirring make a waie to discharge the one, and to disburden the other. Both which helpes, as I most earnestly require at the parent, and maisters hand: so I meane my selfe to handle them both, to the helping of both.

In the meane while, for the entring time thus much. The witte must be first wayed, how it can conceive, and then the bodie considered, how it can beare labour: and the consorte of their strength advisedly maintained. They have both their peculiar functions, which by mediocrities are cherished, by extremities perished, hast doing most harme, even to the most, and lingring not but some, sometimes to the best. And yet haste is most harmefull, where so ever, it setts foote, as we that teache alwaie finde, and they that learne, sometimes feele. For the poore children when they perceive their owne weaknesse, whereof most commonly they maye thanke haste, they both faint, and feare, and very hardly get forward: and we that teach do meet with to much toile, when poore young babes be committed to our charge, before they be ripe. Whom if we beat we do the children wrong in those tender yeares to plant any hatred, when love should take roote, and learning grow by liking.

And yet oftimes severitie is to sowre, while the maister beateth the parentes folly, and the childes infirmitie, with his owne furie. All which extremities some litle discretion would easely remove, by conference before, to forecast what would follow, and by following good counsell, when it is given before. Which will then prove so, when the parent will do nothing in placing or displacing of his childe, without former advise, and communicating with the maister: and the maister likewise without respecting his owne gaine, will plainely and simply shew the parent or freind, what upon good consideration he thinketh to be best. Wherein there wilbe no error if the parent be wise, and the maister be honest.

Chapter 5.

What thinges they be, wherin children are to be trained, eare they passe to the Grammar. That parentes, and maisters ought [25] to examine the naturall abilities in their children, wherby they become either fit, or unfit, to this, or that kinde of life. The three naturall powers in children, Witte to conceive by, Memorie to retaine by, Discretion to discerne by. That the training up to good manners, and nurture, doth not belong to the teacher alone, though most to him, next after the parent, whose charge that is most, bycause his commaundement is greatest, over his owne child, and beyond appeale. Of Reading, Writing, Drawing, Musick by voice, and instrument: and that they be the principall principles, to traine up the minde in. A generall aunswere to all objections, which arise against any, or all of these.

Now that I have shewed mine opinion concerning the time, when it were best to set the child to schoole, the next two questions seeme to be, what he shall learne and how he shalbe exercised, when he is at schoole. For seeing he is compound of a soule and a bodie: the soule to conceive and comprehend, what is best for it selfe, and the bodie to: The bodie to waite, and attend the commaundement and necessities of the soule: he must be so trained, as neither for qualifying of the minde, nor for enabling of the bodie, there be any such defecte, as just blame therfore may be laide upon them, which in nature be most willing, and in reason thought most skilfull, to prevente such defaultes. For there be both in the body, and the soule of man certaine ingenerate abilities, which the wisedom of parentes, and reason of teachers, perceiving in their infancie, and by good direction avancing them further during those young yeares, cause them prove in their ripenesse very good and profitable, both to the parties which have them, and to their countries, which use them. Which naturall abilities, if they be not perceived, by whom they should: do condemne all such, either of ignoraunce, if they could not judge, or of negligence, if they would not seeke, what were in children, by nature emplanted, for nurture to enlarge. And if they be perceived, and either missorted in place, or ill applyed in choice, as in difference of judgementes, there be many thinges practised, which were better unproved, to the losse of good time, and let of better stuffe, they do bewray that such teachers, [26] and trainers, be they parentes, be they maisters, either have no sound skill, if it come of infirmitie, or but raw heades, if it spring of fansie. If they know the inclination, and do not further it rightely, it is impietie to the youth, more then sacrilege to the state, which by their fault be not suffered to enjoy those excellent benefits, which the most munificent God, by his no niggardishe nature, provided for them both. If they found them, and followed them, but not so fully, as they were to receive: if for want wherwith, it deserves pardon, if for want of will, exceeding blame: and cryeth for correction of the state by them hindred, and small thankes of the parties, no more furthered.

Wherfore as good parentes, and maisters ought to finde out, by those naturall principles, wherunto the younglings may best be framed, so ought they to follow it, until it be complete, and not to staie, without cause beyond staie, before it come to ripenesse, which ripenesse, while they be in learning, must be measured by their ablenes to receive that, which must follow their forebuilding: but when they are thought sufficiently well learned, and to meddle with the state, then their ripenesse is to be measured, by use to themselves, and service to their countrey, in peace, as best and most naturall, in warre, as worse, and most unnaturall, and yet the ordinarie ende of a disordered peace. For when the thinges, which be learned do cleave so fast in memorie, as neither discontinuaunce can deface them, nor forgetfulnesse abolishe them: then is abilitie upon ascent, and when ascent is in the highest, and the countrey commaundes service, then studie must be left, and the countrey must be served.

Seeing therfore in appointing the matter, wherin this traine must be employed, there is regard to be had first to the soule, as in nature more absolute, and in value more precious: and then to the bodie, as the instrument and meane, wherby the soule sheweth what is best to be done in necessity of fine force, in choice of best shew: I will remitte the bodie to his owne roome, which is peculiarly in exercises, saving where I cannot meane the soule, without mention of the bodie, and in this place I wil entreat of the soule alone, how it must be qualified. [27] And yet meane I not to make any anatomie, or resolution of the soule his partes and properties, a discourse, not belonging to this so low a purpose, but onely to pick out some natural inclinations in the soule, which as they seeme to crave helpe of education, and nurture, so by education, and nurture, they do prove very profitable, both in private and publicke. To the which effect, in the litle young soules, first we finde, a capacity to perceive that which is taught them, and to imitate the foregoer. That witte to learne, as it is led, and to follow as it is foregone, would be well applyed, by proprietie in matter, first offered them to learne: by considerate ascent in order, encreasing by degrees: by wary handling of them, to draw them onward with courage. We finde also in them, as a quickenes to take, so a fastnesse to retaine: therfore their memorie would streight waye be furnished, with the verie best, seeing it is a treasurie: exercised with the most, seeing it is of receite: never suffered to be idle, seeing it spoiles so soone. For in defaulte of the better, the worse will take chaire, and bid it selfe welcome: and if idlenesse enter, it will exclude all earnest, and call in her kinsfolkes, toyes and triffles, easie for remembraunce, heavy for repentaunce.

We finde in them further an ability to discern, what is good, and what is ill, which ought foorthwith to be made acquainted with the best, by obedience and order, and dissuaded from the worse, by misliking and frowne. These three thinges, witte to take, memorie to kepe, discretion to discern, and moe if ye seeke, though but braunches to these, which I chuse for my purpose, shall ye finde pearing out of the litle young soules: when you may see what is in them, and not they themselves. Whose abilitie to encrease in time, and infirmitie to crawle at that time is commended to them, which first begot them, or best can frame them. Now these naturall towardnesses being once espied, in what degree they rise, bycause there is ods in children by nature, as in parentes by purchace, they must be followed with diligence, encreased by order, encouraged by comfort, till they come to their proofe. Which proofe travell in time will perfourme, hast knittes up to soone, and unperfit, slownesse to late, and to weake.

But for the best waie of their good speede, that witte maie [28] conceive and learne well, memorie retaine and hold fast, discretion chuse and discerne best, the cheife and chariest point is, so to plie them all, as they may proceede voluntarily, and not with violence, that will may be a good boye, ready to do well, and lothe to do ill, never fearing the rod, which he will not deserve. For wheresoever will in effecting, doth joyne with abilitie to conceive, and memorie to retaine, there industrie will finde frute, yea in the frowne of fortune. By discretion to cause them take to that, which is best, and to forsake that, which is worst, in common dealinges is common to all men, that have interest in children, parentes by nature, maisters by charge, neighbours of curtesie, all men of all humanitie: whom either private care by custome, or publike cure by commaundement of magistrate and lawe, doth compell in conscience to helpe their well doing, and to fray them from ill, wheresoever they meete them, or when so ever they see them do that, which is naught. And therfore that duetie to helpe them in this kinde for their manners, is incident to maisters but among others, though somwhat more then some others, as to whom it is most seemely, bycause of their authoritie, and most proper, bycause of their charge, whom knowledge best enfourmeth to embrew them with the best: and power best assisteth, to cause them embrace the best: even perforce at the first, till acquaintaunce in time breede liking of it selfe.

But this mannering of them is not for teachers alone, because they communicate therin, as I have said already, both with naturall parentes, to whom that point appertaineth nearest, as of most authoritie with them, and with all honest persons, which seing a child doing evill, are bid in conscience, to terrifie and check him as the quality of the childes offence, and the circunstance of their owne person doth seeme best to require.

Wherfore reserving for the teacher so much as is for his office, to enstruct the child what is best for him in matter of manners, and to see to it, so much as in him lyeth: to set good orders in his government, to see them alwaye well, and one waye still executed and perfourmed, I referre the rest to those, whom either any vertuous consideration of them selves, or any particular duetie, enjoyned by lawe, doth charge with the rest, either [29] by private discipline at home, or by publicke ordinaunce abroade, to see youth well brought up that waye: to learne to discern that which is well from ill, good from bad, religious from prophane, honest from dishonest, commendable from blameworthy, seemely from unseemely, that they may honour God, serve their countrey, comfort their freindes, and aide one an other, as good countreymen are bound to do. But how to handle their conceit in taking, and their memorie, in holding, bycause that appertaineth to teachers wholly: (for all that the parentes and freindes, wilbe medlers somtime, to further their young impes:) I will deale in that, and shew wherin children ought to be trained, till they be found fit for Grammer: wherin neverthelesse, both the matters, which they learne: and the manners, which they are made to, serve for ground to vertue, and encrease of discretion.

As I might verie well be esteemed inconsiderate, if I should force any farre fet divises into these my principles, which neither my countrey knew, nor her custome cared for, so dealing but with those, and resting content with those, which my countrey hath severed to her private use, and her custome is acquainted with of long continuaunce, I maye hope for consent, where my countrey commendeth, and looke for successe, where custome leades my hand, and feare no note of noveltie, where nothing is but auncient.

Amongst these my countreys most familiar principles, reading offereth her selfe first in the entrie, chosen upon good ground continued upon great proofe, enrowled among the best, and the verie formost of the best, by her owne effectes, as verie many so verie profitable. For whether you marke the nature of the thing, while it is in getting, or the goodnesse therof when it is gotten, it must needs be the first, and the most frutefull principle, in training of the minde. For the letter is the first and simplest impression in the trade of teaching, and nothing before it. The knitting and jointing wherof groweth on verie infinitely, as it appeareth most plainely by daily spelling, and continuall reading, till partely by use, and partely by argument, the child get the habit, and cunning to read well, which being once goten, what a cluster of commodities doth [30] it bring with all? what so ever any other, for either profit or pleasure, of force or freewill, hath published to the world, by penne or printe, for any ende, or to any use, it is by reading all made to serve us: in religion to love and feare God, in lawe to obey and please men: in skill to entertaine knowledge, in will to expell ignorance, to do all in all, as having by it all helpes to do all thinges well. Wherefore I make reading, my first and fairest principle of all other, as being simply the first in substaunce, and leaning to none, but leading all other, and growing after so great, as it raungeth over all, being somwhat without other, other nothing without it: and a thing of such moment, as it is vainely begon, if it be not soundly goten, and being once sound it selfe: it delivereth the next maister from manifest toile, and the child himselfe from marvellous trouble, from feare where he failes not, from staggering, where he stops not, with comfort where he knowes, with courage, where he dare, a securitie to the parent, a safty to eche partie. I wishe the childe to have his reading thus perfect, and ready, in both the English and the Latin tongue verie long before he dreame of his Grammar.

Of the which two, at whether it were better to begin, by some accident of late it did seeme somwhat doubtfull: but by nature of the tongues, the verdit is given up. For while our religion was restrained to the Latin, it was either the onely, or the onelyest principle in learning, to learne to read Latin: as most appropriate to that effect, which the Church then esteemed on most.

But now that we are returned home to our English abce, as most naturall to our soile, and most proper to our faith, the restraint being repealed, and we restored to libertie, we are to be directed by nature, and propertie, to read that first, which we speake first, and to care for that most, which we ever use most: bycause we neede it most: and to begin our first learning there, where we have most helpes, to learne it best, by familiaritie of our ordinarie language, by understanding all usuall argumentes, by continuall company of our owne countreymen, all about us speaking English, and none uttering any wordes but those, which we our selves are well acquainted with, both [31] in our learning and living.

There be two speciall, whether ye will call them rules, or notes, to be observed in teaching, wherof the first is: That thinges be so taught, as that which goeth before, may induce that, which followeth by naturall consequence of the thing it selfe, not by erronious missorting of the deceived chuser, who like unto an unskilfull hoste oftimes misplaceth even the best of his guestes, by not knowing their degrees.

The second is, that those thinges be put unto children, which being confessed to be most necessarie, and most proper to be learned in those yeares, have lest sense, to their feeling, and most labour, without fainting. For can any growne man so moile him selfe, without to much cumber, with either the principles of Grammar, or cunning without booke, as a child will, the ones memorie being empty, the other being distracte with diversitie of thoughtes? Reason directes yeares, and roate rules in youth, reason calls in sense and feeling of paine, roate runnes on apase and mindeth nothing else but either play in the ende, or a litle praise for a greate deale of paines. Now praise never wearies, nor paine ever but wearies, and play pleaseth children with any, yea the greatest iniquitie of circunstance, whether the weather lowre, or the maister frowne, so he will give them leave to go. Though the Latin tounge be already discharged of all superfluities, exempt from custome, to chaunge it, and laid up for knowledge, to cherish it: and of long time hath bene smoothed both to the eye, and to the eare: yet in course of teaching it doth not naturally draw on the English, which yet remaineth in her lees unrackt and not fined, though it grow on verie faire. Our spelling is harder, our pronouncing harsher, our syllabe hath commonly as many letters, as the whole Latin word hath. So that both consequence, and hardnesse preferre the English. Even here must memorie begin her first traine, and store her selfe with such stuffe, as shall laie the best foundation to religion and obedience, which beginning in these yeares, will crepe on very strongly, and no lesse soundly: so that the child cannot but prove very good in age, which was so consideratly entred in his youth. What the thinges shall be, wherin both reading must travell, and memorie must make [32] choice, I will shew in mine Elementarie wherin the whole education before Grammer shalbe comprised.

Next to reading followeth writing, in some reasonable distance after, bycause it requireth some strength of the hand, which is not so soone staied nor so stiffe to write, as the tongue is stirring and redy to read. And though writing in order of traine do succede reading, yet in nature and time it must needes be elder. For the penne or some other penlike instrument did carve and counterfeat the letter or some letterlike devise first rawly and rudely, neither all at once: then finely and fully, when all was at once, and therby did let the eye beholde that in charact, which the voice delivered to the eare in sounde, which being so set downe to utter the power and knitting of the articulate voice, and afterward observed to expresse them in deede, caused writing be much used as interpreter to the minde, and reading be embrased as expounder to the penne, and expressing that in force, which the penne set downe in fourme. Wherby it must needes follow, that raw and rude charactes, were the primitive writing, which being expressed what they did signifie brought forth reading: and that experience upon triall of their vertues made so much of them both, as she recommended them to profit, to have them appointed for principles in the training up of youth. So that reading being but the expresser of the writen charactes must needes acknowledge and confesse her puniship to writing, of whom she tooke both her being and her beginning.

To limite any one cause how writing began, or to runne over the inventours of thinges to finde out who devised it first, were to gesse at some uncertaine, though probable conjecture, without any assuraunce, to build on, as the thing it selfe is of small importaunce, for any to tarie on. It is more then likely, wherof so ever the first charact came, that necessitie caught hold of it, to serve her owne tourne, and so enlarged it still, till it came to that perfection which we see it now in. I will neither paint out reading with such ornamentes, as it needes not, neither praise writing with such argumentes, as it craves not. For it is praise enough to a good thing to be confessed good, and what so ever is said more, is doubtfully to ground that, [33] which is determinatly graunted, and to seeke for defence when the forte is surrendred. After that reading was reduced into forme, and brought to her best, she fined her foundresse, and is therfore above all praise, bycause she makes the eye, the paragon sense, by benefit of that object. And writing it selfe hath profited so much, since it hath bene perfited, as it now proves the proppe to remembraunce, the executour of most affaires, the deliverer of secretes, the messager of meaninges, the enheritance of posteritie, whereby they receive whatsoever is left them, in lawe to live by, in letters to learne, in evidence to enjoye. To come by this thing so much commended, so, as it may bring foorth all her effectes redily, and roundly, these notes must be kept. That the maister learne himselfe and teach his scholer a faire letter and a fast, for plainesse and speede: That the matter of his example be pithie, and proper, to enrich the memorie with profitable provision: and that the learning to write be not left of, untill it be verie perfit: bycause writing being ones perfectly goten doth make a wonderful riddance in the rest of our learning. For the master may be bould to charge his child with writing of his geare, when he findes him able, to dispatch that with ease, what so ever is enjoyned him. Neither shall that child ever complaine of difficultie after, which can read and write perfectly before. For first he hath purchased those two excellent faire winges, which will cause him towre up to the top of all learning, as Plato in the like case of knowledge, termeth Arithmetick and Geometrie his two wings wherwith to flie up to heaven, from whence he doth fetch the true direction of his imprisoned ignorant. Secondly he hath declared eare he came to that cunning, that his wit would serve him, to proceede on further, as his winges will helpe him, to flie on faster. For in deede during the time, of writing and reading, his witte will bewraie it selfe, whether it may venture further upon greater learning, or were best to stay at some smaller skil, upon defect in nature. But if the child can not do that redily, which he hath rather looked on, then learned, before he remove from his Elementarie, while his maister conceives quickly, and he perceives slowly, there is verie much matter offered unto passion, wheron to worke. Which commonly [34] brusteth out into much beating, to the dulling of the childe, and discouraging of the maister: and bycause of the to timely onset, to litle is done in to long a time, and the schoole is made a torture, which as it bringes forth delite in the ende, when learning is helde fast, so should it passe on verie pleasantly by the waye, while it is in learning: And generally this I do thinke of perfiting, and making up, as children go on: (seing the argument it selfe doth draw my penne so forcibly forward,) that it must needes be most perfectly good. For what if oportunitie either to go any further at all, or at least to go so on, as their friendes did set them in, be suddenly cut of, either by losse of freindes, or lacke in freindes, or some other misfortune? were it not good that they had so much perfectly, as they are practised in? which being unperfectly had, will either stand them in very small steede, on in none at all. To write and read wel which may be jointly gotten is a prety stocke for a poore boye to begin the world with all.

The same reasons which moved me to have the child read English before Latin, do move me also, to wishe him to write English before Latin, as a thing of more hardnesse, and redier in use to aunswere all occasions. Thus farre I do thinke that all my countreymen will joyne with me, and allow their children the use, of their letter and penne. For those that can write and read may not gainsaie, least I aske of them why they learned themselves? If they that cannot, do mislike that they have not, I will aske of them, why they wishe so oft for them?

Some controversie before the thing be consideratly thought on, but none after, may arise about this next, which is to draw with penne or pencill, a cosen germain to faire writing, and of the selfe same charge. For penne and penknife, incke and paper, compasse and ruler, a deske and a dustboxe will set them both up, and in these young yeares, while the finger is flexible, and the hand fit for frame, it will be fashioned easely. And commonly they that have any naturall towardnesse to write well, have aknacke of drawing to, and declare some evident conceit in nature bending that waye. And as judgement by understanding is a rule to the minde to discern what is honest, seemly, and sutable in matters of the minde, and such argumentes as fall [35] within compasse of generall reason exempt from sense: so this qualitie by drawing with penne or pencill, is an assured rule for the sense to judge by, of the proportion and seemelines of all aspectable thinges. As he that knoweth best, how to kepe that himselfe, which is comely in fashion, can also best judge, when comelinesse of fashion is kept by any other. And why is it not good to have every parte of the body: and every power of the soule to be fined to his best? And seing that must be looked unto long afore, which must serve us best alwaye after, why ought we not to ground that thoroughly in youth, which must requite us againe with grace in our age? If I or any else should seeme to contemne that principle, which brought forth Apelles, and that so knowen a crew of excellent painters, so many in number, so marveilous in cunning, so many statuaries, so many architectes: nay whose use all modelling, all mathematikes, all manuaries do finde and confesse to be so notorious and so needefull: both I and that any else might well be supposed to see very litle, not seing the use of that, which is laboured for sight, and most delitefull to see. Neither is the devise mine, as if it were, repentance hath repulse. For what so ever I do allow in others, which for the devise do deserve wel, I deserved not ill, in mine opinion, if I were my selfe the first deviser therof. That great philosopher Aristotle in the eight booke and third chapter of his Politikes, and not there onely, as not he alone, joyneth writing and reading, which he compriseth under this worde, {Greek}, with drawing by penne or pencill, which I translate his {Greek}, both the two of one parentage and petigree, as thinges peculiarly chosen to bring up youth, both for quantitie in profit, and for qualitie in use. There he sayeth, that as writing and reading do minister much helpe to trafficque, to householdrie, to learning, and all publicke dealinges: so drawing by penne or pencill, is verie requisite to make a man able to judge, what that is which he byeth of artificers and craftes men, for substaunce, forme, and fashion, durable and handsome or no: and such other necessarie services, besides the delitefull and pleasant.

For the setting of colours I do not much stand in, howbeit if any dexterity that waye do draw the child on, it is an honest [36] mans living and I dare not condemne that famous fellowship: which is so renowned for handling the pencill. A large field is here offered to praise the praiseworthy, and to paint them out well, which painted all thinges so well, as the world still wondereth at the hearing of their workes. But the praise of painting is no part of my purpose at this time, but the appointing of it among the training principles, being so aunciently allowed, so necessarie in so many thinges, so great a ground to so gallant a misterie, as that profession is, wherof Apelles was: and last of all, so neare a cosen to the fairest writing, whose cradlefellow it is.

Musicke maketh up the summe, and is devided into two partes, the voice and the instrument, wherof the voice resembleth reading: as yealding that to the eare, which it seeth with the eye: and the instrument writing, by counterfeting the voice, both the two in this age best to be begon, while both the voice and the jointe be pliable to the traine. The voice craveth lesse cost to execute her part, being content with so much onely, as writing, and drawing did provide for their furniture, when they began their houshold. The instrumente seemeth to be more costly, and claimes both more care in keping, and more charge in compassing. For the pleasauntnesse of Musick there is no man that doth doubt, bycause it seemeth in some degree to be a medicine from heaven, against our sorowes upon earth. Some men thinke it to be too too sweete, and that it may be either quite forborne, or not so much followed. For mine owne parte I dare not dispraise it, which hath so great defendours, and deserveth so well, and I must needes allow it, which place it among those, that I do esteeme the cheife principles, for training up of youth, not of mine owne head alone, but by the advise of all antiquitie, all learned philosophie, all skilfull training, which make Musick still one of the principles, when they handle the question, what thinges be best, to bring youth first up in. If I had sought occasion of raunging discours which I still avoide, but where the opening of some point, doth lighten the thing, and may delite the reader, whom flatte and stearne setting downe, by waye of aphorisme, would soone weary (though many not of the meanest would allow of that kinde [37] exceeding well:) I might have found out many digressions long agoe, or if I had taken holde of that which hath bene offered, I have mette with many such, since I began first to write: but of all, in all sortes I do not finde any, wherin speeche might so spreede all the sailes, which she hath, and the penne might use, all the pencilling, which she can: as in painting out the praise and ornamentes of Musick. The matter is so ample, the ground so large, the reasons so many, which sound to her renowne: the thing it selfe so auncient, and so honorable, so generall, and so privat, so in Churches, and so without, so in all ages, and in all places, both highely preferred, and richely rewarded: the princesse of delites, and the delite of princes: such a pacifier in passion, such a maistres to the minde, so excellent in so many, so esteemed by so many, as even multitude makes me wonder, and with all to staie my hand, for feare that I shall not easely get thence, if I enter once in. I will not therfore digresse: bycause there is better stuffe in place, and more fit for my purpose, then the praise of Musick is. The Philosophers, and Physicians, do allow the straining, and recoyling of the voice in children, yea though they crie, and baule, beside their singing, and showting: by the waie of exercise to stretche, and kepe open the hollow passages, and inward pipes of the tender bulke, whereby Musick will prove a double principle both for the soule, by the name of learning, and for the body, by the waye of exercise, as hereafter shall appeare.

But for the whole matter of Musick, this shalbe enough for me to say at this time, that our countrey doth allow it: that it is verie comfortable to the wearyed minde: a preparative to perswasion: that he must needes have a head out of proportion, which cannot perceive: or doth not delite in the proportions of number, which speake him so faire: that it is best learned in childehood, when it can do least harme, and may best be had: that if the constitution of man both for bodie and soule, had not some naturall, and nighe affinitie with the concordances of Musick, the force of the one, would not so soone stirre up, the cosen motion in the other. It is wonderfull that is writen, and strange that we see, what is wrought therby in nature of Physick, for the remedying of some desperate diseases. [38]

And yet there groweth some miscontentement with it, though it be never so good, and that not only in personages of whom I make small account, but in some verie good, honest, and well disposed natures, though to stearnly bent, which neverthelesse, for al their stearnnes, wil resigne over their sentence, and alter their opinion, sometimes of themselves upon deeper meditation, what the thing in it selfe is, sometime by inducement, when they fal in with other which are better resolved: but most cheifly then, when Musick it selfe consideratly applyed, hath for a while obtained the favorable use of their listning eares. The science it selfe hath naturally a verie forcible strength to trie and to tuche the inclination of the minde, to this or that affection, thorough the propertie of number, wheron it consisteth, which made the Pythagorian, and not him alone to plat the soule out so much upon number. It is also very pleasant for the harmonie and concent, wherby the hearer discovers his disposition, and lettes pleasure playe upon the bitte, and dalye with the bridle, as delite will not be drowned, nor driven to hidebare. For which cause Musick moveth great misliking to some men that waye, as to great a provoker to vaine delites, still laying baite, to draw on pleasure: still opening the minde, to the entrie of lightnesse. And in matters of religion also, to some it seemes offensive, bycause it carieth awaye the eare, with the sweetnesse of the melodie, and bewitcheth the minde with a Syrenes sounde, pulling it from that delite, wherin of duetie it ought to dwell, unto harmonicall fantasies, and withdrawing it, from the best meditations, and most vertuous thoughtes to forreine conceites, and wandring devises. For one aunswere to all, if abuse of a thing, which may be well used, and had her first being to be well used, be a sufficient condemnation to the thing that is abused, let glotonie forbid meat, distempering drinke, pride apparell, heresie religion, adulterie mariage, and why not, what not? Nay which of all our principles shall stand, if the persons blame, shal blemish the thing? We read foolish bookes, wherat to laugh, nay wherein we learne that, which we might and ought forbeare: we write strange thinges, to serve our owne fansie, if we sway but a litle to any lewde folly: we paint and draw pictures, not to be set in Churches, but such as private houses [39] hide with curtaines, not to save the colours, but to cover their owners, whose lightnesse is discovered, by such lascivious objectes. Shall reading therfore be reft from religion? shall private, and publike affaires, lease the benefit of writing? shall sense forgoe his forsight, and the beautifier of his object? Change thou thy direction, the thinges will follow thee more swifte to the good, then the other to the bad, being capable of both, as thinges of use be, and yet bending to the better. Mans faulte makes the thing seeme filthie. Applie thou it to the best, the choice is before thee. It is the ill in thee, which seemeth to corrupte the good in the thing, which good, though it be defaced by thy ill, yet shineth it so cleare, as it bewraieth the naturall beautie, even thorough the cloude of thy greatest disgracing. Musick will not harme thee, if thy behaviour be good, and thy conceit honest, it will not miscary thee, if thy eares can carie it, and sorte it as it should be. Appoint thou it well, it will serve thee to good purpose: if either thy manners be naught, or thy judgement corrupt, it is not Musick alone which thou doest abuse, neither cannest thou avoide that blame, which is in thy person, by casting it on Musick, which thou hast abused and not she thee. And why should those people, which can use it rightly, forgoe their owne good, or have it with embasing to pleasure some pevishe, which will not yet be pleased? or seeke to heale sores, which will festure still, and never skinne, though ye plaster them daily, to your owne displeasure. But am I not to tedious? This therfore shall suffise now, that children are to be trained up in the Elementarie schoole, for the helping forward of the abilities of the minde, in these fower things, as commaunded us by choice and commended by custome. Reading, to receive that which is bequeathed us by other, and to serve our memorie with that which is best for us. Writing to do the like thereby for others, which other have done for us, by writing those thinges which we daily use: but most of al to do most for our selves: Drawing to be a directour to sense, a delite to sight, and an ornament to his objectes. Musick by the instrument, besides the skill which must still encrease, in forme of exercise to get the use of our small joyntes, before they be knitte, to have them the nimbler, [40] and to put Musicianes in minde, that they be no brawlers, least by some swash of a sword, they chaunce to lease a jointe, an irrecoverable jewell unadvisedly cast away. Musick by the voice, besides her cunning also, by the waye of Phisick, to sprede the voice instrumentes within the bodie, while they be yet but young. As both the kindes of Musick for much profit, and more pleasure, which is not voide of profit in her continuing kinde. All foure for such uses as be infinite in number, as they know best, which have most knowledge and the parentes must learne, to lead their children to them: and the children must beleve, to winne their parentes choice, which may be in all, if they themselves liste, if they liste not, in no more then they like, their restraining conceite neither bridling, nor abbridging any other mans entent, which seeketh after more. And though all young ones be not thus farre trained, yet we may perceive, that all these be used, in particular proofes, and not to be refused in generall trade, where all turnes be served, by setting foorth of all thinges that be generally in use, though not generally used. Thus much of these thinges at this time, which I do meane by Gods grace to handle in their owne Elementarie, as precisely and yet, as properly, as ever I can.

Chapter 6.

Of exercises and training the body. How necessarie a thing exercise is. What health is, and how it is maintained: what sicknesse is, how it commeth, and how it is prevented. What a parte exercise playeth in the maintenaunce of health. Of the student and his health. That all exercises though they stirre some one parte most, yet helpe the whole bodie.

The soule and bodie being coparteners in good and ill, in sweete and sowre, in mirth and mourning, and having generally a common sympathie, and a mutuall feeling in all passions: how can they be, or rather why should they be severed in traine? the one made stronge, and well qualified, the other left feeble, and a praye to infirmitie? will ye have the minde to obtaine those thinges, which be most proper unto her, and most profitable unto you, when they be obtained? Then must ye [41] also have a speciall care, that the bodie be well appointed, for feare it shrink, while ye be either in course to get them, or in case to use them. For as the powers of the soule come to no proofe, or to verie small, if they be not fostered by their naturall traine, but wither and dye, like corne not reaped, but suffered to rotte by negligence of the owner, or by contention in chalenge: even so, nay much more, the bodie being of it selfe lumpishe and earthy, must needes either dye in drowsinesse, or live in loosenesse, if it be not stirred and trained diligently to the best. And though the soule, as the fountaine of life, and the quickner of the body, may and will beare it out for some while, thorough valiauntnesse of courage: yet weaknesse will not be alwayes dissembled, but in the ende will and must bewraie her owne want, even then peraventure, when it were most pittie. Many notable personages for stomacke and courage, many excellent men for learning and skill, in most and best professions have then left their lives, thorough the plaine weaknesse, of their contemned bodies, when they put their countries in most apparent and gladsome hope of rare and excellent effectes, the one of valiantnesse and manhood, the other of knowledge and skill. Seing therfore there is a good in them both, which by diligent endevour may be avaunced to that, for which it was ordained, and by negligent oversight, doeth either decaye quite, or proves not so well, as otherwayes it might, I maye not slightly passe over the bodies good, being both so neare, and so necessarie a neighbour unto the soule: considering I have bestowed so much paines already, and must bestow much more, in the service of the soule: nay rather considering I deale with the bodie but once, and that onely here, wheras I entreat of the soule, and the furniture therof in what so ever I shall medle with, in my whole course hereafter. If common sense did not teach us the necessitie of this point, and extreme feeblenes did not force men to confesse, how great feates they could do, and how active they would prove, if their weake limmes and failing joyntes, would aunswere the lusty courage, and brave swinge of their fierie and fresh spirites: I would take paines to perswade them by argumentes, both of proofe in experience, and of reason in nature, that as it is easie, so it were needefull [42] to helpe the body by some traine, not left at randon to libertie, but brought in to forme of ordinarie discipline, generally in all men, bycause all men neede helpe, for necessarie health, and ready execution of their naturall actions: but particularly for those men, whose life is in leasure, whose braynes be most busied, and their wittes most wearied, in which kinde studentes be no one small part, but the greatest of all, which so use their mindes as if they cared not for their bodies, and yet so neede their bodies, as without the strength and soundnesse wherof, they be good for nothing, but to moane themselves, and to make other marvell, why they take no more heede, how to do that long, which they do so well, being a thing within compasse of their owne care, and knowledge. For who is so grosse, as he will denie that exercise doth good, and that so great, as is without comparison, seing olde Asclepiades is by Galene confuted, and stawled for an asse: as Erasistratus also his dissembling freind? or who is so sore tied either to studie, or to stocks, as he cannot stirre himselfe if he will, or ought not if he may? But the matter being confessed, even by the most idle, and unweildy to be healthfull and good, I shall neede no more reason, to procure assent, and allowaunce for exercise. My whole travell therfore must be to finde out, and set foorth, what shalbe requisite to the perfourmaunce of this point, concerning the traine and exercising of the body, that it may prove healthy, and live long: and be ready to assist, all the actions of the minde.

Wherein therfore consisteth the health of the bodie, and how is it to be maintained untill such time, as nature shall dismantle, and pull it downe her self? To aunswere this question, and withall to declare, how great an officer to health exercise is: I will first shew, wherin health doth consiste, and how diseases do come: then how health is maintained, and disease avoided: Last of all how great a parte is appointed for exercise to plaie in the perfourmaunce therof, bycause I saye, and not I alone, but Galen also that great Physician, neither Galen onely, though sufficient alone, but all that ever lived, and were cheife of that liverie, that who so can applie the minde well with learning, and the bodie with exercise, shall make both a wise minde, and a healthfull bodie in their best kinde. [43] Wherefore seing I have set downe wherein the traine of the minde doth consist, so much as the Elementarie course doth admit, and must perfourme, and so farre as these my Positions require at this time, whose profession is not to tary, though it tuche them: I wil now handle that other part of exercise, wherwith the bodie is either to be kept in health, or to be helpt to health: and that not onely in the Elementarie, to whom this treatise should seeme to aunswere, but also in the generall student during his whole life: which must alwaye rule himselfe by those circunstances, which direct the application of exercise, according to time, age, & c. and shalbe handled herafter.

There be in the bodie of man, the force of foure elementes, fire and aire, water and earth, and the pith of their primitive, and principall qualities, heat and couldnesse, moysture and drynesse, which the Physicians call the similarie partes, of the similitude and likenesse that they have, not the one to the other, but the partes of eche to their owne whole, bycause everie least part, or degree of these great ones, beare the name of the whole, as everie part or parcell of fier, is called fier, no lesse then the whole fier, of water, water, of aier, aier, of earth, earth, and everie degree of heat, is heat, of cold, is cold, of moysture, is moysture, of drynesse, is drynesse, though greater and smaller, lesse and more, be epithetes unto them, as either their quantitie, or qualitie doth sprede or close.

There be also in the same bodie certaine instrumentall partes, compounded and consisting in substance of the similarie, which the bodie doth use in the executing of the naturall functions, and workinges therof. Now when these similarie partes be so tempered, and disposed, as no one doth excede any other in proportion to overrule, but all be as one in consent to preserve: and the instrumentall partes also be so correspondent one to an other, in composition and greatnesse, in number and measure, as nature thorough the temperature of the first, may absolutely use the perfectnesse of the last, to execute and perfourme without let or stoppe, what appertaineth to the maintenaunce of her selfe: it is called health, and the contrarie, disease, both in the whole bodie, and in every part therof. In the whole bodie by distemperature of the whole, in some part, by [44] composition, out of place, and disjoynted, by greatnes, being to bigge or to small: by measure, being misshapen and fashionles: by number, being to many and needlesse: or to few, and failing. This health whether it be in the middle degre, wherin all executions be complete without any sensible let: and no infirmitie appeareth, that the bodie feeles with any plaine offence: Or if it be in the perfectest degree, which is so seldom, as never any saw, bycause of great frailty, and britleness in our nature: it never continueth in one estate, but altereth still, and runnes to ruyne, without both speedy and daily, nay without hourely reparation.

The causes which alter, and chaunge it so, be somtime from within the bodie, and were borne with it: sometime from without, and yet not without daunger. From within, the verie propertie and pithe of our originall substance, and matter whence we grew, altereth us first, which as it beginneth, and groweth in moysture, so it endeth, and stayeth in drynesse, and in the ende decayeth the bodie with to much drynesse, which extreame though naturall withering, we call olde age, which though it come by course, and commaundement of nature, yet beareth it the name, and title of disease, bycause it decayeth the bodie, and delivereth it to death. From within also, the continuall rebating, and falling awaye of somwhat from the bodie, occasioneth much chaunge, nay that is most cause of greatest chaunge, and killeth incontinent by meere defect, if it be not supplyed.

To these two causes of inward alteration, there aunswere two other forreine causes, both unholesome, and perillous, the aire, which environneth us, and violence, which is offered us. The former of the two, decaing our health with to much heat, cold, drynesse, and moysture of it selfe: or by noysomnesse of the soile, and corruption in circunstance. The second, by strong hand brusing, or breaking, wounding or wiping awaie, of some one part of the bodie, or els killing the whole consort of the bodie with the soule, and taking away life from it. These foure overthrowes of our bodies and health, olde age, waste, aire, and violence, finde by helpe of nature, and arte, certaine oppositions, which either divert them quite, if they maye be [45] avoided, or kepe them of longer, if they maye be differred, or mittigate their malice, when it is perceived. For forreine violence, foresight will looke to, where casualtie commaundes not, and cannot be foreseene. For infection by the aire, that it do not corrupte and marre so much as it would, wisedome will provide, and defende the bodie from the injuries, and wronges therof. That olde age grow not on to fast, circunspectnes in diet, consideration in clothes, diligence in well doing, wil easely provide, both for the minde not to enfect, first it selfe and then the bodie: and for the bodie not to enforce the minde, by too impotent desires. That waste weare not, meat takes in chardge, to supplie that is drye, and decayeth: drinke promiseth to restore moysture, when it doth diminishe: the breath it selfe, and arteriall pulse, looke to heating and cooling. And Physick in generall professing foresight to prevent evills, and offering redresse, when they have done harme, so not incurable, doth direct both those and all other meanes. Now in all these helpes, and most beneficiall aides of our afflicted nature, which deviseth all meanes to save her selfe harmelesse, and deliteth therin, when she is discharged of infirmities, to much stuffes and stiffles, to litle straites and pines, both undoe the naturall. To much meat cloyes, to litle faintes, both perishe the principall. To much liquour drownes, to litle dryes, both corrupt the carcasse. Heat burnes, cold chilles, in excesse both to much, in defect both to litle, and both causes to decaie. Mediocritie preserveth not onely in these but in whatsoever els.

But now what place hath exercise here? to helpe nature by motion in all these her workinges, and wayes for health: to encrease and encourage the naturall heat, that it maye digest quickly and expell strongly: to fashion and frame all the partes of the bodie to their naturall and best haviour: to helpe to rid needelesse, and superfluous humours: reffuse and rejected excrementes, which nature leaves for naught, when she hath sufficiently fed, and wisheth rather they were seene abrode, then felt within. And be not these great benefites? to defend the body by defeating diseases? to stay the minde, by strengthening of her meane? to assist nature being both daily, and [46] daungerously, assailed both within and without? to helpe life to continue long? to force death, to kepe farre a loufe?

Now as all constitutions be not of one and the same mould, and as all partes be not moved alike, with any one thing: so the exercises must alter, and be appropriate to each: that both the constitution may be continued in her best kinde, and all the partes preserved to their best use, which exercises being compared among themselves one to an other, be more or lesse, but being applyed to the partie kepe alwayes in a meane, when they meane to do good. Concerning students, for whose health my care is greatest, the lesse they eate, the lesse they neede to voide: and therfore small diet in them, best preventeth all superfluities, which they cannot avoide, if their diet be great, and their exercise small. Their exercise must also be very moderate, and not alter to much, for feare of to great distemperature in that, which must continue moderate: and with all it should be ordinarie, that the habit may be holesome, and sudden chaunge give no cause of greater inconvenience. Wherfore to avoide distemperature the enemie to health, and so consequently to life, and to maintaine the naturall constitution so, as it may serve to the best, wherin her duetie lyeth, and live to the longest, that in nature it can, besides the diet, which must be small, as nature is a pickler, and requires but small pittaunce: besides clothing which should be thin even from the first swadling to harden, and thick the flesh: I do take this traine by exercise, which I wishe to be joyned with learning, to be a marveilous furtherer.

But for diet to avoide inward daungers, and clothing to avert outward injuries, and all such preventions, as are not proper to teachers, though in communitie more proper then to any common man: I set them over to parentes, and other well willers, which will see to them, that they faile not in those thinges: and if they do, will fly to Physicians, by their helpe to salve that, which themselves may forsee. For exercises I will deale, which to commend more then they will commend them selves, when I shall shew both what they be, and the particular profites of every one of them, which I chuse from the rest, were me thinke verie needlesse, and cheifly to me, which seeme sufficiently [47] to praise them, in that I do place them among principles of prerogative. But as in the soule I did picke out certaine pointes, wherunto I applyed the training principles: so likewise in the bodie, may I not also sever some certaine partes, wherunto my preceptes must principally be conformed? that shall not neede. For as in the soule the frute of traine doth better and make complete even that which I tuched not, and so consequently the whole soule: so in the bodie, those exercises which seeme to be appointed for some speciall partes, bycause they stirre those partes most, do qualifie the whole bodie, and make it most active. Wherefore as there I did promise not to anatomise the soule, as neither dealing with Divines nor Philosophers: so do I not here make profession to shew the anatomie of the bodie, as medling neither with Physicians nor Surgeans, otherwise then any of them foure can helpe me in exercise. To the which effect, and ende, I will onely cull out from whence I can, such speciall notes, as both Philosophers, and Phisicians do know to be most true, and both the learned, and unlearned, will confesse to be for them: and such also, as the training maisters may easely both helpe, and encrease in their owne triall. For both reason, and rule, do alwaye commaunde, that the maister be by, when exercise is used, thorough whose overlooking the circunstance is kept, which helpeth to health, and the contrarie shunned, which in exercise doth harme. In the elder yeares, reason at the elbow must serve the student, as in these younger, the maisters presence helpes to direct the child.

But to joyne close with our traine. What partes be they in our bodie, upon whom exercise is to shew this great effecte? or what be the powers therof, which must still be stirred, so to stay, and establish the perpetuitie of health, not in themselves alone, but in the whole bodie, by them? Where joyntes be to bend, where stringes to tye, where synewes to stirre, where streatchers to straine, there must needes be motion: or els stifnesse will follow, and unweildynesse withall: where there be conduites to convey the blood, which warmeth, canales to carie the spirite, which quickneth, pipes to bestow the aire, which cooleth, passage to dismisse execrements which easeth, there must needes be spreding, to kepe the currant large, and [48] eche waie open, for feare of obstructions, and sudden fainting. Where to much must needes marre, there must be forcing out, where to litle must nedes lame, there must be letting in: where thickning threates harme, there thinning fines the substance: where thinning is to much, there thickning must do much, and to knit up all in short, all those offices, wherunto our bodie serveth naturally, either for inward bestowing of nurriture, and maintenaunce of life: or for outward motion, and executions of use, must be chearished and nusled so, as that they do by nature well, and truely, they may do by traine, both long, and strongly. I shall not neede to name the partes, all in one ruk, as of set purpose, which be knowen by their effectes: and the exercises also themselves will shew for whom they serve. But for example first in the partes let us see, whether we can discern them by their working, and properties, that therby the exercise may be pickte, which is most proper to helpe such effectes.

Who doth not streight waye conceive, that the lunges or lightes be ment, when he heareth of an inward part, which provideth winde for the harte, to allay his heat, and to minister some clammy matter unto it, whence he may take aire, most fit for his functions, and not at the sudden be forced to use any forreine?

Or who doth not by and by see, that the harte is implyed, when he heareth of an other inward part, which is the spring, and fountaine, of the vitall spirite and facultie, the seat and sender out of naturall heat, the occasion and cause of the arteriall pulse, which by one arterie, and way, receiveth cooling from the lunges, by an other, sendeth the vitall spirite, the hote, and hurling blood, thorough out the whole bodie?

Or who is so grosse, as not to gesse at the liver, when he heareth of an other inward part, which is the cheife instrument of nurriture, the workhouse of thicke and grosse blood: that feedeth the life and soule: when it desireth meat, and drinke, and what is els necessarie: which conveieth blood thorough the veines to nurrish all partes of the bodie, with the naturall spirit in it, if there be any, verie darke and heavie?

Nay hath he any braine, which seeth not the braine plainly laid before him, when he heareth a part of mans bodie named, [49] which breedeth a sowlish, and life spirite, as most pure, so most precious, and rather a qualitie then a bodie, and useth it partly to further the working of that princely, and principall part of mans soule, wherby he understandeth and reasoneth: partly to helpe the instrumentes of sense, and motion, by meane of the sineues, never suffering them to lacke spirite: which is the cheife and capitall cause, why these instrumentes do their dueties well? And so forth in all the partes aswell without, as within sight, whose properties when one heareth and finding that they be helped by such a motion he can forthwith say, that such an exercise is good for such a part:

Now againe for exercises. Who hearing that moderate running doth warme the whole body, strengthneth the naturall motions, provoketh appetite, helpeth against distilling of humours and catarres, and driveth them some other waie:

Or that daunsing beside the warmth, driveth awaye numnesse, and certaine palsies, comforteth the stomacke, being cumbred with weaknes of digestion, and confluence of raw humours, strengtheneth weake hippes, fainting legges, freatishing feete:

Or that ryding also is healthfull for the hippes and stomacke: that it cleareth the instrumentes of all the senses, that it thickneth thinne shankes: that it stayeth loose bellies:

Or that loud speaking streatcheth the bulke, exerciseth the vocalle instrumentes, practiseth the lungues, openeth the bodie, and all the passages therof:

Or that loud reading scoureth all the veines, stirreth the spirites thorough out all the entraulles, encreaseth heat, suttileth the blood, openeth the arteries, suffereth not superfluous humours to grow grosse and thicke: who, say I, hearing but of these alone in taste for all, or of all together by these alone, doth not both see the partes, which are preserved, the exercise which preserveth, and the matter wherin?

Wherfore seing exercise is such a thing, that so much enableth the bodie, whom the soule hath for companion in all exploites, a comfort being lightsome, a care being lothesom, a courage being healthy, a clog being heavie, I will, bycause I must, if I meane to do well, plat forth the whole place of exercising the bodie, at ones for all ages. [50]

Chapter 7.

The braunching, order, and methode, kept in this discours of exercises.

Bycause the speciall marke wherat I shoote, is to bring the minde forward to his best, by those meanes which I take to be best, wherin I must of force continue verie long, as in my principall and cheife subjecte, and in no place saving this, entreat of the bodie, but onely how to apply that to it, which I pitche downe here: I thinke it good therefore in this place to perfit, and handle at full the whole title of exercises with all the circunstances belonging therunto, so sufficiently and fully, as my simple skill can aspire unto: and as the present occasion of a position or passage useth to require, leaving that which I do not medle with, to those that shall professe the thing, ether for their owne, or for their childrens health, wherin I will kepe this methode and manner of proceeding. First I wil note somewhat, generally concerning all exercises. Secondly I will chuse out some especiall exercises, which upon good consideration I do take to be most proper, and propitious to schooles, and scholers. Thirdly I will applye the circunstances, required in exercise to everie of them, so neare as I can, that there be no error committed in the executing. For the better the thing is, if it hit right, the more dangerous it proveth, if it misse of that right. Last of all I will shew the training maister, how to furnish himselfe thoroughly, in this professed exercising: bycause he must both applie the minde with learning, and the bodie with moving, at diverse times, refreshing himselfe, with varietie and chaunge.

But in handling of these foure pointes, I meane to rippe up no idle question: I terme that idle, where health is the ende, and the question no helpe to it, but cause to discours, and delaye of precept. Such questions be these: who first found out the arte of exercise called Gymnastice, or whether it belong to the Physician or no: being a preservative to health: or who first devised the particular exercises: or who were most famous for the executing therof, and a number of such like discoursory argumentes, which learned men having leasure at will, as a [51] schoolemaister hath not, and willing to wade farre, as my selfe could wish, have mined out of the bowelles of antiquitie, and entraules of authoritie, sometimes sadly, and saing in deede much, upon evident and apparent testimonies, sometimes simply, and surmising but some such thing, by very light and slight conjectures: oftimes supported by bare guesse, at some silly word, or some more naked warrant. Wherfore to the matter.

Chapter 8.

Of exercise in generall and what it is. And that it is Athleticall for games, Martiall for the fielde, Physicall for health, praeparative before, postparative after the standing exercise: some within dores, for foule whether, some without for faire.

All exercises were first devised, and so in deede served, either for games and pastime, for warre and service, or for suretie of health and length of life, though somtime all the three endes did concurre in one, sometimes they could not. For why might not an healthfull, and a sound body, both serve in the fielde for a soldiar, and in the sand for a wrastler? But we seldom reade, that the athleticall constitution whose ende was gaming, whose exercise was pastime, whose diet was unmeasurable for any man to use, did either deliver the world an healthfull body, being strained beyond measure, or a courageous soldiar, being unweildly to fight, as one compounded and made of fat and fog, brawnie and burdenous.

The athleticall and gaming exercises, were in generall assemblies, to winne some wager, to beare awaie the prise, to be wondered at of the world, or to set foorth the solemnities of their festivall service, and ceremonies in the honour of their idoles: or in publike spectacle to adourne and set foorth, the triumphant and victorious shewes, the sumptuous and costly devises of their princes and states. Wherin we reade, that particular men have shewed such effectes of strength, and sturring, by the helpe of exercise, and traine, as nature her selfe could never attaine unto, though she furthered the feat, and got her selfe the worst, both by empairing of health, and hastning on of death, thorough straining to much. It is more then marveilous [52] to thinke on, and yet we finde it of verie good recorde, what and how incredible weight, both of living creatures, and massier mettal, one mans force hath bene noted to have borne, by being only used to that burthen. Would any man beleve it, if it were not of good writen credit, that one Milo so strutted himselfe, so pitcht his feet, so peysed his bodie, as he remained unremoveable from his place, being haled at and pulde by a number of people. Activitie hath wrought wonders, swiftnesse incredible thinges, and what propertie what not? where nature and ambition were backt with exercise and good will, to do but one thing well.

For the use of warre, and defence, it is more then evident, that exercise beares the bell: Can one have a bodie to abide cold, not to melte with heat, not to starve for hunger, not to dye for thirst, not to shrinke at any hardnesse, almost beyond nature, and above common reache, if he never have it trained? will nimblenesse of limmes awaie with all labour, surpasse all difficulties, of never so divers, and dangerous groundes, pursue enemies to vanquish, reskue freinds to save, retire from danger without harme, thrust it selfe into daunger without daunger, where no traine before made acquaintaunce with travell? Wherupon called the Romaines their whole armie Exercitus, but bycause it consisted of a valiant number of exercised and trained men? which were not to seeke at a sudden, bycause they had used armes before? how could common weales where the territory was but small, and the enhabitantes few, have still delivered themselves from mightier assailantes, then they seemed defendantes? or in continuall threates, of jeleous neighbours, how could they still have kept their owne, if that small territorie, had not bene thoroughly employed, and that petie paucitie gallantly trained? wherby it was able for hardnesse and sufferance to abide what not? for activitie and manhood, to have mastered whom not? or at the least had good meanes, not to receive any foile, where onely the huger number, and the untrained multitude, were to trie the masterie in fielde against them?

For health it is most manifest that exercise is a mighty great mistresse, whether it be to confirme that which we have by [53] nature, or to procure that which we have not by nature: or to recover that by industrie, and diligence, which we have almost lost, by misfortune and negligence. The exercises which do serve to this healthy end, do best serve for this my purpose, and though an healthfull body be most apt and active, both for gaming to get wagers, and for warring to winne victories, yet in my exercises, I neither meane to dally with the gamester, nor to fight with the warrier, but to marke which way I may best save studentes, who haue most neede of it: being still assailed by those enemies of health, which waxe more eager and hoat, the more weake and cold that exercise is.

This exercise of ours by forme of definition, is said to be a vehement, and a voluntarie stirring of ones body, which altereth the breathing, whose ende is to maintaine health, and to bring the bodie to a verie good habit. Doth not exercise at this her first entry offer to performe so much as I did undertake for her? health of the body, and an healthy habit of all the limmes: which two effectes, bycause they be good, who doth not desire them? and being got by exercise, why is it not in price? and being reducible to order, why should it not be in traine? They that write of exercise, make three degrees in it, wherof they call the first a preparative, in Greek {Greek}, the next simply by the name of exercise {Greek} the third a postparative, in Greek {Greek}. The preparative served, not to passe rudely, and roughly into the maine exercise, without qualifying the bodie by degrees before, bycause sudden alteration workes ill disposition. The postparative or apotherapeutike followeth the maine exercise, to reduce the body by gentle degrees, to the same quietnesse in constitution, wherin it was, before it was so moved. Which two pointes bycause they rest most in the maisters consideration, which is to oversee the traine, I commit them to his care: so to applie his cunning as he shall see cause in exercising his charge. And yet herein I entend to helpe him, when I shall handle the circunstances which direct exercises.

The third degree, which is enclosed betwene these two, is that same exercise, which I praise so much, and upon whom the other two waite, wherof, as writers make to many, and to [54] finely minced distinctions, so I make account but of one at this time, wherof I do make two braunches, or spieces, the one to be used within dores, and the other abroade, that whether the weather be faire or fowle, the exercise in some kinde may never faile.

Chapter 9.

Of the particular exercises. Why I do appoint so manie, and how to judge of them, or to devise the like.

I will not here runne thorough all the kindes of exercises that be named either by Galene or any other writer, wherof many be discontinued, many be yet in use, but out of the whole heape I have pickt out these for within dores, lowd speaking, singing, lowd reading, talking, laughing, weaping, holding the breath, daunsing, wrastling, fensing, and scourging the Top. And these for without dores, walking, running, leaping, swimming, riding, hunting, shooting, and playing at the ball. Wherof though the very most be used oftimes, not in nature of exercises, but either of pleasure, or necessitie, yet they be all such, as will serve well that waie, and be so made account of among the best writers, that deale in this kinde: and for that some of them maye be said to be most proper to men, and farre above boyes plaie: you must remember, that I deale for all studentes, and not for children alone, to whom it is in choice, besides all these to devise other for their good, as circunstance shal lead them. There may also be reasons, to perswade some men to mislike of, I do not thinke all, but I suppose some, of these thinges, which I do appoint, as both commendable and profitable exercises, with whom I will not here strive, but desire them to judge of me, without prejudice, and to stay their sentence, untill they see in what sorte I allow them. For knowing the cause of offence, I might seeme very simple, if I should simply allow that, which is disallowed upon reason, and not misliked without manifest shew of probable cause: and so to reserve the thing, as I did not remove the blame. They must also thinke that nothing is abused, but that both may and ought to be well used, which well, they must use, and refuse the ill: seing where misuse draweth blame, there right use deserveth praise. [55]

Therfore I wishe those that be of yeares, and abilitie to guide themselves to call circunstance to counsell, and consideration to advise. For as consideration shapeth the circunstance, so circunstance is a thing, which maketh all that is done, either to please or displease: to be sent awaie with a cutting checke: or to be bid tarie, with a cheary contenaunce. As for the child in whom wisdom wanteth, to way with discretion, what it is that he doeth, the maister alone must supplie all wantes, or beare all blames, though it be but a simple recompence, to blame wante of consideration, when harme is received. Some man may also say, what needes so many, and mislike the multitude. Of many to chuse some, is usuall in all choice, and where store is, why should choice be stinted? he may lessen the number, that alloweth but of one, and I have pickt out the likest, to satisfie all in diversities of liking, who so shall like any of these, may use them with me, or upon the like ground, may devise himselfe other. In handling of eche of these, I will first shew for what partes, to what end, and in what manner, they be profitable and holesome being moderatly used: then for whom, and with what daunger, they be strained to the contrarie.

Chapter 10.

Of lowd speaking. How necessarie, and how proper an exercise it is for a scholler.

The exercise of the voice which in Latin they name vociferatio, in Greek {Greek}, as them {Greek}, which were the training maisters, in English maye be tearmed lowd speaking, of the height: for though it use all the degrees, which be in the voice, yet is it most properly to take his name, of the lowdest and shrillest, as the most audible in sound, and therfore fittest to give the name, as all thinges els receive theirs, of some one qualitie of most especiall note. The auncient Physicians entertaine it among exercises, bycause it stirreth the bulke, and all those instrumentes, which serve for the deliverie of voice, and utterance of speeche: bycause it aideth, dilateth, and comforteth the lunges in his windworke, it encreaseth, cleanseth, strengtheneth, and fineth the naturall heat: it maketh [56] the sound and soveraigne partes of the bodie strong and pure: and not lightly to be assailed by any disease: it mendeth the colour, and cheareth the countenaunce. Now that it hath these properties they do prove by naturall argumentes. That it practiseth and stirreth the inward partes, and vocall instrumentes, no man may denie, which will confesse, that the mouth alone, is the onely port and passage for speeche. That it encreaseth the naturall heat, the breath it selfe doth most evidently declare, bycause it is always exceeding warme, when one exerciseth the voice, it is so thronged and crusshed with taking in and letting out. That it cleanseth and cleareth, there be two causes to prove: the one is, bycause it maketh the flesh more fine and thinne, and smoother to the hand, not onely thorough stretching and straining the skinne, but by removing excrementes, which naturally thicken and make rugged. The other is, for that by moving the vocall instrumentes the inward moysture consumeth and wasteth, as it doeth appeare by that thicke and grosse vapour, which proceedeth out of his mouth that speaketh alowd, and other congealed excrementes resting of olde in other passages, which this exercise expelled from the inward partes. That it both fines and strengthens the naturall heat, hereby it is more then plaine. For that the inward vesselles and pipes be scoured thereby, and sundry superfluities expelled both at the nose, and mouth, which as they darkened, weakned, and thickned the naturall heat, when they were within the bodie: so being dismissed themselves, they leave it pure, fine, and strong, whereby the partes being sound and cleare more strength groweth on to healthward, and lesse to disease. Herupon it falleth out, that this exercise of the voice, must needes be a singular helpe for them, which have their inwarde partes troubled with moysture, and be of cold constitution, as also for such, as be troubled with weaknesse, or pewkishnesse of stomacke, with vomiting, or bytter rifting, with hardnesse of digestion, with lothing of their meat, with feeding that feedes not, with faintnesse, with naughty constitution, that corrupteth the blood, with dropsies, with painfull fetching their breath, or but then easely, when they sit upright, with consumptions, with any long disease, in the breast or midrife, [57] with apostemes which are broken within the bulke, with quartane agues, with fleame, and also for all those, which be on the mending hand, after sicknesse: for those that are troubled with the scurfe, or Egyptian lepre, called Elephantiasis, or whose bellies be so weake, as they cannot avoide, but watry and thin excrementes, for the hikup, for the voice, and her instrumentes, whether naturally resolved, or casually empaired.

Now as this exercise advisedly, and orderly used, is verie good for those effectes in these partes, so rashly and rudely ventured upon, it is not without daunger of doing harme, and cheifly to those which never used it before: it filleth the head and makes it heavie, it dulleth the instrumentes of the senses, which are in the head. It hurtes the voice, and breakes the smaller veines, and is verie unwholesome for such, as are subject to the falling sicknesse, bycause it shaketh the troubled partes too sore: it is daungerous when one is troubled with ill, and corrupt humours, or when the stomacke is cumbred, with great and evident crudities, and rawnes, bycause thorough much chafing of the breath, and the breath instrumentes, it disperseth, and scattereth corrupt humours, thorough out the whole bodie. And as the gentle exercising of the voice, with oft enterlacing of grave soundes, is wholesome, so to much shrilnesse straynes the head, causeth the temples pante, the braines to beate, the eyes to swell, the eares to tingle. Further it is verie unwholesom after meat, bycause the breath being chafed partly by reason of late eating, partly by lowdnesse of the voice as it passeth thorough, gawlleth the throte, and so corrupteth the voice. It is also enemie to repletion, to wearinesse, to sensualitie: for that in those people, which are subject to those infirmities, the great and forcible straining of the voice, doth oftimes cause ruptures and convulsions, so that the commodities, and incommodities of the exercise do warne the training maister to use it wisely and with great discretion. The use of it for the motion is this, that I have said, but for the helpe of learning, it is to some other verie good and great purpose, to pronounce without booke, with that kinde of action which the verie propertie of the subject requireth, orations and other declamatory argumentes, either made by the pronouncer him selfe, or [58] borowed of some other, but cheifly the hoatest Philippik, Catilinarie, and Verrine argumentes, and the rest of that race, either out of many Greeke oratours, or our one and onely Latin Tullie, and whether ye list to prose alone, or to be bold with Poetes, and use their meeter. Coelius Aurelianus an auncient Romane Physician, though borne at Sicca in Aphricke speaking of this exercise useth these wordes. They did utter their beginninges or prohemes with a gentle and a moderate voice, their narrations, and reasoning discourses with more straining, and louder: their perorations, and closinges, with a discent, and fall of the voice. And is not that to my saying?

The manner of this exercise, which Antyllus a verie olde Physician doth shew in Oribasius, that wrate his bookes unto Julian the apostate, whose Physician he was, agreeth also with mine opinion. For having appointed certaine preparatives for nimbling, and spreding the vocall powers, he sayth, that such, as exercised the voice, did first begin lowe, and moderatly, then went on to further strayning, of their speeche: sometimes drawing it out, with as stayed, and grave soundes, as was possible, sometimes bringing it backe, to the sharpest and shrillest, that they could, afterward not tarying long in that shrill sound, they retired backe againe, slacking the straine of their voice, till they fell into that low, and moderate tenour, wherwith they first began. Which wordes do not onely shew, that it was thus used, but also how the voice is to be used, in this exercise generally. But upon what matter, and argument was all this paines bestowed? Those which were unlearned said such things as they could remember, which were to be spoken aloud, and admitted any change of voice in the uttering, now harshe and hard, now smoothe and sweete. Those that were bookish recited either Iambike verses or Elegies, or such other numbers, which with their currant carie the memorie on, but all without booke, as farre surmounting any kinde of reading. I have dwelt the longer in this exercise, bycause it is both the first in rancke, and the best meane to make good pronouncing of any thing, in any auditorie, and therfore an exercise not impertinent to scholers. [59]

Chapter 11.

Of loude singing, and in what degree it commeth to be one of the exercises.

It were to much to wishe, that Musick were the most healthy exercise, as it is the most pleasaunt profession, bycause either to much delite would drowne men in it alone, or to much cloying would cause it be quite contemned. Wherfore as it may not diminish other of their due, by occupying to much roome, so by change after other, and distance in it selfe, it continueth in her owne credit. For both varietie refresheth, and distance reneweth, where still the same dulles, and continuance wearies. As Musick is compounde of number, melodie, and harmonie, it hath nothing to do with gymnastick and exercise, but serveth in that sense either for delite and pleasure, and exerciseth desire: or in some respectes concerneth the manering and training up of youth in matter of knowledge, as I said before. Wherunto I was induced not onely by argument, and nature of the thing, but by great authorities of Plato, and Philo, of Aristotle and Galene, and whom not? out of all antiquitie, which both allow of the thing in nature, and admit it in pollicie, into the best common weales, as a great worker of much good. But for as much as singing useth the voice for her meane, and the voice instrumentes for her utteraunce, and medleth with all sortes, and degrees in sounde base, meane, and triple, which in deliverie do labour, and travell the pipes, it is received among exercises of health, though it be not so forcible, nor can pearce so farre, as loude speaking doth, which doth not much care for any fine concent, so it utter strongly, and straine within compasse: wheras Musick to the contrary standes not much upon straining or fullnesse of the voice, so it be delicate and fine in concent. And yet in Aristotles opinion, it both exerciseth, and preserveth the naturall strength bycause it standeth upon an ordinate, and degreed motion of the voice. We finde in our owne experience, that it sturreth the voice, spreadeth the instrumentes therof, and craveth a cleare passage, as it also lightneth the laborer, and encreaseth his courage, in carying of burdens. It was used in the olde time Physicklike, to stay [60] mourning and greife, for the losse of deare freindes, or desired thinges. In curing diseases, which rise upon some distemperature of the minde, the temperature of time judicially applyed, hath bene found both a straunge and a strong remedie. Alwaye provided, that whether ye say loud, or sing loud, ye neither say to long, nor sing to much, for feare of a worse turne, if any entraill teare, with to much straining, as some times hath proved to true, for the afflicted partie. But to make an ende of Musick at this time, though it be neither so strong, nor so stirring an exercise, yet it hath made a great purchace, that it is allowed for one, and therby esteemed a double principle, of more value, where her force is more, in matters of the minde, of very good worth, though of much lesse worke in the health of the bodie. Which seeing it is an exercise within dore, it gaineth with the place a good footing to grow fairer: for whether ye allow it for a cunning exercise, or an exercised cunning, it exerciseth cunning, and encreaseth by exercise.

Chapter 12.

Of loude and soft reading.

Reading is a thing so familiarly knowne, as there needeth no great proofe, that it exerciseth the voice, and therwith all the health, wherof the Physicians admit two kindes, into the raunge of exercises, which be furtherers to health. The one quicke, cleare, and straining, the other quiet, caulme, and staing. The cleare and straining kinde of reading, bycause it stirreth the breath, not sleightly nor superficially, but sheweth what it can do, in the verie fountaine and depth of all the entrailles, it encreaseth the naturall heat, maketh the blood suttle and fine, purgeth all the veines, openeth all the arteries, suffereth not superfluous humours to thicken, neither to congeale and freese to a dreggie residence within any of those places, which do either receive and lodge, or distribute and dispose, the meat and nurriture. Wherupon Cornelius Celsus an eloquent Romain Physician accounteth it one of the finest and fairest exercises. To prove that it is holesome for the head, what more credible witnesses neede we, then Coelius Aurelianus, a diligent [61] Physician, and Annaeus Seneca a deepe Philosopher? Coelius holdeth this kinde of reading to be verie soveraine not onely in headaches, but also in frensies and troubled mindes. Seneca used it to stay the rewme, and distillation from the head, which troubled him sore, as a man being both of eager conceit, and earnest studie. Where by the waye, Coelius giveth this note, whether ye meane to reskew the pacient, from the headache, or the frantike from madnesse, by this exercise of reading, that the matter which is read, be pleasaunt and plaine, and nothing hard to understand, to cause the witte to muse. For that such objectes do no lesse trouble the weake braine, then sore shaking or hard jogging doth the wearied body. Moreover cleare reading and loude, doth refreshe not onely the inward partes of the breast, but the stomack also: and comforteth it in feeblenesse, bycause therby phlegmatike excrementes, are without paine both thinned and consumed: wherupon it is held to be verie holesome, to mend a feeble voice, to helpe the colicke, occasioned by cold humours, and to check some consumptions. And to that ende the younger Plinie writeth, that his uncle did use it. When I have said it is also good for the drie cowghe, I neede not say any more good of it here. Avicen the Arabian and princely Physician speaking herof, sayth that in the beginning, this reading must be soft and caulme, then mount by degrees, and when the voice seemeth to be in his strength, growing, and long, that then it is hie time, to staie for that time, nor to straine till ye sticke, but to leave with some list, and abilitie to do more. The quiet and staid kinde of reading, saving that the working is weaker, doth the best that it can, about all this that is said: and in one pointe it hath obtained a prerogative above the loude, that it is admitted and allowed streight after meat, when the other is licensed and allowed to depart. The maister may so use these two exercises of reading and speaking as besides the health of the bodie, wherunto they are deputed, they may prove excellent and great deliverers of cunning, and well beseeme the schoole: as to much in either doth trouble the scholer to much, which yet boyes would defend, by the countenaunce of a commended exercise, were it not, that in boyes exercises, I do require the maisters presence, who will [62] refourme that exercise against their will to his owne discretion. Thus much concerning this exercise, wherby the training maister may perceive, both what the learned have thought of it, and how much the learners are like to gaine by it.

Chapter 13.

Of much talking and silence.

Talking in Latin Sermo, as it is accounted an exercise for succouring some partes, so both for eagernesse, and heat, in the nature of speeche, though not of passion, it comes farre behinde others, and is therfore regestred among the meane, and weake exercises. It is thought verie fit for such, as be drousely given: which have their senses daunted, either thorough dreaming melancholie, or dulling phleame. For such kinde of people by talking be cleared, their mindes awaked, their senses freed from the burden of their bodies. That talking spendes phleame there is no plainer proofe, then that they which talke much spit stil, which as it commeth partly from the head, partly from the stomacke, partly from the chest: so it declareth, that those partes delite in speeche, and receive comfort from speeche, which makes roome for health, where reume kept residence. But as in these cases, it is counted healthfull: so hath it a force to fill the head, with somwhat more then dinne, and to make it dumpishe. And therefore in aches, and distemperatures of the head, clattering is commended to the cloakbag by Physick. It is also a poyson to the pained eyes: ill for them that voide bloode either at the nose or from the bulke. Wherupon in any such bleading silence is enjoyned. And as silence is a meane both to stay bleading, and to slake thirst, so talking dryes the toungue and provockes thirst, openeth the passage, and promoteth bleading. In so much as Pline writeth, that one Mecenas Messius, a noble Romain, betooke him selfe to voluntarie silence, the space of three yeares, to staie the casting of blood, which he fell into by reason of some straine. To be short, as silence remedyeth the cough and hikup: so talking pulleth downe, and paines the patient, when agues grow upward, and be in the encrease. Hereupon I conclude, [63] that talking hath great meane either to make or marre, not onely for the subject, wheron the toungue walketh, but also for the object, wherin health resteth.

Chapter 14.

Of laughing, and weeping. And whether children be to be forced toward vertue and learning.

If laughing had no more wherfore to be enrouled in the catalogue of exercises, then weeping hath, they might both be crossed out. And yet as they be passions, that tende in some pointes, to the purging of some partes, so some may thinke it, a verie strange conceit, to laugh for exercise, or to weepe for wantonnesse. For as laugh one may, with an hartie good will, so weepe none can, but against their wil, to whom it is allotted in the nature of an exercise, and not quite questuarie, as to those wailing women, which wepte for the deade, whom they knew not alive. There be manie and very easie, and much desired meanes, to make one laugh though they have small cause, and lesse devotion to be mery at all, but to make one weepe, is stil againe the haire. For ill newes or matter to weepe for, neither children, nor olde folkes, will thanke you at all. If you meane to make them weepe for joye, or crye for kindenesse, that is an other matter. If the maister should beate his boye, and bring no cause why, but that he sought to have him weepe, so to exercise him to health, and to ridde him of some humours, which made him to moist, the boye would beshrew him, and thinke his maister beate him so, to exercise himselfe, though at the verie conceit of his maisters mad reason, he might brust out in laughing streight after his stripes, and so become a patrone to the contrary exercise: a great deale more gracious and more desired in nature, whose enemie greife is, and weeping also: as a plaine argument of an unpleasaunt guest. Howbeit seing they be both set downe, by the name of pettie, and pretie exercises, let them have that is given them, seeing they are thought to stirre, and cleare some partes: laughing more and better: weeping lesse and worse. And therfore the more children laugh for exercise, the more lightsome they be, the more [64] they weepe if it be not in jeast, so much the worse in very good earnest. For I can hardly beleve that much laughter can avoide a foole, if it be not for exercise, which is also somwhat rare: or that but a foole can weepe for exercise, which deserves the bat, to make him weepe in earnest.

But for laughing in the nature of an exercise and that healthful, can there be any better argument, to prove that it warmeth, then the rednesse of the face, and flush of highe colour, when one laugheth from the hart, and smiles not from the teethe? or that it stirreth the hart, and the adjacent partes, then the tickling and panting of those partes themselves? which both beare witnesse, that there is some quicke heat, that so moveth the blood. Therfore it must needs be good for them to use laughing, which have cold heades, and cold chestes, which are troubled with melancholie, which are light headed by reason of some cold distemperature of the braine, which thorough sadnesse, and sorrow, are subjecte to agues, which have new dined, or supped: which are troubled with the head ache: for that a cold distemperature being the occasion of the infirmitie, laughing must needes helpe them, which moveth much aire in the breast, and sendeth the warmer spirites outward. This kinde of helpe wil be of much more efficacie, if the parties which desire it, can suffer themselves to be tickled under the armepittes, for in those partes there is great store of small veines, and litle arteries, which being tickled so, become warme themselves, and from thence disperse heat thorough out the whole bodie. But as moderate laughing is holesome, and maketh no too great chaunge, so to much is daungerous, and altereth to sore. For besides the immoderate powring, and pressing out of the spirites: besides to much moving and heating, it oftimes causeth extreame resolution and faintnesse, bycause the vitall strength and naturall heat drive to much outward. Wherupon they that laugh, do sweat so sore, and have so great a colour, by the ascending of the blood. And as the naturall heat, and fire it selfe do still covet upward, as to their naturall place, so must it needes be, that the lower roomes lie open, and emptie in their absence, wherby whether soever motion be marred, the naturall heat dyeth, and the vitall force faileth. Besides this, no [65] man will denie, but that this kinde of laughing, doth both much offende the head, and the bulke, as oftimes therewith both the papbones be loosed, and the backe it selfe perished. Nay what say ye to them that have dyed laughing? where gladnesse of the minde to much enforcing the bodie, hath bereft it of life.

For weeping in the nature of an exercise, there is not much to be said, but that is accompanied with crying, sobbing, groning and teares, wherby the head, and other partes are rid of some needlesse humour: though the disquieting do much more harme, then the purging can do good, and the humour were a great deale better avoided some other waye. Wherof some children seeme to be exceeding full, when feare of beating makes them straine their pipes. Aristotle must beare both most blame for this exercise, if it displease any, and most praise, if it profit any, who in the last chapter of the seventh booke of his politikes writeth thus of it, and for it. That they do not well which take order, that children straine not themselves, with crying and weeping, bycause that is a meane to their growing, in the nature of an exercise. And that as holding the breath doth make one stronger to labour: so crying and weeping in children, do worke the same or the like effectes. And yet me thinke it should be no exercise, by the verie definition. For if it were vehement, yet is it not voluntarie, and though it did alter the breath, yet it bettereth not the bodie, howsoever it serve the soule.

But seeing the gymnastikes have it, let us lend it them for their pleasure, though we like it not for our owne. It is generally banished by all Physicians as being the mother to manie infirmities, both in the eyes and other partes: neither if it could be avoided in schooles were it worthy the looking on: being the heavy signe of torture and trouble. And though it somtime ease the greived minde to shedde a few teares, as some for extreme anguish cannot let fall one, yet children would be lesse greived if they might shedde none, as some hold it a signe of a verie shrewd boye, when he deserves stripes, not to shew one trikle. Some Physicians thinke by waye of a conserve to the minde, that it ought to be used in schooles sometimes, though not voluntarie, yet in forme of an exercise to warme shrewd [66] boyes, and to expell the contagious humours of negligence, and wantonnesse, the two springes of many streaming evilles: as playing would be daily, at some certaine houres, then to use these exercises, when bookes be out of season.

The greatest patron of weeping that I finde, leaving Heraclitus to his contemplation of miseries, is a soure centurion in Xenophon, which sat at the table with Cyrus in his pavilion. He commmendeth weeping, wherto he had no great devotion, to discountenaunce laughing which he saw allowed, and his reason is: bycause awe, feare, correction, punishements, which commonly have weeping, either companion, or consequent, be used in pollicy, to kepe good orders in state, and good manners in stay, wheras laughing is never, but upon some foolish ground. And yet both laughing for exercise may be for a good objecte, and occasion to make laughter, may well deserve praise, when the minde being wearied either about great affaires that are alreadie past, or about preventing of some anguish which is to ensue, doth call laughing to helpe, to ease the one, and to avert the other. And this kinde of weeping, which the soldiar settes out so, concerneth no exercise, though it commonly follow all unpleasaunt exercises, where the partie had rather be idle with pleasure, then so occupyed to his paine: but it tendeth to the impression, or continuing of vertue in the minde: which should be so much the worse, bycause that waye it seemeth unwilling, where feare is the forcer, and not free will. Which free will is the principall standard to know vertue by, which is voluntary, and not violent: as it is not the best meane, to bring boyes neither to learning, nor to vertue.

Socrates in Plato thinketh, that an absolute witte in the best sorted kinde, and above all common sorte, for civill societie, ought not to be forced, as in deede what needes he, being such a paragon? and that free will in such a one so sifted is the right receit of voluntarie traine. But we neither have such common weales, as Socrates sets forth, nor such people to plant in them, as Socrates had, which he made with a wishe: nor any but subjecte to great infirmities, though some more, some lesse, by corruption in nature, which runneth headlong to unhappinesse, and needeth no beating for not being nought. [67] And therfore we must content our selves with that which we have, and in our countrey which is not so absolute, in our children which be no Socraticall saintes, in our learning which will not prove voluntarie, if the child playe voluntarie we must use correction and awe, though more in some, then some, bycause in illnesse there be steps, as in excellencie oddes. Wherof there is no better argument then that which this verie place offereth, not for the soldiars saying, which so commendeth awe, bycause his authoritie is to campishe, though he that brought him in, and platted the best prince were himselfe no foole: but for mine owne collection. For if one neede not to beat children to have them do ill, wherunto they are prone, we must needes then beat them for not doing wel, where nature is corrupt. Onelesse we meete with one, that will runne as swift uphill against nature, to do that which is good, as we all runne downe bancke, with the swinge of nature, to do that which is ill. Which when I finde, I will honour him, as I do none, though I do oft beare with some, in whome there appeareth but some shew of such a one. If under doing well, ye comprehend not learning, ye must needes comprise vertue, and make her meane violence, against all both heavenly Divinitie, and earthly Philosophie, with whom all vertues be voluntarie, when reason is in ruffe: but not in children even for compassing of the best effectes, whom custome and traine must now and then force foreward, to be ready for reason, when she maketh her entrie, which requireth some yeares. For howsoever religion, wisedome, duetie, and reasonable consideration do worke in riper age, sure if awe be absent, in the younger years, it will not be well. And who can tell, what even he that under lawe is most obsequious and civill, would of him selfe prove, if lawe, which emportes awe, would leave him at libertie?

Chapter 15.

Of holding the breath.

Though all men can tell, what a singular benefit breathing is, wherunder the use of our life is comprehended: yet they can best tell, which have it most at commaundement. For as [68] they live with others, in societie of common dealinges, so they can execute any thing by the bodie, farre better then others, whether it be politike in the towne, or warlike in the fielde. And all exercises have this ende, most peculiar and proper, by helping the naturall heat, to digest the good nurriture, and to avoide the offall, thorough out the whole bodie. Which what is it els, but to set the breathing at most libertie, being best discharged of impediment and let? And as the libertie of breathing maketh the soldiar to abide in fight long, the runner to continue his race long, the daunser to endure his labour long, and so forth in the rest, which must either have breath at their will, or els shrinke in the midest: so the restraint and binding of the breath, even where it is most at will, (for else it could not abide the restraint,) hath his commoditie, by waye of exercise to assist our health.

Now in breathing there be three thinges to be considered, the taking in, the letting out, and the holding in of the breath, wherof everie one hath his private office to great effect, in the upholding of health, and maintaining of life. For when we take in our breath, by the working of the lungues thorough such passages, as be appointed for the use of breathing, we conveigh and fetch in aire into the roomy and large places of the bulke, to coole the harte and fine the spirites. When we let out our breath by those same passages, by which we tooke it in, we discharge the hart of a certaine smoky substance engendred in it, which is conveyed thence, thorough the same hollow, and roomie places of the bulke. When we hold and kepe in our breath which is of judgement, and not of such neede as the other two, and done upon cause to helpe nature therby: we must neither fetch aire inward, nor sende those smokie excrementes outwarde, bycause the belly and breast muscles and such fleshy partes as be about the ribbes being violently and vehemently strained and stretched, do for the time as it were mure up, and stop the passage. This keeping in of the breath, by reason of the straine offered to those partes, and heating of the bowells, is therfore heeld for one of the vehement exercises, as it is also a postparative, called before apotherapeutike, bycause after maine stirringes it helpeth to expell those [69] residences, which lynger within the bodie as being lothe to depart: and furthereth those, that are in good waye, and make hast to be gone. They that used this exercise by waye of traine to health, did it in two sortes: for either they strayted onely those muskles, which appertaine to the breast and bulke, and let those be at libertie which belong to the midrife and belly, that the excrementes might have the readier waye downward, being once forced on: or they strayned both all the partes, and all their muscles at one time, that the bowelles also which are beneth the midrife might enjoye the benefit of the exercise, and be as ready to discharge, as the other to drive downe. But for the better and more daungerlesse performing therof, they were wont to swadle the chest, the ribbes, and the belly. Bycause the holding of ones breath unadvisedly and with to much strayning causeth ruptures and divers other infirmities in the interiour vesselles of the bodie. Their meaning was hereby, sometime to strengthen the inward and naturall heat being encreased by exercise: sometime to helpe the breathing partes: sometime to discharge the breast and bellie of needlesse burden. For the breath being so violently strayted, when it findeth issue forceth his owne passage, and caryeth with him some finish and thinne excrement, either driving it before, if it lye in his waye, or drawing it with him, if he catch it by the waye. Being of it selfe such a strainer, and expeller, it is good for to open the pipes, to fine the skinne, to drive out moysture from under the skinne: to warme, to strengthen and to scoure the spirituall and breathing partes, to make the places of receit more roomy, to encrease strength in labour, to helpe the eare in listening, to remove coldnes or inflations from the entrailles, to stay the hikup and the cowgh: which commeth of some cold distemperature in the windepipes, to remedie the colick, the weaknesse of stomacke, the want or difficultie of breath. So that all those ought to esteeme of it, which have their breathing and spirituall partes either cold or weake, or cloyed with excrementes, or whose bodies can either with much adoe or with none at all expell and ridde superfluous humours, or that be cumbred with much gaping and yawning, with resolution or weaknesse of the toungue, or any vocalle instrument. If it were [70] to be perceived by no waye els, verie children let us see, that holding of the breath doth stirre and strengthen that power in us, wherwith we expell superfluities. For let them staye their breath either laughing long, or weeping fiercely, or upon some such other occasion, and they will either presently or verie shortly after, disburden themselves one waie or other, by ordure, urine, or some other matter at the nose and eares. Now as this exercise is healthfull to manie in good order: so contrariewise to some in disorder it is verie daungerous, bycause oftimes while the breath is to forcibly stopt, the arteries in the jawes, and baulles of the eyes swell so, as they will never come in temper againe. It filleth the head also with a grosse and stuffing humour, as maie easely be seene by the swelling of the vaines and arteries in the neck, by the puffing about the eyes, by the rednesse of the face, and by the strutting of the whole head, all which be manifest signes of repletion. It is daungerous for those which be subject to the falling sicknesse, bycause it encreaseth the disease by that recourse, which the blood hath up into the head: as also to them which spit or cast up blood, for that both the sound and whole inward vesselles do burst with stretching, if they be but weake: or being broken once before, and healed againe, they will then breake out againe, by reason of heat which is encreased in the hollow of the breast, and the overstraining of the said vesselles withall. Moreover such as from their birth have small entraulles and thinne, or the rim of their bellie tender and weake: or that be troubled with renting and ruptures must in no case minde this exercise, bycause it straineth those partes to sore, and lightly teareth them, as it proveth oftimes to pitifull true in young children, which by holding their breath to long, either weeping or otherwise, oftimes breake either the rim of their belly, or the call of their cods, wherby the bowelles and guttes falling downward, they become miserably tormented with incurable ruptures and burstinges: If trumpetters, and those that play upon winde instruments were asked the question, whether they feele not the effect herof somtime, they would shake the head, and so sooth the demaunde, though they said no more. They do write of Milo the Crotoniate, a great champion in those athleticall [71] exercises, that he used to binde his forehead, his breast, and his ribbes with verie strong tapes, and would never let his breath goe, till the vaines were swelled so full, as they burst the tapes. But this fellow had no fellow in any of those pastimes. It was he that bare the bull upon his shoulder in the Olympian assemblie by using to cary him of a litle young calfe. So great thinges be easely compassed, if they be set in hand with, when they be but litle, or medled with, by litle and litle. The best waye to avoide perill in this exercise is to beginne gently, and so to grow on by degrees, and to leave be times before extremitie bidde hoe, and while ye be yet able to do more, neither to force nature to the furthest.

Chapter 16.

Of daunsing, why it is blamed, and how delivered from blame.

Daunsing of it selfe declareth mine allowance, in that I name it among the good and healthfull exercises: which I must needes cleare from some offensive notes, wherwith it is charged by some sterne people: least if I do not so, it both continue it selfe in blame still, and draw me thither also with it, for allowing of a thing, that is disliked, and by me not delivered from just cause of misliking, which by my choice do seeme to defend it. And yet I meane not here to rippe up, what reading hath taught me of it, though it seeme to have served for great uses in olde time, both athleticall for spectacle and shew: militare for armour and enemie: and Physicall for health and welfare: so many and so notable writers, make so much and so oftimes mention therof in all these three kindes. Some dedicate whole volumes to this argument onely, some enterlace their bravest discourses with the particularities therof, and those no meane ones. And in deede a man, that never red much, and doth but marke the thing cursorily, would scant beleve, that it were either of such antiquitie, or of such account, or so generally entreated of by learned men, all those their writinges stil sounding to the praise and advancement therof: howsoever in our dayes either we embase it in opinion: or it selfe hath given cause of just embasement, by some peoples misuse. Many [72] sortes of it I do reade of, but most discontinued, or rather quite decayed, that onely is reserved, which beareth oftimes blame, machance being corrupted by the kinde of Musick, as the olde complaint was: machance bycause it is used but for pleasure and delite onely, and beareth no pretense or stile of exercise, directly tending to health, which is our peoples moane now in our dayes. For where honest and profitable reasons be not in the first front, to commend a thing, but onely pleasaunt and deliteful causes, which content not precise surveiours, there groweth misliking, the partie that exerciseth, not pretending the best, which is in the thing, and the partie that accuseth, marking nothing else but that, which maye move offence.

The sad and sober commodities, which be reaped by daunsing in respect of the motion applyed to health be these, by heating and warming, it driveth awaie stifnes from the joyntes, and some palsilike trembling from the legges and thighes, whom it stirreth most, it is a present remedie to succour the stomacke against weaknesse of digestion, and rawnesse of humours: it so strengtheneth and confirmeth aching hippes, thinne shankes, feeble feete, as nothing more: in delivering the kidneys or bladder from the stone, it is beyond comparison good: but now such as have weake braines, swimming heades, weeping eyes, simple and sory sight, must take heede of it, and have an eye to their health, for feare they be disie when they daunce, and trip in their turning, or rather shrinke downe right when they should cinquopasse. Such as have weake kidneys and overheated, may displease them selves, if it please them to daunce, and encrease their diseases, by encreasing their heat.

The daunsing in armour, called by the Greekes {Greek}, as it is of more motion in exercise, so it worketh more nimblenesse in executing, when ye deale in the field with your enemies. These be the frutes which are reaped by daunsing well and orderly used, for the benefit of health, and the contrary displeasures, which are caught by it, thorough inconsiderate applying of it, by the partie which is not made for it. The blames which it beareth be these. That it revelleth out of time, wherewith Physick is offended: That it serveth delite to much, whereat [73] good manners repine. For these two faultes there is but one generall aunswere: that daunsing is healthfull, though the daunsers use it not healthfully, as other things of greater countenaunce be verie good, though the professours do not so, as their professions do enjoine them. For the first in particular, the rule of health condemnes not daunsing, but the mistyming of it: that it is used after meat, when rest is most holesome: with full stomacke, when digestion should have all the helpe of naturall heat: that to please the beholders, such as use daunsing do displease them selves. And sure if daunsing be an exercise, as both all antiquitie doth commend it for, and I my selfe do allow of it by that name: it would by rule of Physick go before meat, and not be used but long after, as a preparative against a new meale: and a disburdener of superfluities, against a surcharge of new diet: Howbeit there be in it some more violent measures then some: and in beginning with the most staydest and most almanlike, and so marching on, till the springing galliard and quicker measures take place, choice in everie one, upon knowledge of his owne bodie, and his emptinesse or saturitie maye helpe health, though the custome of eche countrey commaunde not onely health, though to her harme, but even the verie science which professeth the preservation of health, if desire egge delite, to shew it selfe in place. Whereupon the second blame of daunsing, doth especially builde, and take her hold.

To keepe thinges in order, there is in the soule of man but one, though a verie honorable meane, which is the direction of reason: to bring things out of order there be two, the one strongheaded, which is the commaundement of courage, the other many headed, which is the enticement of desires. Now daunsing hath properties to serve eche of these, exercise for health, which reason ratifieth, armour for agilitie, which courage commendeth, liking for allowance, which desire doth delite in. But bycause it yeildeth most to delite, and in most varietie of pleasures, desire ministreth most matter to blame, daunsing by pleasing desire to much, hath pleased reason to litle, and when reason objecteth inconveniences, it turneth the deafe side, and followeth her owne swinge. For when the tailour hath braved, [74] where nature hath beawtified: when amiablenesse of person hath procured agilitie by cunning, what gallant youthes in whom there is any courage, can abide not to come to shew, having such qualities so worthy the beholding? here will courage shew her selfe, though repentance be her port, here will desire throng in prease, though it praise not in parting. All this doth confesse that daunsing is become servant to desire, though not daunsing alone: and yet companions in blame be no dischargers of fault. What then? for the generall, seing thinges which man useth, cannot be quite free from misuse, it is halfe a vertue to winne so much, as there be as litle misuse, as may be: and to charge the partie that deserves blame, with hinderance of health, with corruption of manners, with ill losse of good time: which if he care not for, the precept may passe, though he passe not for it. But howsoever daunsing be or be thought to be, seing it is held for an exercise, we must thinke there is some great good in it, though we protecte not the ill, if any come by it. Which good we must seeke to get, and praie those maisters, which fashion it with order in time, with reason in gesture, with proportion in number, with harmonie in Musick, to appoint it so, as it may be thought both seemely and sober, and so best beseeme such persons, as professe sobrietie: and that with all, it may be so full of nimblenesse and activitie, as it may prove an exercise of health, being used in wholesome times, and not seeking to supplant rest, as the rule of health at this daie complaineth. And generally of all ages, me thinke it beseemeth children best, to enable, and nimble their jointes therby, and to stay their overmuch deliting therin in further yeares. The very definition of it declareth, what it was then, when it was right, and what it is now, when it seemes to be wronge, if right in such thinges be not creature to use, and maye change with time, without challenge for the change. They define daunsing to be a certaine cunning to resemble the manners, affections, and doinges of men and women, by motions and gestures of the bodie, artificially devised in number and proportion. This was to them a kinde of deliverie, to utter their mindes, by signes and resemblances, of that which came nearest to the thing, and was most intelligible to the lookers on. But [75] now with us, there is nothing left to the daunser ordinarily, but the bare motion, without that kinde of hand cunning (for so I terme their {Greek}) bycause the skill seemed then to rest most in the use of the upper partes, and gesturing by the hand. The credit of our daunsing now is to represent the Musick right, and to cause the bodye in his kinde of action to resemble and counterfet that lively, which the instrument in his kinde of composition delivereth delicately: and with such a grace to use the legges and feete, as the olde daunsers used their armes and handes. And as in the olde time both men, wymen and children did use daunsing to helpe and preserve their health, to purchace good haviour and bearing of their bodies: so in these our dayes, being used in time, by order, and with measure, it will worke the same effectes of health, haviour and strength, and may well avoide the opinion of either lewdnesse, or lightnesse. Thus much for daunsing, as the motion is for health, and the meaning for good.

Chapter 17.

Of wrastling.

For wrastling as it is olde and was accounted cunning sometimes, so now both by Physicians in arte, and by our countreymen in use, it seemeth not to be much set by, being contemned by the most, and cared for but by the meanest. Yet the auncient Palestra a terme knowen to the learned, and joined with letters, and Musick, to prove the good bringing up of youth as a most certaine argument of abilitie well qualified, fetcht that name of the Greeke {Greek}, which we in English terme wrastling, and was alwaye of good note, as wrastling it selfe in games gat victories, in warre tried forces, in health helpt haviour, in the bodye wrought strength, and made it better breathed. Clemens Alexandrinus which lived at Rome in Galenes time in the third booke of his Paedagogue, or training maister, in the title of exercise, rejecting most kindes of wrastling yet reserveth one, as verie well beseeming a civill trained man, whom both seemelinesse for grace, and profitablenesse for good health, do seeme to recommende. Then an exercise it is, [76] and healthfully it may be used: if discretion overlooke it, our countrey will allow it. Let us therefore use it so, as Clement of Alexandria commendes it for, and make choice in our market. Wherfore not to deale with the catching pancraticall kinde of wrastling, which used all kindes of hould, to cast and overcome his adversarie, nor any other of that sort, which continuance hath rejected, and custome refused, I have picked out two, which be both civill for use, and in the using upright without any great stouping, the one more vehement, the other more remisse. The vehement upright wrastling chafeth the outward partes of the bodie most, it warmeth, strengthneth, and encreaseth the fleshe, though it thinne and drie withall. It taketh awaie fatnesse, puffes, and swellinges: it makes the breath firme and strong, the bodie sound and brawnie, it tightes the sinews, and backes all the naturall operations. If they that wrastle do breath betwene whiles, it provoketh sweat, bycause the humours, which were gathered together by rest, are egde out by exercise. If they go on still without intermission, it dryeth up the bodie in such sort as the sonne doth. It is good for the head ache, it sharpneth the senses, it is enemie to melancholie, it whetteth the stomacke being troubled with any cold distemperature. And bycause the attemptes to get vantage in wrastling be very eager and earnest wherwith the whole bodie is warmed and set in a heat, it must of force be good for the bellie, being anoyed and cumbred with any kinde of cold. Now contrarie it is daungerous to be delt with in agues, as to vehement and conspiring with the quiverer, in naturall moysture as to filling, where it spreadeth. For the necke and jawes perillous whom it harmes by rowgh handling, and strangleth by much overstraining. For the breast and bulke not of the best, as either bursting some conduit, or stopping some windcourse. Weake kidneis, and wearie loynes maye be but lookers vpon wrastlers. They that be gawled or byled within, may neither runne nor wrastle, for eagering the inward, being in way to amendement, or in will to prove worse. If weake legges become wrastlers, of their owne perill be it, for they do it without warrant. The remisse kinde of upright wrastling, as it is a more gentle exercise, so it breadeth much flesh, and is therfore verie commodious [77] for such as be upon the recoverie after sicknesse, as a kinde of motion, which without any danger, bringeth strength and stowtnesse. It is freind to the head, bettereth the bulke, and strengtheneth the sinewes. Thus much for wrastling, wherin as in all other exercises, the training maister must be both cunning to judge of the thing: and himselfe present to prevent harme, when the exercise is in hand.

Chapter 18.

Of fensing, or the use of the weapon.

The use of the weapon is allowed for an exercise, and may stand us at this daie now living, and our posteritie in great stede, as wel as it did those which went before us. Who used it warlike for valiauntnesse in armes, and activitie in the field, gamelike to winne garlandes and prices, and to please the people in solemne meetinges: Physicklike to purchace therby a good haviour of body and continuance of health. Herof they made three kindes, one to fight against an adversarie in deede, an other against a stake or piller as a counterfet adversarie, the third against any thing in imagination, but nothing in sight, which they called {Greek}, a fight against a shadow. All these were practised either in armes, or unarmed. The armed fensing is to vehement for our trade, let them trie it, that entend to be warriers, which shall finde it their freinde, if they meane to follow the fielde, where, as in all other thinges use worketh maisterie. But we scholers minde peace, as our muses professe that they will not medle, nor have to do with Mars. All these sortes of fensing were used in the olde time, and none of them is now to be refused, seing the same effectes remaine, both for the health of our bodies, and the helpe of our countries. That kinde of fensing or rather that misuse of the weapon, which the Romane swordplayers used, to slash one an other yea even till they slew, the people and princes to looking on, and deliting in the butcherie, I must needes condemne, as an evident argument of most cruell immanitie, and beyond all barbarous, in cold blood, to be so bloodie. For their allegation, to harten their people against the enemie, and not to feare woundes: no [78] not death it selfe in the verie deadly fight, that caryeth small countenaunce, where the Athenian comes in, which in cokfights and quailefightes, did so harten their people: bycause those birdes will fight till they fall: without either embrewing their youth with blood, or acquainting their citisens eyes with such sanguinarie spectacles.

A thing complained on in the time when it was used, even by them which behelde it, as Plinie doth note: and by the Christianes which abhorred it, as Cypriane cryeth out of it in moe places then one. But for the credit and countenaunce of the exercise, that was then used, and is now to be continued, Plato, a man whose authoritie is sacred among Philosophers and studentes, in his dialogue surnamed Laches, where he handleth the argument of fortitude and valiantnesse, encourageth young men to learne the use of their weapon: as being an exercise which needeth not to make curtsie to go with the very best and bravest in his parish: either for travelling or strengthening the bodie, besides the cunning of it selfe. The profites which health receives by all these three kindes be these. He that exerciseth him selfe either against an adversarie, or against a post or pillar as deputie to his adversarie heateth himselfe thoroughly, maketh way for execrementes, provoketh sweat, abateth the abundance of flesh, strengtheneth his armes and shoulders, exerciseth his legges and feet marveilously. He that fighteth against a stake stirreth the bodie, plucketh the flesh downe, and straynes the juyce awaye, a peculiar freind to the armes and handes: It refresheth the wearied sense, it setleth the roming humours, it redresseth the fainting and trembling of the sinewes, it delivereth the breast from his ordinarie diseases: it is good for the kidneyes: and the great gutte called {Greek}, it furthereth such cariage as must be conveighed downward. The same effects hath the fight against the shadow or the shadowish nothing, but that it is a litle more valiant to light upon somwhat then to fight against nothing. But of all these three, the exercise against an adversarie is both most healthfull, and most naturall to aunswere all assaies: and specially to canvase out a coward, that will neither defend his freinde, nor offend his foe: the cheife frute that should follow fensing. This is the [79] opinion of the best writers concerning fensing, or skill how to handle the weapon: no worse in it selfe, though it be sometimes not worthily used, as it is no lesse profitable, then hath bene said afore: though it shake and shiver weake heades, swimming braynes, and ill kidneys. The mo reasons any man can bring of him selfe for any of these exercises, the more he fortifieth my choice, which point them but out slightly.

Chapter 19.

Of the Top and scourge.

He that will deny the Top to be an exercise, indifferently capable of all distinctions in stirring, the verie boyes will beate him, and scourge him to, if they light on him about lent, when Tops be in time, as everie exercise hath his season, both in daie and yeare, after the constitution of bodies, and quantities in measure. Of this kinde of Top, that we use now a dayes, both for young and olde people, to warme them in cold weather, I finde nothing in writing, bycause having no yron ringes, nor pinnes, it can neither be the Greek {Greek}, nor {Greek}, though the running about be bold to borrow the last name trochus. For they whirled about, and along, with a marveilous great, though a pretie noyse, and were pastimes for men even in the midst of sommer, when our Tops be bestowed, and laid up against the spring. It resembleth the Latin Turbo most, and the Greeke {Greek}. The place of Virgil in the 7. of his Aeneis, where he compareth Amata the Queene in her furie to this Turbo which the boyes scourged about the wide haule: declareth both what Turbo is, and whose play it was, and that it best resembleth our Top. Of {Greek} there was an old Greek Epigram, which maketh it either the like or the same with our Top.


Which is to say, that children when they had their whirling gigges under the devotion of their scourges, caused them to troule about the broad streates. The harme this exercise may bring must be to the head and eyes, thorough stouping to much forward, or to the backe and shoulders by bending to much [80] downwardes, otherwise it warmeth the bodie, and worketh all the effectes, which those exercises do that either by moving the legges or armes most, and with all the whole bodie in degree, enlarge and stirre the naturall heat either to provoke appetite, or to expell superfluities. The more roome the Top hath to spinne in, the better for the legges and feete, the bigger it is, the better for the armes and handes. The uprighter one scourgeth, the better for all partes, whom neither bending doth crushe, nor moysture corrupt. It were to be wished, that it were whipt with both the handes, in play to traine both the armes, seing use makes the difference, and no infirmitie in nature. As both Plato wishing the same professeth it to be most true and our experience teacheth us, both in left handed people, which use but the left, and in double right handed which use both the handes a like, and beare the name of the right hand as the more common in use. But bycause the place of Plato concerning the left hande is verie pithie to this purpose though I use not to avouch much in the Greeke toungue, yet me thinke I maye not overpasse it. In the seventh booke of his lawes, allowing the indifferent use of our feete and legges, he complayneth of to much partialitie used towardes the armes and handes, in these wordes, {Greek}, etc. For the performance of any kinde of labour there is no difference, sayeth he, in the legges, and lower partes. But for our armes, thorough ignoraunt nurses and mothers, we be every one of us halfe lamed. For wheras naturally both the armes be almost of equall strength, thorough our owne default we make the difference. And so he passeth on still proving the unnaturall handling of the left hande, when it is left weaker then the right hande is.

These be the exercises which I terme within dores, bycause they may be practised at home under covert, when we cannot go abroad for the weather: though all maye be used abroad, if the roome and the weather do serve abroad. Wherein I take [81] it, that I have kept Galenes rule in chusing these exercises, and that they be all both pleasant, profitable and parable, the perfect circunstances of all good and generall exercises, not to be costly to compasse, nor unpleasant to loth them, nor unprofitable to leave them. Those that require more libertie of roome, to raunge at will, or to forrage in the field, be these, which I noted before, walking, running, leaping, swimming, riding, hunting, shooting, and playing at the ball.

Chapter 20.

Of walking.

Among those exercises which be used abroade, what one deserveth to be set before walking, in the order and place of traine? what one have they more neede to know, which minde, the preservation and continuaunce of health? what one is there, which is more practised of all men, and at all times, then walking is? I dare saye that there is none, whether young or olde, whether man or woman, but accounteth it not onely the most excellent exercise, but almost alone worthy to beare the name of an exercise. When the weather suffereth, how emptie are the townes and streates, how full be the fieldes and medowes, of all kindes of folke? which by flocking so abroad, protest themselves to be favourers of that they do, and delite in for their health. If ye consider but the use of our legges, how necessarie they be for the performaunce of all our doings, nature her selfe seemeth to have appointed walking, as the most naturall traine, that can be, to make them discharge their duetie well. And sure if there be any exercise, which generally can preserve health, which can remedie weaknesse, which can purchace good haviour, considering it is so generall, and neither excludeth person nor age, certainly that is walking. Hereupon Physicians when they entreat of this argument, use alwaye to give it, the place of preferment and birthright in this kinde. The auncient Princes, and common weales so highly esteemed of it, as in the places appointed for exercise, whether within their great buildinges, or without, they seemed to minde no one thing more: and still provided walking roomes, [82] to serve for all seasons and times of the yeare, some covert and close, some uncovert and open, some secret and hidden. The reason why they thus regarded walking, was great, for as it seemeth to be, so it is in verie deede wholly consecrate to the use of health.

Is it ever red that the athlets or gamesters used walking for an exercise: either in sportes, or in theaters, or in the solemnising of their sacred ceremonies, wherunto they served? did either Plato handling this argument, or any good writer else saye that walking was any waye to traine up soldiars withall? Onely Vegetius sayeth in his discourse of warfare, that it were good for soldiars to accustome themselves to walke quickly and proportionately, for their better breathing: and Augustus Cesar, and Adrian the Emperours, did ordeine by constitution, that soldiars both horsemen and footemen should monthly be led abroad to walke and that not only in the plaine fieldes, but in all kindes of soile, to be able by that acquaintaunce with groundes, to make difficultie at none. So that walking seemeth to be onely institute both by nature and custome for the use of health: and that in the traine of health, no one thing deserveth better place then it doth: bycause no other thing besides health layth claime unto it.

Herof there be two kindes, the one used after vehement exercises, the other, which beareth the name of the exercise it selfe. Concerning the former of the two, I have but thus much to saye: bycause the latter is my peculiar subject. That it commeth in place, when other exercises are dismissed, and finished, after purgations ministred by counsell of Physick, after great vomiting: that it is good to refresh the wearied minde: to alter and bring in order the spirites: to loose that which is strayted, to scoure the chest: to make one fetch his breath at ease: to strengthen the instrumentes of the senses, to confirme the stomacke, to cleare and fine the bodie: and not to suffer it after travaile to melt or decaie, but to purge and cleanse it: and that, which is of most account, to dissolve and bannish awaye all affections that procure any feeling of weariesomnes, or disturbaunce to the bodie.

The second kinde of walking hath three sortes under him. [83] Wherof the first beareth his name of the kinde of motion, how: The second of the place, where: The third of the time, when the walking is used. Which three also have particular braunches under eche of them, as hereafter shall appeare.

Walkinges which take their names of the motion how, be either swift or slow, vehement or gentle, much or litle, moderate, or sore, long and outright, or short and turning: now bearing upon the whole feete, now upon the toes, now upon the heeles.

Of all these diversities in walking the moderate is most profitable, which alone of all, that I rekened, hath no point either of to much, or of to litle, and yet it is both much, and strayning, which be the two properties of an healthfull walke. It is good for the head, the eyes, the throte, the chest, when they be out of frame: so the partie spit not blood. For distilling from the head, for difficultie of breath, for a moyste and pained stomacke, wherin the nurriture either groweth bitter or corrupteth: for the jaundise, costifnesse, fleeting of the meat in the stomacke, stopping of the urine, ache of the hippes, and generally for all such, as either neede to provoke any superfluitie from the upper partes downward, or to send that packing, which is already in waye to depart. Now to the contrarie it is naught for agues, bycause it encreaseth heat, and so consequently the disease: for the falling evill, for hauking up of blood: and in the time when one is making water.

Swift walking doth heat sore and abateth the flesh, wherupon to ease the colicke, and to take awaie grossenesse, it is accounted a verie good meane.

Slow walking hath the same effectes, that the apotherapeutike hath. And therfore it is good for sickly weake olde men, and those which delite in, or neede walking after meate, to setle it better in the bottome of their stomacke: or that be newly awaked from sleepe, or that prepare themselves to some greater exercise, or that feele any ache in any part, or that have drie bodies. When one hath the head ache it is good to walke first slowly, and after a while a litle faster, and stronger, strutting out the legges. Slow walking is also good against the falling sicknesse: bycause without any shaking to the head, it [84] fetcheth the humours downward, where it thinneth and disperseth them, and warmes the whole bodie, without endammaging it. Finally in quartane agues, when the fit is past, in leprosies, for tetters, ringewormes, cankars, and to procure easie fetching of ones breath, it is verie soveraine.

Vehement or to sore and to eager walking, is best for cold folkes, and therfore good to drive away trembling or quaking, it encreaseth puffing and blowing, and yet dissolveth, and disperseth winde. But it is ill for weake heades and feete, and such as are in daunger of the gout. For both the gout and the hippe ache do oftimes come of to much and to sore walking. As to the contrarie gentle walking upon soft straw, or grasse, or upon even ground is good for any gout or inward exulceration, before meat, but not after. For wearinesse is their principall enemie: which heateth and enflameth their jointes to sore: and thereby causeth them to draw stil more matter from the partes further of, to feede their continuall fluxe.

Much and oft walking is good for them that have a distempered bulk or head: that perceive small nurriture in their lower partes, that in their exercises neede more vehement stirring.

Litle walking is good for them, that use no bathing or washing after exercise, which must needes walke after meate, to send it downe, to the bottom of their stomacke, and for those which finde some heavinesse in their bodies.

Long and outright walking is nothing so troublesome as the short, that maketh many turnes. It is good for the head, and yet it sucketh up humours, and dryeth to fast.

Long and quicke walking is good to staye the hikup or yeaxing.

Short and soone turning wearyeth sooner: and troubleth the head sorer.

Circular or walking round about maketh one disie, and hurteth the eyes.

In walking to strout the legges, and beare upon the heeles, is verie good for an ill head, a moyst bulke, a strayned bellie, and for such of the lower partes, as prosper not, yea, though the partie feede well: and generally for all those, in whome superfluities steeme upward. [85]

To beare upon the toes hath bene proved good for ill eyes, and to staye loose bellies.

Bearing upon the whole feete is alwaye incident to some of the other kindes, and therefore joyneth with eche of them in effectes.

Walking which taketh the name after the place, is either on hilles and high groundes, or in valleies and lowe groundes: againe the lowe ground is, either even, or uneven: either under covert, or abroad: in the sunne, or in the shade. When one walketh up against the hill, the bodie is marveilously wearied, bycause all the sway and poize of it presseth downe those partes, which are first moved. And for all that such motions be heavie and slow, yet they cause one sweat sooner and sorer, and staye the breath more, then the walking downhill doeth: bycause heavie thinges bearing naturally downward, are forced upward against nature. Wherupon heat which beareth the bodie up, as in comming downe it travelleth not of his owne nature, so preasing upward it is burthened with the bodie, whereby it both encreaseth it selfe, provoketh sweat, and stayeth the breath. This kinde of walke afore meate is good for the bulke, which hath not his breath at commandement. Demosthenes strengthened his voice by it, pronouncing his orations alowd, as he walked up against the hill, whereby he gat the benefit of breathing, to deliver his long periodes, without paine to himselfe, or breach to his sentence. The knees are most toiled in this kinde of walking, being forced backward contrarie to their nature, and therfore to their griefe.

Walking downhill draweth superfluity from the head more then the other doeth: but withall it is enemy to feeble thighes, bycause they both move the legges, and support all the whole weight of the bodie above. The change and varietie of the motion causeth that kinde of walking to be best liked, which is sometime uphill, sometime downhill.

When ye walke upon even or uneven ground, ye walke either in medowes or grassie places, or in rowgh and brambly, or in sandie and soft. If ye walke in a medow, it is without all contradiction most for pleasure, bycause nothing there anoyeth, nothing offendeth the sense, and the head is fed both with varietie [86] of sweet odours, and with the moysture of such humour, as the medow yeeldeth.

Rough, brambly, and bushy groundes stuffe the head.

Sandie, and cheifly if it be any thing deepe, bycause the walking in it stirreth sore, confirmeth and strengtheneth all the partes of the bodie: and fetcheth superfluities mightily downward. This was one of Augustus Caesars remedies, as Suetonius writeth, to helpe his haulting and weake legges. For to cleare the upper partes of that which cloyeth them, there is nothing better then to travell in deepe sande.

Walking in a close gallerie is not so good, bycause the ayre there is not so fresh, free, and open, but pent, close and grosse: and therfore stuffeth the bodie, onelesse the gallerie be in the uppermost buildinges of the house, where neither any vapour from the ground can come: and the ayre that commeth is pure and cleare.

The close walkes, which were called cryptoporticus were not of choice but of necessitie, when extremitie of weather would not let them walke abroad.

Walking in an open place, and cheifly greene, is much better and more wholesome, then under any covert. First of all for the eyes, bycause a fine and subtile ayre comming from the greene to the bodie, which is more penetrable bycause of stirring, scoureth awaye all grosse humours from the eyes, and so leaveth the sight fine and cleare. Further, bycause the bodie in walking waxeth hoat, the aire sucketh humours out of it, and disperseth what soever is in it more then it can well beare.

Now in walking abroad there is consideration to be had to the soile. For walking by the sea side ye thinne and drie up grosse humours, by rivers and standing waters ye moyst. Howbeit both these two last be naught, and specially standing waters. Walking not neare any water, as it is not so good as the walke by the sea, so it is much better, then walking neare any other water. Walking in the dew moystes, and harmes.

If ye walke in a place where birdes haunt, it is of great efficacie to cleare by the breath, and to disburden the bodie so, as if ye did walke in some higher ground. If there be no winde where ye walke, it cleareth by breath: it disperseth excrements, [87] it slakes and nippes not, and is good for colicks that come of a cold cause. If there be winde, the Northern causeth coughing, hurtes the bulke, and yet confirmes the strength, soundes the senses, and strengthens the weake stomacke. The Southwinde filles the head, dulles the instrumentes of sense, yet it looseth the bellie, and is good to dissolve. The Westwinde passeth all the rest, both for mildenesse, and wholesomnesse. The Eastwinde is hurtefull and nippes.

It is better walking in the shade then in the sunne: as it is naught for the headache to walke either in the cold or in the heat. And yet it is beter to walke in the sunne, then to stand in it, and better to walke fast, then slowly. Of all shades, those be the best which be under walles or in herboures. It is verie daungerous walking neare unto dewye trees, for feare of infection by the sappie dew: bycause dew in generall is not so wholesome, it abateth the flesh, as wymen that gather it up with wooll or linnen clothes for some purposes do continually trye. Now if the dew come of any unwholesome matter, what may it prove to? The best walking in shadowes simply is under myrtle and baye trees, or among quicke and sweet smelling herbes, as wilde basell, penyroyall, thyme, and mynt, which if they be wild and of their owne growing be better to wholesome the soile, then any that be set by hande: but if the better cannot be, the meaner must serve. Againe in this kinde of walke the faire and cleare aire lighteneth, scoureth, fineth, procureth good breathing, and easie moving. Darke and cloudie aire heavyeth, scoureth not by breath, and stuffeth the head.

Walking which is termed after the time, is either in winter or summer: in the morning or in the evening, before meat or after. The most of these differencies will appeare then playnest, when the time for all exercises is generally appointed, in consideration of circunstance, as shall be declared under the title of time. In the meane while walking whether in the morning or evening, ought still to go before meat.

The morning walke looseth the belly, dispatcheth sluggishnes, which comes by sleep, thinneth the spirits, encreaseth heat, and provoketh appetite. It is good for moyst constitutions, it nimbleth and quickneth the head, and all the partes in it. [88]

The evening walke is a preparative to sleepe, it disperseth inflations, and yet it is ill for a weake head. Walking after meat is not good but only for such as are used unto it. Yet even they maye not use it to much. It is good also for them, which otherwise cannot cause their meat go downe to the bottome of their stomacke.

And thus much for walking, both regarding the manner of the motion, the place where, and the time when. Which circunstances though they be many and divers: yet to purchase the commodities, which walking is confessed to be very full of, they must needes be cared for: considering our whole life is so delt with, as if we hastened on death, against the which, this exercise may be rightly termed an antidote, or counterreceit.

Chapter 21.

Of Running.

The manifest services which we receive by our legges and feete, in warre for glorie, to pursue or save, in game for pleasure to winne and weare, in Physick for health to preserve and heale, do give parentes to understand, that they do suffer their children to be more then halfe maymed, if they traine them not up in their youth to the use and exercise therof. To polishe out this point with those effectuall reasons, which avaunce and set forth nature, when she sayeth in plaine termes, that she meanes to do good: or with those argumentes, wherwith the best authors do amplifie such places, when they finde nature so freindly and forward, (as the anatomistes which survey the workmanship of our bodie, and histories, which note the effectes of swiftnesse, do wonder at nature, and with exercise to helpe her, for that which they see) were to me nothing needefull, considering my ende is not the praise, but the practise of that which is praiseworthy: neither to tell you, what Alexander the Macedonian, nor what Papyrius the Romain did by swift foote, nor that Homere gave Achilles his epithete of his footmanship, but to tell you that running is an exercise for health, which if reason cannot winne, wherof every one can judge, sure historie will not, where the authors credit [89] may be called in question as to much favoring the partie whom he praiseth, wherefore I will leave of all manner of by ornamentes, wherwith such as be in love with running do use, to set it forth, and directly fall to the severall kindes there of which differ one from an other, both in the moving it selfe, and also in the manner of the moving, wherupon the effectes, which follow must needes prove divers according to that diversitie. Running of it selfe is helde by the Physicians generally to be a swift exercise, which needeth neither much strength, nor great violence, and in what sorte so ever it is used, it is ill for agues.

The first kinde of running which beareth his name of the verie motion vehement swift, and withall outright, hindereth health, rather then helpeth it: and if it helpe it any waye, it is in that it abateth the fleshinesse, and corpulence of the body: which if it chaunce to be moyst, swift running will empty it of humours, and stay it also quickly. It hath bene found so wholesome in some diseases of the splene or mylt, as Aetius a learned Physician writeth, that he knew some which by walking and running onely, were delivered from all greife and peine there. But it is verie unwholesome for such as have ill heades. Wherupon Aristotle in his Problemes asking the question why running which is thought to drive all excrementes downward, if it be vehement and swift should be offensive to the head, not in men and wymen alone, but also in beastes, aunswereth thus: that the swift motion, bycause it strayneth the strength, and stayeth the breath, heates the head with all, and swelles the veines therein: so that they draw unto them forreine meane as cold or heat: and besides that, it enforceth what so ever is in the breast to ascend upwarde, whereby the head cannot chuse but ake, which is the cause, that swift running is naught for the falling evill. Galene thinketh so basely of this kinde of running, as he termeth it, a thing both an enemie to health, to great a thinner of the whole bodie, and such a one, as hath no manner of manly exercise in it. Besides this, it putteth him which runneth so vehemently in daunger of some great convulsion, if he fortune to encounter any violent stop by the way.

The second kinde of running, which taketh his name of the gentle and moderate moving, warmes the bodie very well, [90] strengthens the naturall actions, provokes appetite, helpes and turnes rewmes, and catarres, some other waye. And therfore it is commended for a remedie against the swiming of the head, against the drie cough, if ye holde your breath withall, against exulcerations in the inner side of the jawes, and the distorsion or writhing of the mouth, which the Greekes call {Greek}. For though at the first it seeme to provoke defluxions and distilling of humours, yet within a small time it stayeth them: and therfore it is thought to be good for those, which are pained with the Ischiatica, which have much a do to stirre their legges at the first, but after that they have runne a while, they be so nimble and quicke, as if they had never felt any paine in those partes. It strengtheneth the stomacke mightely, and delivereth the bellie from winde, and cold passions: whereby it is thought, and that not without great cause to be verie good for the colike and dropsie: it delayeth the swelling of the milt. For the gnawing of the guttes, and some diseases of the kidneis it is exceeding good, so the kidneies be not either presently, or have not bene of late, subject to some exulceration. To saye that it is wholesome for the legges and feete, were to make a doubt, where none can be, considering running is their proper and peculiar action. This exercise for all that it is such a freind to health: yet bringes with it some inconveniences: for it is verie laborious: it cooleth the flesh and furthereth not the feeding. And as naturally of it selfe, it breadeth no great harme, so if it meete with an ill head, or a weake bulke, or burning and hoat urine, it helpes to draw on divers diseases. He that hath any rupture in the twiste, or els where, must forbeare running, as those also, which have infected livers or gauled kidneies. If the chafed deare could speake, he would desire the hunter to give him leave to pisse, when he pursueth him sorest, and that for but so litle respite, he would shew him a great deale more pastime: but the hunter which knoweth well that the skalding urine will not let him runne long, wil not lend him that leasure: bycause he careth more for the frute of his owne praie, then the effect of the deares prayer. All the other kindes of running which follow, take their names of the manner of their moving, wherof the first is the long outright running, which if it continue [91] on gently though long, it warmeth the flesh, and makes it plumpe, and is verie good, for great feeders, though it make the bodie slow and grosse. Running streight backward, and withall not hastily, is good for the head, the eyes, the streatchers, the stomacke and the loynes. Running round about, thinnes the flesh and streaches it, but cheifly the belly, and bycause of the quicke motion, it gathereth moysture quickly. And therfore Hippocrates wisheth them to use it, which dreame of blacke starres, as the fore warning of some forreine disease. It troubleth the head and makes it dizie: it marreth both the bulke and the legges, and therefore would be left. He that runnes uphill straynes him selfe sore, and doth neither his bulke nor his legges any great good. He that runnes downhill makes his head giddy, shakes all within him, and tries the weaknesse, or strength of his hippes. He that runneth in his clothes sweateth sore, and warmes his flesh more: and therefore it is good for them, that have the head ache to runne so: and those that have somewhat to do, to fetch their breath. He that runneth out of his clothes single or naked, sweateth much, which is much more healthfull how litle so ever it be, then much more, with the clothes on. Hyppocrates likes running generally more in winter then sommer. Oribasius in both, yea though sommer be in his prime and cheife heat. The resolution is, when most sweating is best, which Aristotle sayeth is in sommer.

Chapter 22.

Of Leaping.

Leaping should seeme to be somewhat naturall, and chearfull, bycause at any pleasant or joyefull newes, not onely the hart will leape for joye, but also the body it selfe will spring lively, to declare his consent, with the delited minde, and that not in young folkes alone, but also in the elder, whom we commonly say that no ground can hold: so that leaping seemes to stand the body in such a steade for uttering of joy, as the tongue serves the minde to deliver her delite by speche with laughter. The cattell and brute beastes bewraie their contentment, and well liking, by the selfe same meanes, leaping and galloping [92] of them selves in their pasture when they be lustily disposed and in good health. Though in training of the bodie by waye of exercise, there be not so much regard had to the mirth of the minde, as to the motion of the bodie: and yet being an exercise it may not be unpleasant. In which kinde it is noted to be vehement, wherein both strength is used to make the body spring, and swiftnesse to make it nimble: being naturally an interrupted race, as running is a continued leape. It served the olde world in game for braverie, and shew of activitie: in warfare to skip over diches and hard passages, in Physicke for an exercise of health, whereby it became more stately and imperiall, bycause the first famous Romain Emperor Augustus Caesar, being troubled with the Ischiatica and stone in his bladder, and also having some weaknesse in his left legge and feet, used this running leape, or leaping race to helpe himselfe thereby. There be divers kindes of leaping wherof I will tuch the most likely.

Leaping and springing without intermission is good to encrease the naturall heat, to helpe digestion, to dispatche raw humours, though afterward it anoie the head and brest, bycause it shaketh the head verie vehemently: and by reason of much bending and so pressing the backe, it oftimes breaketh some canall in the breast or lungues. To leape running is good for such diseases of the head, as have troubled it long. It helpeth the bulke, bycause it useth no violent bending, nor pressing of the bodie, it fetcheth downe such needeles fumes, as otherwise would have ben aspiring upward: it chearisheth weake legges: which prosper not by nurriture, thorough some trembling and benummed flesh. Leaping as we do commonly call it and use it, doth drive idle superfluities downward thoroghly, but bycause it shaketh the bulke to sore, both by to violent moving and to forcible strayning, it is not good for it: though it shew a verie deliver and an active bodie: both to stirre and to do any thing else. It driveth also the stone from the kidneies into the bladder: yet it hurteth the knees by reason of violent and continuall bending them. The Lacedemonian wymen, whose picture Callimachus the painter, for his foolish curiosity named {Greek}, as Plinie reporteth, used to leape so, as their heeles did hitte their hippes, which manner of leaping doth [93] both purge and drie. But me thinke I here some gentlewymen saye, fye upon them Rigs. Not so. The lawes and custome of their countrey did allow, nay did commaunde them to runne, to leape, to wrastle, and to do all such exercises, both as well, as men, and also with men. Their reason was. They did thinke the childe lame of the one side, whose mother was delicate, daintie, tender, never stirring, never exercising, not withstanding, the father were never so naturally strong, never so artificially trained. And to prevent that infirmitie in their owne youth, they exercised their wymen also, no lesse then their men. As Plato wisheth his people in his common weale, which he patterneth for the best. Skipping againe the banck, as it helpeth the hippes, so it hurteth the breast: and the same downhill cleareth the head from superfluities, which it fetcheth downward: It strengtheneth the legges, but it shaketh the bowelles to sore, which is very dangerous, for ruptures any where: for the crooked swelling veines in the legge: for all gouttes: for all those, in whom the humours upon any small occasion will fall downe to the feete: and cause them to swell. Further in cases where it were good to let blood or to purge, if either yeares or some other impediment wil admit neither, to avoide superfluous humours, leaping will supply the roome. As it is verie ill for those which pisse blood: or be in a flixe: or have weake or overheated kidneies: or that have at that time, or not long before had, some gaule or exulceration in the kidneies. And yet though the kidneies be sound, leaping will sometime loose a veine. Eche kinde of leaping is better accomplished by holding of some weight in the hand for steddinesse, then with the hand emptie and without his ballace.

Chapter 23.

Of Swimming.

In the old time, when they would point at a fellow, in whom there was nothing to be made account of, they were wont to saye, he neither knoweth letter on the booke, nor yet how to swimme: wherby it appeareath that swimming, was both in great use, and of great price in those daies, which either first brought [94] forth by word or afterward maintained it, seing he was helde for no bodie that could not, or but for a dastard which would not learne the sleight to swimme. The traine came bycause it was then best to learne, when the jointes were most pliable, and yet strong withall. The ende was either to save themselves in fightes by sea, or in flightes by lande, where they were to passe rivers, or to assaile enemies by water, or for other such services: as what if Leander say it serves for love, and bring both Hero to witnesse, which was partaker of the evill, and Musaeus the Poete, which described their misfortune? Which considerations may recommende swimming to us also: who may stand in neede of it, upon the same causes, and in the like eventes that they did. But bycause it is so necessarie, it would not be uncurteously entertained, and therefore regard must be had in what water ye swimme, for if ye swimme in springes which are naturally hoat, it is stuffing, and yet good for the palsie: so he that swimmeth do use bladders, to ease him selfe withall, and lighten his labour. To swimme in marsh waters, and pooles, infecteth both the head and all the residue of the bodie, bycause rotten, and corrupt vapours, enter the pores of the bodie, together with the moysture. It is reasonable good swimming in lakes and standing meres, which the larger they be and the clearer, the more commodious and wholesome to swimme in. But no kinde of fresh water is so good to swimme in, as the running river is, cheifly for them, which be in health, to whom besides many other commodities, it serveth for a preparative to sleepe. Yet it is not good abiding long in any fresh water, for feare of perishing the sinues both with cold and moysture, whose issues be the crampe, and the swimmers daunger. But nothing at all, be it never so good for health, be it never so defensible to save, can be gotten without perill in proving. And why should swimming dreame of securitie, and never thinke to drowne? Doth it not deale with water, where there is no warrant, but wisedome to forsee? pointe the place, pointe the fight, pointe the daunger and a pointe for daunger: but where you cannot appointe the particularitie, ye cannot warrant the perill. Cocles, scaped, it was in a small river, and reskue at hand. Scoeva the centurion scaped, he was neare both shippe [95] and shoar. Nay Caesar himselfe saved him selfe from drowning, and helde his lettres up drie in the one hand. A signe of courage and cunning, as that man had enough: but his shippes were at hand, and it is not writen, that either he swamme alone, or any long waye. But of all daungers to drowne, there is least in the sea, where the swimming is best: for the salt water as it is thicker then the fresh, so it beareth up the bodie better, that it may fleet with lesse labour. The swimming in salt water is very good to remove the headache, to open the stuffed nosethrilles, and therby to helpe the smelling. It is a good remedie for dropsies, scabbes and scurfes, small pockes, leprosies, falling awaye of either legge, or any other parte: for such as prosper not so, as they would, though they eate as they wishe, for ill stomackes, livers, miltes, and corrupt constitutions. Yet all swimming must needes be ill for the head, considering the continuall exhalation, which ascendeth still from the water into the head. Swimming in hoat waters softeneth that which is hardened, warmeth that which is cooled, nimbleth the jointes which are benummed, thinneth the skinne, which is thickned, and yet it troubleth the head, weakneth the bodie, disperseth humours, but dissolveth them not. Swimming in cold water doth strengthen the naturall heat, bycause it beates it in: it maketh verie good and quick digestion: it breaketh superfluous humours, it warmeth the inward partes, yet long tarying in it hurtes the sineues, and takes awaye the hearing. Thus much concerning swimming, which can neither do children harme in learning, if the maister be wise, nor the common weale but good, being once learned, if either private daunger or publike attempt do bid them aventure. For he that oweth a life to his countrey, if he die on lande, he doeth his duetie, and if he drowne in water, his duetie is not drowned.

Chapter 24.

Of Riding.

If any wilbe so wilfull as to denie Riding to be an exercise and that a great one, and fittest also for greatest personages, set him either upon a trotting jade to jounse him thoroughly [96] or upon a lame hakney to make him exercise his feete, when his courser failes him. In all times, in all countries, among all degrees of people, it hath ever bene taken, for a great, a worthy, and a gentlemanly exercise. Though Aristophanes his testimonie, were naught against honest Socrates, yet it is good to prove, that riding was a gentlemanly traine, even among the principles of education in Athens. And Virgile in the legacie sent to Latinus, describeth the same traine in the Romain children, which, sayeth he, exercised themselves on horsebacke before the towne. And Horace accuseth the young gentleman in his time as not able to hange on a horse. But to deale with stories either Greeke, or Latin, for the Romain, or other nations exercise in riding in a matter of such store, were more then needeles. The Romains had their whole citie divided into partialities, by reason of the foure factions of those exercising horsemen. Who of the foure colours, which they used, Russet, White, Greene, and Blew, were named Russati, Albati, Prasini, Veneti. For the warres how great a traine riding is, I would no countrey had tried, nor had cause to complaine, nor the subdued people to be sorofull, though the conquerour do vant himselfe, of his valiantnesse on horsebacke. For health it must needes be of some great moment, or els why do the Physicians seeme to make so much of it? They saye that generally it encreaseth naturall heat, and that it purgeth superfluities, as that to the contrarie it is naught for any sicke bodie, or that hath taken Physicke hard before, or that is troubled with infection or inflammation of the kidneies. They use to devide it into five kindes, Slow, quicke, trotting, ambling, and posting.

Of Slow riding they write that it wearieth the grines very sore, that it hurteth the buttokes, and legges, by hanging downe to long, and that yet it heateth not much: that it hindreth getting of children, and breadeth aches and lamenesse.

Of quicke riding they saye, that of all exercises it shaketh the bodie most, and that yet it is good for the head ache, comming of a cold cause: for the falling evill: for deafnesse, for the stomack, for yeaxing or hikup, for clearing and quickning the instrumentes of sense: for dropsies: for thickning of thinne shankes: which was found true in Germanicus Caesar nephew to [97] Tiberius the Emperour, which so helped his spindle shankes. Againe quick riding is naught for the bulke: for a weake bladder, which must forebeare all exercises, when it hath any exulceration: for the Ischiatica, bycause the hippes are to much heated and weakned, by the vehementnesse of the motion. Wherupon the humours, which are styrred rest there: and either breede new or augment olde aches.

Of trotting, it is said even as we see, that it shaketh the bodie to violently, that it causeth and encreaseth marveilous aches, that it offendes the head, the necke, the shoulders, the hippes, and disquieteth all the entrailes beyond all measure. And though it may somewhat helpe the digestion of meate, and raw humours, loose the belly, provoke urine, drive the stone or gravell from the kidneyes downward, yet it is better forborne for greater evilles, then borne with for some sorie small good.

Ambling as it exerciseth least, so it anoyeth least, and yet loseth it the bellie.

As for posting, though it comes last in reading, it will be first in riding, though for making such hast, it harme eche part of the bodie, and specially the bulke, the lungues, the bowells generally, the kidneyes: as what doth it not allway anoy, and oftimes either breake or put out of joynt by falles or straines? It warmes and paires the body to sore, and therfore abateth grossenes, though a grosse man be ill either to ride post himselfe, or for a jade to beare. It infecteth the head, it dulleth the senses, and especially the sight: even til it make his eyes that posteth to run with water, not to remember the death of his friendes, but to thinke how sore his saddle shakes him, and the ayer bites him.

Chapter 25.

Of Hunting.

Hunting is a copious argument, for a poeticall humour, to discours of, whether in verse, with Homer, or in prose, with Heliodorus. Dian would be alleged, as so avoyding Cupide. Hippolytus, would be used in commendation of continence, and what would not poetrie bring in to avaunce it, whose musicke being solitarie and woddishe, must needes be, nay is very well [98] acquainted with the chace. If poets should faint, and the Persians would fight, both for riding and hunting: so that if patrocinie were in question, we neede not to enquire, they would offer them selves, from all countries, and of all languages. But we need not either for praise, or for profe, to use forraine advocats. For hunting hath alway caried a great credit, both for exercising the bodie, and deliting the mynde, as it semes to be verie naturall, because it seeketh to maister, and to take beastes, and byrdes, which are naturally appointed for mans use, and therefore though they be taken and killed, there is no wrong done them. The courteous Xenophon as delited himselfe therein, and all the auncient writers, as subscribing to a truth, commend it marveilously, and chiefly, for a proper elementarie to warlike uses, and Mars his schoole, whether for valiauntnes or for pollicy, because the resemblaunces of the chiefe warlike executions do fall out in hunting, as the qualitie or courage of the game offereth cause, either to use force and manhoode, or to flie to devise and sutteltie.

The Romain Emperours did exhibit publike hunting unto the whole people in way of pastime and pleasure. The Physicians make much of it: as being an exercise, which containeth under it most of the other stirring exercises, for they that hunt, walke, runne, leape, shout, hallow, ride, and what may they not do, having the whole country for roome, and the whole day for time, to do in what they list? And though Galene do restraine it to men of great abilitie, as if hunting were not for every man to use, which is one of the markes, whereby to know the best exercises, that they be parable, and purchaceable even to meane purses: yet we see it in common to most, where restraint by law doth not forbid it. Neither is the charge in respect of the exercise, but in respect of the game, whereon the exercise is employed. To hunt a hare, and course a hart, to chase a bucke, and chafe a bore is not all one, neither for provision, nor for perill though the exercise have small oddes, which being compounded of those exercises that I named, must nedes have the same effectes, that those exercises have besides his owne. To warme the bodie very well, to disperse superfluites, to abate flesh, to lessen overflowing moysture, to make one sleepe soundly, to [99] digest meat, and raw humors, to quicken both the sight and the hearing, to keepe of old age, and finally to make the body most healthfull, and the health most lasting.

Rases a notable Arabicke Physician, writeth that in a great plague there remained almost none alive in a certaine towne, save hunters only, which escaped by reason of their preserving exercise. And Mithridates that famous king used hunting so much for his healthes sake, as in seven yeares space, it is written that he never came within house, neither in citie nor countrie. And yet hunting is not good for the head, when it is used with vehemence, as no other vehement exercise is.

There be but two kindes of Hunting to my purpose, the one on horsebacke, the other on foote.

They that Hunt on horsebake, for so much as they sometime gallop, sometime ride fast, sometime hallow, sometime be stil, and varie so in most actions, seeme to travel every part of their body, and therefore it is thought, that thereby the brest, the stomacke, the entrailes, the backe and legges be strengthened: but it is ill for them, which are troubled with any paine in their head, and daungerous for feare of breaking some veine in the breast: for the stone in the kidneyes, for those that be of hoate constitution of body: for weake bellicawles, and for feare of ruptures, because such thinges fall out oftentimes in hunting on horsebacke: not without losse sometime of life.

Hunting on foote, hath all the commodities, and incommodities to, that hunting on horsebacke hath, saving the daunger whereunto it is not so much subjecte. And yet the travell of the bodie is more, the body hoater, the legges and feete more strengthened, the appetite to meat more, to make children lesse. Neither of them is good but for strong and healthful bodies, neither can hunting be but harmefull unto them, which use it unadvisedly, without consideration how they runne, by way of pleasure and ordinarie exercise, or at the suddaine of a head, for by tarying abroade all day, and feeding so uncertainely, and so unseasonably, there come sundrie inconveniences.

But of all Hunting that is still best, wherein we exercise our selves and our owne bodies most, not our hauks or howndes, because exercises be meanes to make men healthfull, and other [100] thinges be meanes to bring that meane about. Such a kinde of hunting was it which Chiron, Machaon, Podalyrius, Aesculapius, the parentes and patrones of physike did use, whose delite therein, is our warrant in choyce, because they being so great physicians, as physicke went then in Platoes opinion, did trie that in their owne persons, which they delivered to posteritie for the same use.

Chapter 26.

Of Shooting.

The physicians seeme to commend shooting for the use of health sufficiently, in that they make Apollo and Aesculapius the presidentes and protectors of Archerie, which both be the greatest gods, and chiefest patrones of ther owne profession. And that it is a thing to be beloved, and liked, what argument is there that can be alleadged of comparable force to that of Cupide himselfe, which in the matter of love, doth bend with his bow, and enamour with his arrow? But in sadnes to say enough of this exercise in few wordes, which no wordes can praise enough for the commodities which it bringeth to the health of the body: as it hath bene used by divers nations, in diverse sortes, both on horsebacke and on foote, both for peace and warre, for healthfull exercise and pleasant pastime: so none either now doth use it, or heretofore hath used it, more to health, and bettering of the body then our owne countrimen do. As if it were a thing somewhat naturall to Ilandes, bycause they of Crete and Cyprus in olde stories, they of the Indian Ilandes in new stories are noted also for neare Shooting, strong Darting, and streight Slinging, whereof the Balear Ilandes seeme to take their name. Nay by all auncient monumentes Shooting should seeme to be both the eldest, and the usuallest defence in fighting a farre of, which though it have now, and tofore have had great place in the fielde for warfare: yet hath it a great deale better place in our fields for wellfare: and therefore the more, because it consisteth both of the best exercises, and the best effectes of the best exercises. For he that shooteth in the free and open fields may chuse, whether betweene his markes he will runne or walke, daunce or leape, hallow or sing or do somewhat [101] els, which belongeth to the other, either vehement or gentle exercises. And whereas hunting on foote is so much praised, what moving of the body hath the foote hunter in hilles and dales, which the roving Archer hath not in varietie of growndes? Is his naturall heate more stirred then the Archers is? Is his appetite better then the Archers is though the proverbe helpe the hungrie hunter? Nay in both these the Archer hath the vantage. For both his howers be much better to eate, and all his moving is more at his choice: because the hunter must follow his game of necessitie, the Archer neede not but at his owne leasure. For his pastime wil tary stil, till he come to it, the hunters game is glad to get from him. In fine what good is there in any particular exercise, either to helpe natural heat, or to cleare the body, or to provoke appetite, or to fine the senses, or to strengthen the sinewes, or to better all partes, which is not altogither in this one exercise? Onely regard to use it in a meane doth warrant the archer from daunger to himselfe: and an eye to looke about, doth defende the passager from perill by him. I could here speake much, if it were not to much, to say even so much in such a thing, being so faire a pastime, so pleasant to al people, so profitable to most, so familiar to our country, so every where in eye, so knowne a defence, such a meane to offende, as there is no man but knoweth it to be a preservative to health, and therefore well to be numbred among the trayning exercises. And chiefly as it is used in this Iland, wherein the roving must nedes be the best and most healthful, both for varieties of motion in diversities of soile, and by using all archery, in exercising one kinde. For in roving, you may use either the butte, or the pricke by the way for your marke, as your pleasure shalbe. This exercise do I like best generally of any rownde stirring without the dores, upon the causes before alleadged, which if I did not, that worthy man our late and learned countrieman maister Askam would be halfe angrie with me, though he were of a milde disposition, who both for trayning the Archer to his bow, and the scholler to his booke, hath shewed him selfe a cunning Archer, and a skilfull maister.

In the middest of so many earnest matters, I may be allowed to entermingle one, which hath a relice of mirth, for in praysing of [102] Archerie, as a principall exercise, to the preserving of health, how can I but prayse them, who professe it throughly, and maintaine it nobly, the friendly and franke fellowship of prince Arthurs knightes in and about the citie of London, which of late yeares have so revived the exercise, so countenaunced the artificers, so enflamed emulation, as in themselves for frindly meting, in workemen for good gayning, in companies for earnest comparing, it is almost growne to an orderly discipline, to cherishe loving society, to enrich labouring povertie, to maintaine honest activity, which their so encouraging the under travellours, and so encreasing the healthfull traine, if I had sacred to silence, would not my good freind in the citie maister Hewgh Offly, and the same my noble fellow in that order Syr Launcelot, at our next meeting, have given me a sowre nodde, being the chiefe furtherer of the fact, which I commend, and the famosest knight, of the fellowship, which I am of? Nay would not even prince Arthur himselfe maister Thomas Smith, and the whole table, of those wel known knights, and most active Archers have layd in their chaleng against their fellow knight, if speaking of their pastime I should have spared their names? whereunto I am easily led, bycause the exercise deserving such praise, they that love so praiseworthie a thing neither can of them selves, neither ought at my hand to be hudled up in silence.

Chapter 27.

Of the Ball.

The play at the Ball seemeth compound, bycause it may be used, both within dores, and without. Wherof good writers have delivered us thus much: that in the olde time there were divers kindes of balles and divers kindes of exercise therewith, according to the divers use of the ball either small or great: both amongst the Romaines and Greekes, whose names I use so much, bycause they were best acquainted both with the thinges, and with the right use therof. Galene in his first booke of maintaining health, speaking of the Germains, who used then to dippe their new borne children into extreme cold water over head and eares, to trie their courage and to harden their [103] skinne, sayeth that he wrate those lessons of health and exercise, no more to the Dutch and such rude people as we also were then, then to beares, boares and lyons: but to Greekes and such people, as though barbarous in nature, yet by traine and learning, were become greekish as we now are, and the Romains then were. So that our examples be fetcht from these two nations, which either used the thinges most, and handled them best: or else enriched their owne tongues with all that was best, and when they had so done set them over unto us. But of all their exercises with the Ball, we have not any so farre as I can gesse, by their notes, though we retaine the name: and, yet our playing with the Ball worketh the same effectes, which theirs did, as it appeareth by their descriptions. Wherfore seeing they be so farre different from ours, and almost worne out of knowledge even to curious conjectures, which seeke to sift them out, I will neither trouble my selfe with studying to set downe their names: nor my reader with reading to gesse what they were, and how they were used.

Three kindes shall content me, which our time knoweth, wherein all the properties of their balles, and all the effectes of their exercises, be most evidently seene. The hand ball, the footeball, the armeball.

The litle hand ball whether it be of some softer stuffe, and used by the hand alone, or of some harder, and used with the rackette, whether by tennice play with an other, or against a wall alone, to exercise the bodie with both the handes, in everie kinde of motion, that concerneth any, or all the other exercises, is generally noted, to be one of the best exercises and the greatest preservations of health. In so much as Galene bestoweth an whole treatise upon the use and praise of it, wherin he compareth it with other exercises, and preferreth it before all, for parabilitie, to be all mens game: for profitablenesse, to do all men good: for pleasauntnesse, to quicke all mens spirites, and in short knits up the some of his conclusion thus. That the use of the litle ball doth plant in the minde courage, in the bodie health, in all the limmes a trim and wel proportionate constitution: so it be moderately and advisedly executed. Playing at the ball in generall is a strong exercise, and maketh the bodie very nimble, [104] and strengtheneth all the vitall actions. The litle handball is counted to be a swift exercise, without violence, and therefore the rakketters in tennyse play, if they use it in that kinde, which is thought to be most healthfull, must shew them selves nymble without strayning, and yet it falleth out most commonly contrarie, while desire to wynne some wager makes the winners loose a benefit, which they wish for more, and would gladly get to better their health by. This playing abateth grossenes, and corpulence, as al other of the same sort do: it maketh the flesh sownd and soft, it is very good for the armes, the greene and growing ribbes, the back, and by reason the legges are mightely stirred therby, it is a great furtherer to strength, it quickneth the eyes by looking now hither, now thither, now up, now downe, it helpeth the ridgebone, by stowping, bending and coursing about: it is verie good for bellies and stomakes, that be troubled with winde or any paine which proceedeth from colde. Now to the contrary it is not good for ill and bleare eyes, raw stomakes, undigested meat, which have more neede of rest then stirring, and for such as will soone be turnesicke, which the oft turning about of the head and eyes cannot but cause. The playing at tennyse is more coastly and straining to aunswere an adversary, but the playing against the wall is as healthfull, and the more ready, bycause it needeth no adversary, and yet practiseth every kinde of motion, every joynt of the body, and all without danger. Children use this ball diversly, and every way healthfully, in regard of the exercise: if accidentarie faultes fall out among children, in the use of the play, the parties must beare the blame and not the play.

The second kinde I make the Footeball play, which could not possibly have growne to this greatnes, that it is now at, nor have bene so much used, as it is in all places, if it had not had great helpes, both to health and strength, and to me the abuse of it is a sufficient argument, that it hath a right use: which being revoked to his primative will both helpe, strength, and comfort nature: though as it is now commonly used, with thronging of a rude multitude, with bursting of shinnes, and breaking of legges, it be neither civil, neither worthy the name of any traine to health. Wherin any man may evidently see the use of the trayning [105] maister. For if one stand by, which can judge of the play, and is judge over the parties, and hath authoritie to commaunde in the place, all those inconveniences have bene, I know, and wilbe I am sure very lightly redressed, nay they will never entermedle in the matter, neither shall there be complaint, where there is no cause. Some smaller number with such overlooking, sorted into sides and standings, not meeting with their bodies so boisterously to trie their strength: nor shouldring or shuffing one an other so barbarously, and using to walke after, may use footeball for as much good to the body, by the chiefe use of the legges, as the Armeball, for the same, by the use of the armes. And being so used, the Footeball strengtheneth and brawneth the whole body, and by provoking superfluities downeward, it dischargeth the head, and upper partes, it is good for the bowells, and to drive downe the stone and gravell from both the bladder and kidneies. It helpeth weake hammes, by much moving, beginning at a meane, and simple shankes by thickening of the flesh, no lesse then riding doth. Yet rash running and to much force oftentimes breaketh some inward conduit, and bringeth ruptures.

The third kind I call the Armeball, which was invented in the kingdom of Naples, not many yeares agoe, and answereth most of the olde games, with the great ball, which is executed with the armes most, as the other was with the feete, and be both very great helpers unto health. The arme in this is fensed with a wodden brace, as the shin in the other with some other thing for meeting with a shrew. The armeball encreaseth the naturall heate, maketh way for superfluities, causeth sound sleepe, digesteth meate wel, and dispatcheth raw humors, though it stuffe the head, as all vehement exercises do. It exerciseth the armes and backe chiefly, and next to them the legges, and therfore it must needs be good for such, as desire to have those partes strong and perfit, to digest their meate at will, to distribute profitable juice to the whole body, and to avoide needelesse matter, as well by sweate, as by any other kinde of secret evacuation. And yet it is very ill for a naughtie backe, for hoat kidneyes, for sharp urine, and generally for any that is troubled with infirmities and diseases in those parts which are strained with stirring.

Thus much concerning the particular exercises, which I [106] have pickt out from the rest, as most reducible to our time and countrie, wherein I have not followed the ordinarie division, which the training maisters and Physicians do use, but I devised such a one, as I tooke to be fittest for myne owne purpose regarding our soyle and our seasons. Neither have I rekened up the other antique exercises, but have let them rest with their friends and favorers, which be long ago at rest. For the tumbling Cybistike, the thumping Pugillate, the buffeting Cestus, the wrastling Pancrace, the quayting Discus, the barlike Halteres, the swinging Petawre, and such old memorandums, they are to auncient and to farre worne from the use of our youth: the considering whereof may rather stirre conjecture, then staie assurance, what they were, when they were. And of these which I have named, many be farre beyond boyes plaie, for whom alone I do not deale, but for all studentes in generall, neither yet do I exclude either any age, or any person, if I may profit any else beside studentes and scholers. Neither do I tie the trayne to these exercises alone, but alway to some, though not alway to one kinde. The cause and consideration must leade all, which may bring forth the like, and why not the better upon due and wel observed circunstance? For though the general cause do direct much, yet the particular circunstance directeth more, being it self enformed in the generall judgement. The most of these notes, which I have alleaged, were given in Italie, Greece and Spaine, and that climate farre distant, and much differing from our degree. Wherefore our traine upon consideration of the degrees in soyle, in temperature, in constitution, and such like, must appropriate it selfe where the difference is apparent. Therefore both to use these exercises which I have named, to the best, and to devise other by comparison and circumstance, as cause shal offer, I will runne thorough those particularities, which either make by right, or marre by wrong applying, both all that I have said, or that can be devised in this kinde, to preserve health.

Chapter 28.

Of the circumstances which are to be considered in exercise.

There be six circumstances, which leade and direct all exercises, and are carefully to be considered of, by the trayning [107] maister. For either the missing or mistaking of any one of them, may do harme to more then one, and the using of them with circumspection and warynes, doth procure that good to health, which this whole discourse hitherto hath promised.

The sixe circumstances be these, the nature of the exercise which ye entend to use: the person and body which is to be exercised, the place wherin, the time when, the quantitie how much, the maner how, whereof I do meane to give some particular advertisements so as I do finde the learned physicianes, and wise health maisters to have handled them in their writings, yet by the way least any man either dispaire of the good, and therefore spare the proving, because the forme of exercise doth seeme so intricate, and there with all to much: or if he be entred in triall, and thinke he shall faile, if he misse in some litle, bycause the charge is given so precisely, to keepe al that is enjoyned: I wish him not to thinke either the errour unpardonable, to regard, or the thing unavailable to health, if either all, or any one of these circumstaunces be not absolutely hyt. For as a perfit healthfull body is not to be found by enquirie, which is not to be hoped for in nature, bycause in so continuall a chaunge such a perfitnes cannot chaunce, our bodyes being subject to so many imperfections: so is it no wonder for men to do what they may, and to wish for the best, though still beyond their reach. If any can come neare them, he breakes no right of use, though he misse the rule of art, which alwaye enjoyneth in the precisest sort, but yet resteth content with that which falleth within compasse of ordynarie circumstance. The reason is, art weyeth the matter abstracte, and free from circumstaunce, and therefore having the whole object at commaundement, she may set downe her precept, according to that perfitnes, which she doth conceive: but the execution being chekt with a number of accidentarie occurrences, which art cannot comprehend, as being to infinite to collect, must have one eye to her precept, and an other to hir power, and aske consideration counsell, how to performe that with a number of lettes, and thwartings which, art did prescribe, either without any, or at the left, with not so many. [108]

Chapter 29.

The nature and qualitie of the exercise.

The nature of the exercise which we use, either to recover health and strength, if they be feebled: or to preserve them, that they feeble not, as it is verie forcible to worke this healthfull effect: so it deserveth verie circumspect consideration, in applying and fitting it to the effect: that the exercise in his degree of motion may aunswere the partie in his kinde of constitution: least by jarring that way too farre, they fall into a greater discord. Galene examining the thinges, which do please the displeased infantes, findes out that all their naturall unquietnesse is appeased by three naturall meanes, which the nurse useth, the pappe to feede, the voice to fill, the arme to move. Wherupon he concludeth that meat to nourish, Musicke to delite, motion to exercise be most naturall, which being so, then for the preservation of nature, she must needes have her owne motion, which agreeth best with her owne disposition. For as some exercises go before the maine to prepare the bodie, and some follow to retourne it by degrees into his former state and temper: so some be verie vehement, strong, and strainable: other verie gentle, curteous, and remisse: which must have echone their application, according unto the qualitie, and state of the bodie, wherunto they are to be applyed. They be also as far distinct and different, as particular circunstance can worke alteration in any respect, as their particular titles before did shew, in their particular braunching and division. And yet therein they swarve not from the generalitie of Physicke, which leaning upon some unfallible groundes, yet lighteth still upon some fallible eventes, which make the whole profession to seeme conjecturall, though in the best and surest kinde of conjecture, if the professour have studied to sufficiencie and observed so long, till discretion have saide, the thing is thus. I will not therfore spend any more labour, about a matter of so great confusion, but as they shall fall out, so will I apply them, that by their proper use, their propertie maye appeare. [109]

Chapter 30.

Of the bodies which are to be exercised.

In the bodie which is to take good of exercise, there be three pointes to be considered: for either it is sickly having his operations tainted and weake: or it is healthy and without any extraordinarie and sensible taint: or it is valetudinarie, neither pure sicke nor perfit whole.

To speake first of the weake and sickish bodie, it is to be noted, as hath bene already in parte marked before, that sicknesse assaileth us three wayes: By distemperature, when either the whole bodie, or some parte therof is anoyed with unproportionate heat, cold, drynesse, or moysture: or by misfashioning, when either the whole bodie, or some parte therof, wanteth his due forme, his jumpe quantitie, his just number, his naturall seat: or by division, when any part of the bodie being naturally united upon some weaknesse is dissolved and sundred. And as diseases come by one, or all these three wayes, so health doth defend it selfe by the contrarie, good temperature, good forme, good uniting of partes. It is graunted by the best though contraried by some of the soryest Physicians, that sicke bodies may be put to exercise: so it be well considered before, what kinde of weaknesse the body is in: and what kinde of helpe may be hoped for by the exercise. As for example in sicknesse which commeth by distemperature: if a bodie be distempered with to much heat, it may not be put to any great or earnest exercise, for over heating. If it be to drie and withered, it must forbeare much exercise for feare of overdrying. If it be to hoat and dry both, or to hoat and to moyste both, it must quite abandon exercise, as in the first kinde enflaming, in the second choking. If it be cold and drie it must either never be exercised or verie gently. If it be cold or moyst, then exercise can do it no harme. If it be cold and moyst, it maye boldly abide exercise: which variety commeth upon the effectes, that are wrought by exercises, either in augmenting heat, and stirring humours, or avoiding superfluities. Wherupon the generall conclusion is: that no distempered bodie may use, any great or vehement exercise though some there [110] be, which may venture up on some meane and gentle kinde of stirring, whether the infirmitie concerne the whole bodie, or be so in some parte, as it shake not the whole. If the infirmitie in fashion be casuall and come by late misfortune, (for in this kinde naturall weaknesse is ever excepted) exercise maye do good, bycause it will make that streight, which was croked, that smooth, which was rugged, lay that which was swollen, raise that which was layd, emptie that which was full, fill that which was emptie, open that which was close and shut: and so forth, still working the contrarie to the defect, and thereby the amendment. If the fault be in quantitie, great and swift exercises will abate, and pull downe the flesh, small and slow will fat and thicken it. If the fault be in number, exercise helpeth, as vehement moving driveth the stone and gravell from the straite passages of the kidneyes to the broader, and from thence downe into the bladder. If the fault be in seat, no exercise is good, bycause till the part be restored to his place and site, there is no moving to be used, nor yet long after, for feare of displacing it againe. If the fault come by disunion, exulceration, or gaule, the disuniting of the nobler partes, as the braine, the stomacke, the liver, and such other, specially if it be joyned with any ague excludeth all exercises. The baser partes refuse not meane stirring, as the skinne being devided and disunited with scabbes, which come of salt and sharp humours, by motion is freed and delivered of them. This consideration is to be had in the exercising of sicke bodies, whether the sicknesse come by distemperature of humours, by deformitie in composition, or by disunion of partes.

Concerning valetudinarie bodies, which be neither alwaye sicke, nor ever whole, and such as be upon recoverie after sicknesse, and aged men, whom yeares make weake and sickish, thus I read: that exercise is verie necessarie for the two first, to strengthen their limmes, to dispatche superfluities, to stirre heat, to restore the bodie to his best habite, alwaye provided that the exercise rise from some mediocritie and slownes by degrees to that height, which the parties may well abide. For to earnest and rash exercise will empaire their health more. Olde men, as by want of naturall heat, they grow full of superfluities, [111] so they must have some pleasant and gentle kinde of exercise, both to stirre the heat, and to ridde awaye those needlesse necessities, which of force inferre sicknes, if they be not enforced awaye. And as they be naturally drie, so they must use no exercise, which dryeth to much. Wherein these foure circunstances are to be considered. First their strength, which being not great, requireth but quiet and gentle exercises. For though Prodicus the warie Philosopher in Plato, Antiochus the healthy Physician in Galene, Spurina the considerate counsellour in Plinie, could do straunge thinges in their olde age, by good forsight in their former yeares, yet they be no generall presidentes. Secondly the forme of their bodies. For as good constitutions, can do that meanly and pretily well in their olde age, which they did strongly and stowtly in their youth, so the weake and misfashioned are unfit for exercise. For loude speaking will hurt to narrow bulkes, and any walking fainteth weake legges, and so forth in all imperfections of the like sorte. Thirdly how they have bene used: bycause they will better awaie with their acquainted exercises, then with other, wherunto they have never bene used, the vehemencie and courage of their yong dayes onely excepted. Fourthly what infirmities they be subject unto, as if their heades will soone be giddy, or their eyes sore, or if they be in daunger of sudden falling, then they must avoide all exercises which be offensive to the head. And this rule is generally to be observed in all bodies, that the partes pacient maye not be pressed to sore.

As for healthy and strong bodies, they are to be esteemed not by absolute perfitnesse in measure and rule, which will not be found, but by performing all naturall functions, without any greife or painfull let: wherof in some places there is good plentie. For as generally in so many wayes to weaknesse, our bodies never continuyng any one minute in the same state, perfit health in the absolutest degree is not to be hoped for: so in the second degree of perfection, where no sensible let is, no felt feeblenesse, but all ordinaries excellent, though no excellent extraordinarie, there be many bodies to be found healthfull, lustie, and lasting verie long: as the soile wherin they brede and be is of healthfulnesse, and wholesomnesse. Such a praise [112] doth Galene give to his owne, and Hipocrates his country: Nay that is the common proofe, where small diet, and much labour accompanieth necessitie in state, and good constitution in body. Now these healthfull bodyes, as they dayly feede, and digest well, so to avoide superfluities, which come thereby, bycause no meat is so meete with the body, as it turneth all into nurriture, they must of necessitie pray ayde of exercise, which must be neither to violent, nor to immoderate, but sutable to their constitution, as in the private description the particuler exercise bewrayeth it selfe, and generally the generall reason suffiseth such a trayner, as can use the consideration of circumstance wisely. In exercising of healthy bodies, there be five speciall thinges to be observed. The first is how they have bene used, for looke wherewith they have bene most acquainted, and therein, or in the like they will best continew, and with most ease. The second is what age they be of, for old men must have gentle exercises, children somewhat more stirring, yong men more then they, and yet but in a meane, bycause they are subject to more harme by violence then either children or old men, for that having strong and drie bodyes, thicke and stiffe flesh, fast cleaving to the bone, and the skinne stretched accordingly, they are in great daunger of strong convulsions, and divers ruptures, both of flesh and veines, through extremities of exercise. The third is the state of their body, because fat and grosse men, may abyde much more exercise, then leane may and so in other. The fourth is their kinde of living, for he that eateth much, and sleepeth much, must either exercise much or live but a while. And to the contrary, the spare feeder or great waker, needeth not any such kinde of physicke. The fift is the temperature of their bodyes, for small exercise satisfieth drie or hoat bodyes, in any degree of eager heat. Againe colde bodyes may away with both vehement and very much, for moyst bodyes to avoide superfluities, exercise and labour is very good, so the bodies be not hoat withall, the humor very much and very soone turned into vapour, and that also neare to the lungues for feare of choking after much stirring. Hoat and dry admit no exercise, hoat and moyst, cold and dry admit some litle. But of all constitutions none is more helpt by exercise [113] then the colde and moyst: because heat and clearing, the two effectes of exercise have their owne subject whereon to worke, which must be weyed in complexions, and states of the body.

Chapter 31.

Of the exercising places.

That the place, wherein any thing is done, is of great force to the well or ill performing therof, and specially in natural executions, there can be no better profe, then that we se, not onely plantes and trees, not onely brute beastes and cattell, but also even the bodies and myndes of men to be altered and chaunged, with the varietie and alteration of the place and soyle, so that for the better exercising of the bodies to the preserving or recovering of health, it is verie materiall to limit some certainety concerning the place. Wherin not to dwell long at this time, bycause in the common place both for learning and exercising togither, I shall have occasion to say more of this matter: these foure qualities are to be observed in the place. First the place where ye exercise, must have his ground flowred so, as it be not offensive to the body, as in wrastling not hard to fall on, in daunsing soft, and not slipperie. How angrie would a boie be to be driven to scourge his top in sand, gravel, or deepe rushes? and so forth in the rest: as is most fit for the body exercised, with lest daunger and best dispatch. The second, that the place be either free from any wind at all, or if it be not possible to avoide some, that it be not subject to any sharpe and byting winde: which may do the body some wrong, being open, and therefore ready to receive forreine harme by the ayer. Thirdly that the place be open, and not close nor covered, to have the best and purest ayre at will, whereby the body becommeth more quicke and lively, and after voyding noysom superfluities, may prove lightsome by the very ayer and soyle. Fourthly that there be no contagious nor noysome stenche neare the place of exercise, for feare of infecting that by new corruption, which was lately cleared by healthful motion. Generally if the place cannot be so fit and favourable to exercise, as wish would [114] it were, yet wisedom may win thus much, that he may be as well appointed, to prevent the ill of every both season and circumstance, as possibility can commonly performe. When great conquests had made states almost, nay in deede to wealthie, and libertie of soyle given them place to chuse, they builded to this end mervelous and sumptuous monuments, which time and warres have wasted, but we which must doe as we may, must be content with that, which our power can compasse, and if the worst fall, thinke that he which placed us in the world, hath appointed the world for us for an exercising place, not onely for the body against infections, but also for the mynde against affections, which being herselfe well trayned, doth make the bodie yeelde, to the bent of her choice.

Chapter 32.

Of the exercising time.

Time is devided into accidentarie and naturall, and naturall againe into generall and particular. The naturall time generally construed is ment by the spring, the summer, the harvest and the wynter: particularly by the howers of the day and night. The accidentarie time chaungeth his name still, sometime faire, sometime foule, sometime hoat, sometime colde and so forth. Of this accidentary time this rule is given, that in exercise we chuse, as neare as we can, faire weather, cleare and lightsome to confirme the spirites, which naturally rejoyce in light, and are refreshed thereby: not cloudy, darke and thicke, wherein grosse humours make the bodie dull and heavie: againe when there is either no great, or no verie noysome winde to pearce the open pored body, nor to much forreine heat to enflame the naturall: nor to much cold to stiffen it to sore.

For the naturall time generally taken, Aristotle would have the bodie most exercised in sommer, bycause the naturall heat being then least, and the bodie therefore most burdened with superfluities, then exercise most helpes: both to encrease the inward heat, and to send out those outward dettes. Hippocrates againe giving three principall rules to be kept in exercise, to avoide wearinesse, to walke in the morning, maketh this the [115] third to use both more and longer exercise in the winter and cold weather, and most of his favorites hold that opinion. The reason is, bycause in sommer the heat of the time dryeth the bodie enough, so that it needeth no exercise to wither it to much, where the aire it selfe doth drie it enough. Galene a man of great authoritie in his profession, pronounceth thus in generall, that as temperate bodies are to be exercised in a temperate season which he countes to be the spring: so cold bodies are in hoat weather: hoat in cold, moyst in drie, drie in moyst: meaning thereby that whensoever the bodie seemeth to yeeld towardes any distemperature, then the contrarie both time and place must be fled to for succour. Of these opinions iudgement is to chuse, which it best liketh. Me thinke upon divers considerations, they maye all stand well without any repugnance, seing neither Hippocrates nor Galene, deny exercise in sommer simply, and Aristotle doth shew what it worketh in sommer.

For the naturall time particularly taken, thus much is said, that it is unwholesome to exercise after meat, bycause it hindereth digestion by dispersing the heat, which should be assembled wholly to further and helpe digestion. And yet both Aristotle, and Avicene, allow some gentle walking after meat, to cause it so much the sooner setle downe in the stomacke, specially if one meane to sleepe shortly after. But for exercise before meate, that is excedingly and generally commended, bycause it maketh the naturall heat strong against digesting time, and driving away unprofitable humours, disperseth the better and more wholesome, thorough out the whole bodie, wheras after meate it filleth it with rawnesse, and want of digestion: bycause moving marres concoction, and lets the boyling of the stomacke. Now in this place there be three thinges to be considered.

First that none venture upon any exercise, before the bodie be purged naturally, by the nose, the mouth, the belly, the bladder, bycause the contrarie disperseth that into the bodie, which should be dismissed and sent awaie: nor before the overnightes diet be thoroughly digested, for feare of to much superfluitie, besides crudity and cholere. Belching and urine be argumentes of perfit or unperfit digestion. The whiter urine [116] the worse and weaker digestion, the yealower, the better.

The second consideration is, that no exercise be medled withall the stomacke being verie emptie, and wearie hungrie, least ravening cause overreaching, and Hippocrates condemne you, for linking labour with hunger, a thing by him in his aphorismes forbid.

The third consideration is not to eate streight after the exercise, before the bodie be reasonably setled. Yet corpulent carcases, which labour to be lightened of their cariage, be allowed their vittail, though they be puffing hoat. The cause why this distance betwene moving and meate is enjoyned, is this, for that the bodie is still a clearing, while it is yet hoat: and the excrementes be but fleeting: so that neither the partie can yet be hungrie, nor the heat entend digestion. Wherupon they counsell him that is yet hoat after exercise, neither to wash himselfe in cold water: nor to drinke wine, nor cold water. Bycause washing will hurt the open body, wine will streight waye steeme up into the head, cold water will offend the belly and lyver, yea sometime gaule the sinewes, nay sometime call for death.

What houres of the daie were best for exercise, the auncient Physicians for their soile, in their time, and to their reason, appointed it thus. In the spring about noone, for the temperatenesse of the aire: in sommer in the morning, to prevent the heat of the daie: in harvest and winter towardes night: bycause the morninges be cold, the dayes short, and to be employed otherwise: and the meat before that time will lightly be well digested. But now in our time, the diet being so farre altered, and never a circumstance the same, no time is fitter for exercise then the morninge somewhat before meate: though we entreat the Muses not to wonder and muse at it, that we be so boulde with our and their common friend, I meane the morning, seeing we seeke to have learning and health joyned together. Which falling both most fit in the morning, doth lend us an argument to prove that they were ill sundred, whom the samenes of time so uniteth together. In the morning the bodie is light, being delivered of excrementes, strong after sleepe, free from common lettes and without any perill of indigestion, all which fall out [117] quite contrarie in the evening. If any writer allow any other houre after meate, it is in some extremitie of sicknesse, not in respect of exercise: as when the weather is most lowring, and children most heavie and dumpish, why is not then the fittest time to play, by chearing the minde, to lighthen the bodie?

Chapter 33.

Of the quantitie that is to be kept in exercise.

All they which use exercises use them either not so much as they should, and that doeth small good, or more then they should, and that doeth much harme, or so as they should, and that doeth muchgood. Wherupon he that hath skill to crie ho, when he is at the height of his exercise, wherwith nature feeleth her selfe to be best content, knoweth best wherein the best measure consisteth. But how may one know the verie pitche in exercise, and when it were best for one to crie ho? principally by these two generall limittes. Wherof the first is, when a vapour mingled with sweat is sensibly perceived to proceede from the bodie: when the vaines begin to swell, and the breathing to alter. For wheras the ende of exercise is to strengthen the bodie, and to encrease the naturall heat, whereby the wholesome juyce is digested, and distributed to the nurriture of the other partes: and unprofitable residences discharged: if the excercise come not to these degrees of sweat, swelling, and breathing, it is to weake to worke those effectes, which it doth undertake. The second generall limit is, to continue the exercise so long, as the face and bodie shall have a fresh colour, the motion shalbe quicke and in proportion, and no wearynesse worth the speaking shalbe felt. For if the colour begin to faint, or the bodie to be gaunt, or wearynesse to wring, or the motion to shrinke, or the sweat to alter in qualitie from hoat to cold, in quantitie from more to lesse, which should naturally encrease with the exercise, then crie ho, for feare of thinning the bodye to much, of consuming the good and ill juyces together, of weakning the naturall heat, of destroying in steade of strengthning: bycause these be evident shewes, that the bodie wasteth, cooleth and dryeth more then it should. [118]

Now as these be generall staies not to proceede further, but to rest when we are well: so there be other more particuler, wherein there is regard to be had, to the strength or weakenes of the partie, to the age, to the time of the yeare, to the temperature of the body, to the kinde of life. For in all these measure is a mery meane, and immoderatenes a remeadilesse harme.

They that be of good strength may continue longer in exercise, then any other, without some great occasion to the contrary: though they faint, and feele some litle lassitude and wearines, bycause they will quickly recover themselves. Those that be but weake must exercise but a while, bycause any small taint in them, is long and hard to be recovered, and therefore their limit is to be warme, and to be ware of sweating.

As touching the difference in age. Olde men, yea though they use the same exercises, wherewith they were acquainted when they were yong, yet must leave ear they either sweat or begin to be wearie, bycause they are drye and wythered. Men of middle age must of necessitie keepe the meane lymit, bycause too much offendes them, to litle doth them litle good, both hinder the state of their bodies. Youth from seven till one and twenty, will abyde much exercising, very well: wherefore they are allowed without daunger to be hoat and chafe, to puffe and blow, to sweat, to be wearie also to some degree of lassitude: for being full of excrementes by reason of ther reacheles diet, they finde great ease in labour and sweat: and being strong withall, a litle wearines makes them litle worse. And yet there must be great eye had to them, that they keepe within compasse, and so much the more, the lesse they be above seven yeare old. For too much exercise in those yeares marres their growing, and alters the constitution of their bodies to the worse.

For the time of the yeare. In Winter the exercise may be great, till the body be hotte: but yet sweat not, lest the cold do harme. In the Spring more even till it sweat, in the Harvest lesse, in the Sommer least: because the ayre which environeth the body, doth then of it selfe so wearie and weaken it, as it needeth neither sweating, nor heating, nor wearying with exercise, wherein Hippocrates and his Phisicke will prevaile against [119] Aristotle and his Philosophie.

For the temperature of the body: Moyst bodies may abide much exercise, by much stirring to drie up much moisture, so that they may sweat, and yet they must take heede of wearynes. Dry bodies may very ill away with any exercise, and if with any, it must be such as will neither cause heat nor sweat. Could bodies may move till they be throughly warme. Hoat bodies must be deintily delt withall. For heat, sweat, and great chaunge of their breathing be enemies to their complexion. Hoat and dry for feare of encreasing their qualities to much must be content with either no exercise at all, or with verie litle. Cold and dry may abyde stirring in respect of their coldnes, till they be warme: but for feare of overdrying they must not venture upon sweat. Hoat and moyst must use moderate exercise, bycause to litle dyminisheth not their superfluous moysture: to much melteth to fast, and warmth to much. Whereupon daungerous flixes ensue: so that they must needes avoid great alteration of breath, and to much warmeth. Cold and moyst may exercise them selves till they blow, till they be hoat, and till they sweat. To be short, of any constitution this may best abide exercise, to emptie it of needelesse humors, to stirre the natural heat, and to procure perfit digestion. Sickemen may not dreame of any definite quantitie in their exercises, bycause according to the variety of their infirmities, both their exercises, and the quantities thereof must be proportionally applyed: so that there can be no certaine rule set for them.

Such as be newly recovered from sicknes, or that be on the mending hand, bycause their strength is feeble, their heat weake, their lymes dryed up, must content themselves with small and competent exercise, for feare of no small inconvenience. Their limit therfore must be to stirre, but not to change breath, to warme, but not to heat, to labour, but not to be wearie: yet as their health growes, their exercise may encrease.

For the kinde of life. Such as live moderately and with great continencie, though they be not full of superfluities, and therfore neede not exercise much: yet they must not abandon it quite, least their bodies for want therof, becomming unweildie, lease both the benefit of naturall heat, and good constitution, [120] and avoid not such residence, as of force breedes in them, and in the ende will cause some sicknes crepe on, which comes without warning, bycause Jupiter, as both Hesiode sayeth, and Plutarch subscribeth, hath cut her toungue out, least she tell, when she comes, for that he would have her come stealing, eare she be perceived, as Galene also maketh the litle unperceived, or for the smallnesse contemned to be mother to all illes both of bodie and soule. Incontinence breedes much matter for exercise: and therefore requireth much, cheifly to procure sound sleepe, the captaine cause of good digestion. Such as have not used exercises before, and be novices in the trade, must first be purged, then by meane and moderate ascents, day by day be well applyed, till they come to that degree, wherein those are, which have bene acquainted therewith before. But in all those degrees and mediocrities, immoderate exercise must alway be eschewed, as a very capitall enemie to health causing children not to prosper nor grow: lustie men to fall into unequall distemperatures, and oftimes agues: oldmen to become dry and overwearied. To conclude who is it, to whom it doth not some harme, and from whom it keepeth not some great good. These be the tokens, whereby immoderate exercises be discerned, if ye feele your joyntes to be very hoat: if you perceive your body to be dry and unequall: if in your travell you feele some pricking in your flesh, as if it were of some angrie push: if after sweating your colour become pale: if you finde your selfe faint and wearie more then ordinary, which wearines, fayntnesse and pricking, occupy the credit of a great circumstance in physicke, of Galene, and greeke physicianes called {Greek} of the latines and our Linacer lassitudines, and come upon dissolution and thinning of grosse humours, being to many at that time to cleare the body of, and pricking as they passe like some angrie bile within the body, whereby the body is both forced to make an end of exercise, and withall is verie wearysome, and stif oftymes after.

Chapter 34.

Of the maner of exercising.

Galene in the second booke of his preservative to health knitteth up three great thinges in verie few wordes, that [121] who so can handle the exercises in due maner, with the apotherapeutike, or governing the body after exercise, and his frictions to rubbe it and chafe it as it should be, is an absolute trayner in his kinde. Wherein we may see the use of chafing, and rubbing the body both to be verie auncient, and very healthfull, to warme the outward partes, to open the passages for superfluitie, and to make one active and chearie to deale with any thing afterward. It hath his place every day at tymes, every yeare in seasons, altering upon circumstance, but still both needefull and healthfull, and clearith where it chafeth. For the apotherapeutike much hath bene saide already: wherefore this place must serve peculiarly for the maner of exercising.

They of old time to whom these rules were first given having all thinges at their will, and sparing for no cost, neither straited for want of time, which they disposed as they listed, and to whom the traine bycause of their libertie and leasure was properly bequeathed, did use many circumstances both ear they entred into their exercise, and when they were in it, and also after that they had ended it, ear they went to meat. Which their curious course, I will briefly runne through, onely to let them see it, which can do no more but see it, bycause the circumstances of our time will skant suffer any to assay it. After that they felt their former meat fully digested, and had at leysure performed what belonged to the purging of their bodies, they disrobed themselves, and were chafed with a gentle kinde of rubber, till that the freshnes of their colour, and agilytie of their joyntes seemed to call for exercise. Then were they oynted with sweete oyle so neatly and with such cunning, as it might sooke into their bodies, and search everie joynt. That being done if they ment to wrastle, they threw dust upon the oyntment: if not, they went to the exercise, which they had most fansie unto, which being ended they rested a while, then with certaine scrapers called Strigiles, they had all their filth scrapte of their bodies: afterward they were chafed and rubbed againe, then oynted also againe, either in the Sunne or by the fire. Then to the bath, last of all apparelling themselves they fell to their meat. And this was not one or two, nor men of might alone, but every one and of every sort, nay, shall I say it? [122] even of every sex. A long and a laboriouse travell, and an argument of much ease, and to much adoe in that, which should be more common.

But in these our dayes, considering we neither have such places wherin, nor the persons by whose helpe, nor the leasure by whose sufferance we maye entend so delicate a tendring of our selves, and yet for all that may not neglect so great a misterie for our owne health, as exercise is, though we cannot reatch to the olde, which perhaps we neede not, smaller provision and simpler fourniture, will serve our turne, and worke the same effectes, nay may fortune better, by helpe of some circunstance peculiar to our selves. Therefore for our maner and order of exercise, these few and easie considerations may seeme to be sufficient: To cleare our bodies from superfluities echewaye, to combe our heades, to wash our handes and face, to apparell our selves for the purpose, to begin our exercise first slowly, and so grow on quicker, to rebate softly, and by gentle degrees, to change our sweatie clothes, to walke a litle after, last of all our bodies being setled, to go to our meate. This is that which I promised to note concerning the six circunstances of exercise.

Chapter 35.

An advertisement to the training maister. Why both the teaching of the minde, and the training of the bodie be assigned to the same maister. The inconveniences which ensue, where the bodie and soule be made particular subjectes to severall professions. That who so will execute anything well, must of force be fully resolved of the excellency of his owne subject. Out of what kinde of writers the exercising maister may store himselfe with cunning. That the first groundes would be laid by the cunningest workeman. That private discretion in any executor is of more efficacie then his skill.

I have already spoken of the parties, which are to be exercised, and what they are to observe: nowe must I saye somwhat of him, and to him, which is to direct the exercise, and how he may procure sufficient knowledge, wherby to do it exceeding well. And yet the trainers person is but a parcell of [123] that person, whom I do charge with the whole. For I do assigne both the framing of the minde, and the training of the bodie to one mans charge, whose sufficiencie may verie well satisfie both, being so neare companions in linke, and not to be uncoupled in learning. The causes why I medle in this place with the training maister, or rather the training parte of the common maister, be these: first I did promise in my methode of exercises so to do: secondly the late discours of exercise will somwhat lighten this matter, and whatsoever shall be said here, may easely be revived there, where I deale with the generall maister. Beside this, exercise being so great a braunche of education as the sole traine of the whole bodie, maye well commaunde such a particular labour, though in deede I sever not the persons, where I joine the properties. For in appointing severall executions, where the knowledge is united, and the successe followeth by the continuall comparing of the partes, how they both maye, or how they both do best proceede in their best way, how can that man judge wel of the soule, whose travell consisteth in the bodie alone? or how shall he perceive what is the bodies best, which having the soule onely committed to his care, posteth over the bodie as to an other mans reckening? In these cases both fantsie workes affection, and affection overweyneth, either best liking where it fantsieth most, or most following, where it affecteth best, as it doth appeare in Divines, who punish the bodie, to have the soule better, and in Physicians, who looke a side at the soule, bycause the bodie is there best. Where by the way I observe, the different effectes which these two subjectes, being severed in charge, do offer unto their professours. For the health of the soule is the Divines best, both for his honest delite, that it doth so well, and for his best ease, that himselfe faires so well. For an honest, vertuous, godly and well disposed soule, doth highly esteeme and honorably thinke of the professour of divinitie, and teacher of his religion, bycause vertuous dealinges, godly meditations, heavenly thoughtes, which the one importeth, be the others portion, and the best food, to a well affected minde: Wherupon in such a healthy disposition of a well both informed and reformed soule, the Divine can neither lacke honor for his person, [124] nor substance for his purse.

Now to the contrarie the health of the bodie, which is the Physicians subject, is generally his worst, though it be the ende of his profession, which though he be glad of his owne good nature, as he is a man, or of his good conscience, as he is a Christian, that the bodie doth wel, yet his chymny doth not smoke where no pacient smartes. For the healthfull bodie commonly careth not for the Physician, it is neede that makes him sought. And as the Philosopher sayeth, if all men were freindes, then justice should not neede, bycause no wrong would be offered: so if all bodies were whole that no distemperature enforced: or if the Divine were well and duetifully heard, that no intemperance distempered, Physick should have small place: Now the contrary dealinges, bycause the divine is not heard, and distemperature not avoided, do enforce Physick, for the healing parte of it, as the mother of the professours gaine: where as the preserving part neither will be kept by the one, neither enricheth the other. In these two professions we do generally see, what the severing of such neare neighbours doth bring to passe, like two tenantes in one house belonging to severall lordes. And yet the affections of the one so tuch the other, as they cause sometimes, both the Divine to thinke of the body, for the better support of the soule: and the Physician to thinke of the soule to helpe him in his cure with comfort and courage. The severing of those two, sometime shew us verie pitifull conclusions, when the Divine dilivers the desperate sicke soule, over to the secular magistrate, and a forcible death by waye of punishement: and the Physician delivereth the desperate sicke bodie, to the Divines care, and a forced ende by extremitie of disease. I dare not saye that these professions might joyne in one person, and yet Galene examining the force which a good or ill soule hath to imprint the like affections in the bodie, would not have the Physician to tarie for the Phylosopher but to play the parte himselfe. Where to much distraction is, and subalterne professions be made severall heads, there the professions make the most of their subjectes, and the subjectes receive least good, though they parte from most. And severall professing makes the severall trades to swell beyond proportion, everie one [125] seeking to make the most of his owne, nay rather vanting his owne, as simply the highest, though it creepe very low. And therefore in this my traine I couch both the partes under one maisters care. For while the bodie is committed to one, and the soule commended to an other, it falleth out most times, that the poore bodie is miserably neglected, while nothing is cared for but onely the soule, as it proveth true in very zealous Divines: and that the soule it selfe is but sillyly looked to, while the bodie is in price, and to much borne with, as is generally seene: and that in this conflicte the diligent scholer in great strength of soule, beares mostwhat about him, but a feeble, weake, and a sickish bodie. Wherefore to have the care equally distributed which is due to both the partes, I make him but one, which dealeth with both. For I finde no such difficultie, but that either for the cunning he may compasse it: or for the travell he maye beare it, having all circunstances free by succession in houres. Moreover as the temperature of the soule smelleth of the temperature of the bodie, so the soule being well affected, will draw on the bodie to her bent. For will a modest and a moderate soule but cause the body obey the rule of her temperance? or if the soule it selfe be reclaymed from follie, doth it not constraine the bodie forth with to follow? So that it were to much to sunder them in charge, whose dispositions be so joyned, and the skill of such facilitie, as may easely be attained, and so much the sooner, bycause it is the preserving parte, which requireth most care in the partie, and but small in the trainer, as the healinge parte of Physicke requireth most cunning in the professour, and some obedience in the patient.

I do make great account of the parties skill, that is to execute matters which besides diligence require skill: for if he be skilfull himselfe, it almost needes not to give precept. If he be not, it altogither bootes not. If he be skillfull he will execute well, bycause he can helpe the thing, which he must execute if particuler occurrence pray aide at the sudden: if he want skill he will lightly mangle that, which is wel set downe, if he be a medler. Wherefore seing I wish the executors cunning, and yet must be content to take him as I finde him: I [126] will do my best both to instruct infirmitie, and to content cunning. I must therefore have him to thinke, that there be two properties which he must take to be of most efficacie to make a cunning executor. The one is to be ravished with the excellencie and worthynes of the thing which he is to execute. The other is, if he may very easily attaine unto some singuler knowledge in so noble a subject, which both concur in this present execution.

For graunting the soule simply the preheminence both in substance of being, and in traine to be bettered, can there be any other single subject, (which I say in respect of a communitie directed by divine and humaine law, that is compound, and the principall subject of any mans dealing,) can there be any single subject I say of greater nobilitie, and more worthy to be in love with, either by the partie, that is to finde it, or by him that is to frame it, then healthfullnes of body? which so toucheth the soule as it shakes it withall, if it selfe be not sownd?

What a treasure health is, they that have it do finde, though they feele it not till it faile, when want bewrayes what a jewell they have lost, and their cost discovers how they mynde the recoverie. The ende of our being here is to serve God and our country, in obedience to persons, and perfourmance of duties: If that may be done with health of bodie, it is effectuall and pithie: if not, then with sorow we must shift the soner, and let other succede, with no more assurance of life, then we had made us, without this healthful misterie: in perpetuall change to let the world see, that multitude doth supply with number the defect of a great deale better, but to sone decaying paucity.

To live and that long of whom is it not longed for, as Gods blessing if he know God: as the benefit of nature, if he be but a naturall man.

The state of our bodie, when we are in good health, so lively and lusty, so comfortable and cleare, so quicke and chearie, in part and in hole, doth it not paint us, and point us the valew of so preciouse a jewell, as health is to be esteemed?

The pitifull grones, the lamentable shrikes, the lothsome lookes, the image of death, nay of a pyning death, yea in hope of recovery: the rufull heavines, the wringing handes, the wayling [127] friendes, all blacke before blacke, when health is in despaire, do they not crie and tell us, what a goodly thing health is, themselves being so griesly?

So many monuments left by learned men, so much sumptuousnes of the mightiest princes, so many inventions of the noblest wittes bestowed upon exercises to maintaine this diamond, are they not sufficient to enflame the executour, being a partaker him selfe, and a distributer to others, that the subject wherein he dealeth is both massie, most worth, and most mervelous? let him thinke it to be so, bycause he seeth it is so, and upon that presumption proceede to his so healthfull, and so honorable an execution. In whom his owne judgement is of speciall force to further his good speede. For being well resolved in the excellencie of his owne subject he will both himselfe execute the better, and perswade other sooner to embrace that with zeale, which he professeth with judgement. If you will have me weepe for you, saith the Poet, then weepe you first: he shall hardly perswade an other to like of that, which is his owne choice, who shall himselfe not seeme to set by it, where himselfe hath set his choise.

The knowledge wherewith, and how to deale therein is so much the easier, bycause it is so generall, and so many wayes to be wonne. I will not seeme to raise up the memorie which can never dye, given to this traine by all both old and new histories: which prayse those vertues and valiances, which they found, but had never had matter to praise, nor vertues to finde, if exercises had not made the personages praiseworthy, whereby they did such thinges, and of so great admiration, as had bene unpossible to any not so trained as they were. What Philosopher describeth the fairest forme of the worthiest common weale, either by patterne of one person, as allowing that state best, where one steares all: or by some greater multitude, as preferring that government, where many make much stirre: but he doth alwaye, when he dealeth with the youth, and first trayning of that state, not onely make mention, but a most speciall matter of exercise for health?

Who is it in any language that handleth the Paedagogicall argument, how to bring up youth, but he is arrested there, [128] where exercise is enfraunchised? As for the Physicians, it is a principall parcell of their fairest patrimonie, bycause it is naturally subject, and so learnedly proved to be by Galene in his booke intitled Thrasybulus, to that parte of their profession which seeketh to preserve health, and not to tarie till it come to ruine, with their gaine to repare it, though it still remaine ruinous and rotten, which is so repared. Therefore whensoever the maintenance of health, is the inscription of the booke, this title of exercise hath some evidence to shew. Further in the discours of Exercises we finde eche where the names of diet, of waking, of sleeping, of moving, of resting, of distemperature, of temperature, of humours, of elementes, of places, of times, of partes of the bodie, of the uses therof, of frictions and chafings, of lassitude and wearinesse, and a number such, which when the training maister meeteth with among the Physicians, or naturall Philosophers, what els say they unto him, but that where ye finde us before the dore, ye may be bold to come in? As for naturall Philosophy the ground mistresse to Physik it must needes be the foundacion to this whole traine. Hence the causes be fet, which prove eche thing either good or bad, either noysome or needefull to health. All naturall problemataries, dipnosophistes, symposiakes, antiquaries, warmaisters, and such as deale with any particular occurence of exercise, if ye appose them well: you shall finde them your freindes. This terme Gymnastice, which emplyeth in name, and professeth in deede, the arte of exercise, is the verie seat, wheron the trainer must builde. And therefore all either whole bookes, or particular discourses in any writer by the waie, concerning this argument, do will him to rest there. In which kinde, for the professed argument of the whole booke, I know not any comparable to Hieronymus Mercurialis, a verie learned Italian Physician now in our time, which hath taken great paines to sift out of all writers, what so ever concerneth the whole Gymnasticall and exercising argument, whose advice in this question I have my selfe much used, where he did fit my purpose.

By these reasons I do see, and by some proofe I have found, that the waye to be skilfull in the preseruative part of Physick and so consequently in exercises, as the greatest member therof, [129] is very ready and direct, bycause it is so plaine, so large, and with all so pleasant: as it is also most honorable, bycause it seekes to save us from that, which desireth our spoile. And therefore this execution requireth a liberall courage, where the gaine is not great, but the disposition much praised. The repairers get the pence, the preservers reason faire. And as the effect commendes the knowledge: so being of it selfe thus necessarie for all, a student may with great credit travell in the cunning, if it were for no more but to helpe his owne health, and upon better affection, or some gainfull offer to empart it with other. For to helpe himselfe he is bound in nature, and will do it in deede: to do good to all if he may, he is bound by dutie, and so sure he ought. But to helpe as many as he may, and himselfe to, what nature can but love? what dutie can but like? chiefly where the thing which he must do, may be done with ease, and the good which he shall do, shall gaine him praise, besides the surplus of profit. Some will say perhaps to traine up children, what needes so much cunning: or in so petie a matter what needes so much labour? Though I entreat of it here, where it first beginnes, yet it stretcheth unto all, both ages and persons: neither is the matter so meane, which is the readiest meane to so great a good, but if it were meane, the meanest matter requireth not the meanest maister, to have it well done: and the first groundworke would be layd by the best workeman. For who can better teach to reade, then he which for skill can commaund the language? And what had more neede to be exactly done then that principle, which either marreth the whole sequele, with insufficiencie, or maketh all sound, being it selfe well layd? The thing you will graunt to be of such efficacie, such an executor you despaire of: such a man may be had, nay a number of such may be had, if recompence be provided to answere such sufficiencie. The common not opinion but error is, he hath cunning enough for such a small trifle. It is not that small which he hath, that can do the thing well, but your skill is small, to thinke that any small skill, can do any thing well. He must know a great deale more then he doth, which must do that well, which he doth: bycause store is the deliverer of the best effectes, neede [130] which sheweth all at once, is but a sorie steward, and must put in band, that he hath some credit, though verie smal substance.

For the skill of the trayner I take it to be verie evident, both whence it may be had, and how plentiful a store house he hath for his provision. Thence he may have the generall groundes, and causes of his cunning.

But there is a third thing yet besides these two, which is proper to his owne person, which if he have not, his cunning is worth nought. For though he see and embrace the the worthines of his subject, though he have gathered in his whole harvest from out of all writers, yet if he want discretion how to apply it according unto that, which is most fit to the verie meanest not bowghes and branches, but even the twigges and sprigges of the petiest circumstances, he is no skillfull trayner: but so much the more daungerous, the more helpe of learning he hath, which will bolden him to much. Therefore of these two other pointes, the one being throughly resolved on, the other perfitly obtained, and all the contemplative reasons well understoode, he must bend his wittes to wey the particularities, whereby both the generall conclusions be brought to be profitable, and his owne judgement to be thought discrete. The want of this is the cause of such a number of discoursers, which swarm ech where, and both like their owne choice, and can say pretily well to the generall position, which is not denyed to any toward youthe, but they shew themselves altogither lame in the particuler applying, which is a thing that attendeth onely upon experience and yeares. The having of it will provide us notable store of excellent executours, to all their profites, upon whom they shall execute. Aristotle the great philosopher in all his morall discourses tieth all those vertues which make mens maners praiseworthie, and be subject to circumstances, to the rule of foresight and discretion, whose commendation he placeth in skill of speciallities to direct mens doinges. Therefore it is no dishonour to the trayner, to be reclaymed unto discretion, which hath all those so many and so manerly vertues to attend upon her traine. Is not death commendable, and ascribed to valiancie, when it is voluntary, for the common good, by reason of the circumstance? and [131] the saving of life is it not basely thought of, when it had bene better spent, considering the circumstance? Which circumstance is the line to live by, the guide to all our doinges, the tuchestone to try a contemplative creature from an active courage.

In the course of training, a thousand difficulties not possible to be forseene by the generall direction, will offer themselves, and appose the maister, and at the sudden must be salved. What will the trainer do? runne to his booke? nay to his braines. He must remember his rule, that indivisibles and circunstances be beyond the reach of arte: and are committed to the Artificer whose discretion must helpe, where arte is to weake: though she give him great light, by fitting this to that, when he hath found wherfore. Arte setteth downe the exercise and all the knowen circunstances. The person bringes with it some difficultie in execution, where is the succour? Arte will not relent, she can not make curtsie, her knees be groune stiffe, and her jointes fast knit, and yet curtsie there must be. The Artificer must make it, and assist his ladie, which if she had not had a man to be her meane, she her selfe would have done all, and trusting to man whom she hath made her meane, why should she be deceyved, and her clyentes be abused, where she commendes them of trust? Children that come to schoole dwel not in one house, not in the same streate, nay not in the same towne, they cannot lightly come at one houre, they be not of one age, nor fit for one exercise, and yet they must have some. The arte knoweth my child no more then my neighbours, but the trainer must, and stay those uncertainties upon the arrest of discretion: being enstructed afore hand in the generall skill though bound but of voluntarie: as the like cause shall lead the like case.

The rule is, no noysome savour neare the newly exercised: how shall the poore boye do, that is to go home thorough stinking streates, and filthy lanes.

The rule is, change apparell after sweat: what if he have none other? or not there where he sweateth? Here must the trainers discretion shew it selfe, either to chuse exercises that be not subject to any such extremities, or to use them with the [132] fewest. But I am to long, neither neede I to doubt of mens discretion, though I say thus much of it, which many have and moe wishe for, I shall have occasion to supplie the rest in the generall teacher.

Thus have I runne thorough the whole argument of exercises, and shewed not onely what I thinke of them in generall, but also what be the cheife particulars, and the circunstances belonging thereunto: and according to my promise I have delt with the training maister, and overtreated him to thinke honorably of his profession, to gather knowledge where it is abundantly to be got: and last of all to joine discretion as a third companion to his owne admiration and sufficiency.

Chapter 36.

That both young boyes, and young maidens are to be put to learne. Whether all boyes be to be set to schoole. That to many learned be to burdenous: to few to bare: wittes well sorted civill, missorted seditious. That all may learne to write and read without daunger. The good of choice, and ill of confusion. The children which are set to learne, having either riche or poore freindes: what order and choice is to be used in admitting either of them to learne. Of the time to chuse.

Now that the thinges be appointed, wherwith the minde must be first furnished, to make it learned, and the bodie best exercised, to keepe it healthfull, we are next to consider of those persons, which are to be instructed in this furniture, and to be preserved by this exercise: which I take to be children of both sortes, male and female, young boyes and young maidens, which though I admit here generally, without difference of sex, yet I restraine particularly upon difference in cause, as herafter shall appeare. But young maidens must give me leave to speake of boyes first: bycause naturally the male is more worthy, and politikely he is more employed, and therfore that side claimeth this learned education, as first framed for their use, and most properly belonging to their kinde: though of curtsie and kindnesse they be content to lend their female in youth, the use of their traine in part, upon whom in age they bestow [133] both themselves, and all the frute of their whole traine.

It might seeme sufficient for the determining of this case, to say onely thus much: that they must needes be boyes which are to be trained in this sorte, as I have declared, bycause the bringing up of young maidens in any kynd of learning, is but an accessory by the waye. But for so much as there be many considerations in the persons, both of boyes and maidens worthy the deciding, I meane to entreat of them both somwhat largely: and as neare as I can, to resolve both my selfe and my reader in some pointes of controversie and necessitie, or rather in some pointes of apparent necessities, being out of all controversie. For the male side, that doubt is long ago out of doubt, that they be to be set to schoole, to qualifie themselves, to learne how to be religious and loving, how to governe and obey, how to fore cast and prevent, how to defende and assaile, and in short, how to performe that excellently by labour, wherunto they are borne but rudely by nature. For the very excellency of executions and effectes where by we do so great things, as we wonder at our selves in all histories and recordes of time, (which be but stages for people to gase on, and one to marvell at an others doings) testifieth and confirmeth that it were great pitie, that such towardnesse should be drowned in us for lacke of education, which never comes to proofe, but where education is the meane. That we can prove learned, the effect doth shew, but that not unlesse we learne, the defect declares. That our bodies can do great thinges, healthfull strength is witnesse to it selfe: but where weaknesse is, what doinges there be, verie want will pronounce. But now in the way of this so commended a traine, there be two great doubtes which crosse me. The first is, whether all children be to be set to schoole, without restraint to diminish the number. The second is, how to worke restraint, if it be thought needefull. Touching the first question, whether all children be to be set to schoole or no, without repressing the infinitie of multitude, it is a matter of great weight, and not only in knowledge to be resolved upon, but also in deede so to be executed, as the resolution shall probably give sentence. For the bodie of a common weale in proportion is like unto a naturall bodie. In a naturall bodie, if any [134] one parte be to great, or to small, besides the eye sore it is mother to some evill by the verie misfourming, wherupon great distemperature must needes follow in time, and disquiet the whole bodie. And in a bodie politike if the like proportion be not kept in all partes, the like disturbance will crepe thorough out all partes. Some by to much will seeke to bite to sore, some by to litle will be trode on to much: as both will distemper: which if it fortune not to kill in the ende, yet it will disquiet where it greives, and hast forward the ende. But though the pestering of number do overlaie the most professions and partes of any common weale, and harme there where it doth so overcharge, yet I will not medle with any, but this of learning and the learner, which I have chosen to be my peculiar subject. Wherof I saye thus, that to many learned be to burdenous, that to few be to bare, that wittes well sorted be most civill, that the same misplaced be most unquiet and seditious.

To many burdens any state to farre: for want of provision. For the rowmes which are to be supplyed by learning being within number, if they that are to supply them, grow on beyound number, how can yt be but too great a burden for any state to beare? To have so many gaping for preferment, as no goulfe hath stoore enough to suffise, and to let them rome helpeles, whom nothing else can helpe, how can it be but that such shifters must needes shake the verie strongest piller in that state where they live, and loyter without living? which needeles superfluitie fleeting without seat, what ill can it but breede? A dangerous residence it is at hoome, still seeking shiftes to live as they may, though with enemitie to order, which neede cannot see. A perilous searcher it is abroode, to seeke to fish in a troubled water, if any cause promote their quarrell, bycause the cleare is not for them, which they have sounded allready. Sure neede is an imperious mistres to force conclusions, whether shee build upon fantsie and desire, which is a maniheaded neede, even before neede, and mostwhat without neede: or upon meere lacke and want in deede, which though it have but one head, yet that one is exceeding strong, importunate, and furiouse. And shee hath at hand to salve her mischiefes, a ready and an ordinarie excuse, wherewith she will [135] seeme to crave pardon for all that is done by needy men, as there unto enforced by her inevitable violence. A violent remeady, which doth not heale infections, but will alleage cause, where to have mischiefes excused and foregiven.

Wherfore if these mens misdemeanour come of their owne ill, which provision cannot prevent, bycause in best provision ill will be ill, so farre as it dare shew, where wealth workes wantonnes, it deserves correction and punishment. If it come of necessitie, for want of foresight in publike government, to helpe the common, from common blame, and to provide for the private: it would be amended and not suffered to runne, till the harme being received and felt, cause the question be moved, whether such a mischiefe proceede from private insolence, or publike negligence. For as the private is to pay, if it do not performe, when the publike hath provided: so the publike must pardon, if for insufficient foresight, the private prove dissolute, and lend the state a blow. But for my number I neede not to dwell any longer in to many, for troubling all with to many wordes, seeing all wise men see, and all learned men say, that it is most necessary to disburden a common weale of unnecessary number, and multitude in generall, which in some countries they compassed by brothelry, and common stewes, to let the yong spring: in some by exposition and spoile of enfantes, both contrary to nature, and contermaunded by religion: but according to their pollicie and commaunded by their countries. In particuler disposing of them that lived, they cast their account, and as the proportion of their states did suffer: so did they allote them with choice, and constrained them to obey. If such regard for multitude be to be had in any one braunche of the common weale, it is most needefull in schollers. For they professe learning, that is to say the soule of a state: and it is to perilous to have the soule of a state to be troubled with their soules, that is necessary learning with unnecessary learners, or the publike body with their private, which is the common wealth with their private want. For in all proportion, to much is to bad, and to much out of all proportion, and to have to much even of the soule, is not the soundest, where her offices be appointed and lymited in certaine. [136] Superfluitie and residence bring sickenes to the body, and must not to much then infect the soule sore, being in a simpathie with the body? Scholers by reason of their conceit which learning inflameth, as no meane authority saith, become to imperiall to rest upon a litle: and by their kinde of life which is allway idle they prove to disdainefull to deale with labour, unlesse neede make them trot, or the Turkish captivitie catch them, the greatest foe that can fall upon idle people, where labour is looked for, and they not used to it. Contentment in aspiring, which is hard to such wittes, and patience in paines which they never learned, be the two cognisances, whereby to discerne a civill wit, and fit to enjoye the benefit of his countrie. Now of all overflush in number, is not that most dangerous, which in conceit is loftie, and in life loytering, as the unbestowed scoller by profession is?

To few be to bare and naked: bycause necessities must be supplyed, and that by the fittest. For whereas the defect of the fit enforceth supplement of the lookers on, though not the most likely, but whosoever they be, without further respect, then that they stand by, bycause neede bides no choyce where there is no pluralitie, and yet biddes pluralitie make choyce: there the unsufficient service of necessarie services breedes much miscontentment, and more shaking to any state. And that chiefly in such pointes, as the state embraseth, and the feeble minister doth nothing but deface. So that the defeat of the generall purpose must be most imputed to the bare defect of insufficient persons. For as to many bringes surfettes, so to few breedes consumptions.

Wittes well sorted be most civill: This I say bycause to avoyd excessive number, choice is one principall helpe: for in admitting to uses onely such as be fit, and seeme to be made for them, pares of the unfit, and lesseneth the number, which yet would be lookt unto, even at the verie first. For even he that is thought most unfit, and is so in deede, yet will grieve at repulse, unles ye repell him by prevention, ear he come to the sense and judgement to discerne what a heavie thing a flat repulse is. Which miscontentment if it range in a number, cannot be without daunger to the common body. As to the contrarie [137] such wittes as be placed where the place needes them more then they the place, do performe with sufficiencie, and proceede with contentment of the state that enstawled them. The chiefe signes of civilitie be quietnesse, concord, agrement, fellowship and friendship, which likenesse doth lincke, unliknesse, undoeth: fitnesse maketh fast, unfitnesse doth loose: proprietie beares up, improprietie pulleth downe: right matching makes, mismatching marres. How then can civill societie be preserved, where wittes of unfit humours for service, are in places of service, by appointment, either unadvisedly made, or advisedly marred. Is there any picture so ill favoured, being compound of incompatible natures, as an execution is, being committed to a contrarie constitution? If fire be to enflame, and cause thinges burne, where water should coole, and be meane to quench, is the place not in danger? If that wit fall to preach, which were fitter for the plough, and he to clime a pulpit, which is made to scale a walle, is not a good carter ill lost, and a good souldier ill placed? If he will needes lawe it, which careth for no lawe, and professe justice that professeth no right, hath not right an ill carver, and justice a worse maister? If he will deale with physicke whose braines can not beare the infinite circumstances which belong thereunto, whether to maintaine health, or to restore it: doth he any thing else, but seeke to hasten death, for helping the disease? to make way to murther, in steede of amendement? to be a butchars prentice for a maister in physike? And so is it in all kindes of life, in all trades of living, where fitnes and right placing of wittes doth worke agreement and ease, unfitnes and misplacing have the contrary companions, disagreement and disease.

Againe wittes misplaced most unquiet and seditious: as any thinge else strayned against nature: light thinges prease upward, and will ye force Fire downe? Heavie thinges beare downeward: and will ye have Leade to leape up? An imperiall witte for want of education and abilitie, being placed in a meane calling will trouble the whole companie, if he have not his will, as winde in the stomacke: and if he have his will, then shall ye see what his naturall did shoote at. He that beareth a tankarde by meanesse of degree, and was borne for a [138] cokhorse by sharpenes of witte, will keepe a canvase at the Conduites, tyll he be Maister of his companie. Such a sturring thing it is to have wittes misplaced, and their degrees mislotted by the iniquitie of Fortune, which the equitie of nature did seeme to meane unto them.

Plato in his wished common weale, and his defining of naturall dignities, appointeth his degrees and honors, where nature deserveth by abilitie and worth, not where fortune freindeth by byrth and boldnes, though where both do joyne singularitie in nature, and successe in fortune, there be some rare jewell. Hereupon I conclude, that as it is necessary to prevent to great a number for the quantitie thereof: so it is more then necessarie, to provide in the necessarie number for the qualitie thereof. Wherein restraint it selfe will do much good for the one, and choice in restraint will do more for the other. Sure all children may not be set to schole, nay not though private circumstance say yea. And therefore scholes may not be set up for all, though great good will finde never so many founders, both for the place wherein to learne, and for the number also which is for to learne: that the state may be served with sufficiencie enough, and not be pestered with more then enough. And yet by the way for writing and reading so they rested there, what if everie one had them, for religion sake, and their necessarie affaires? Besides that in the long time of their whole youth, if they minded no more, these two were easely learned, at their leasure times by extraordinary meanes, if the ordinarie be daintie and no schoole nigh. Everie parish hath a minister, if none else in the parish, which can helpe writing and reading.

Some doubt may rise here betwene the riche and poore, whether all riche and none poore, or but some in both maye and ought to be set to learning. For all in both that is decided alreadie, No: bycause the whole question concerneth these two kindes, as the whole common weale standeth upon these two kindes. If all riche be excluded, abilitie will snuffe, if all poore be restrained, then will towardnesse repine. If abilitie set out some riche by private purses for private preferment: towardnesse will commende some poore to publike provision for publike [139] service: so that if neither publike in the poore, nor private in the riche do marre their owne market, me thinke that were best, nay that will be best, being ruled by their wittes to conceive learning, and their disposition to prove vertuous. But how may the publike in the poore, and the private in the riche, make their owne market in the education of those whom they preferre to learning? I will tell ye how. The riche not to have to much, the poore not to lacke to much, the one by overplus breadeth a loose and dissolute braine: the other by under minus a base and servile conceit. For he that never needeth by supplie of freindes, never strayneth his wittes to be freind to himselfe, but commonly proves retchelesse till the blacke oxe tread upon his toes, and neede make him trie what mettle he is made of. And he that still needeth for want of freindes being still in pinche holdes that for his heaven, which riddes him from neede, and serves that Saint, which serves his turne best, even Neptune in shipwracke. Wherby he maketh the right of his judgement become bond for wealth: and the sight of his witte blinde for desire, such slaverie workes want, unlesse Gods grace prove the staye, which is no line to common direction, though it be our onely hope, by waye of refuge. Now then if the wealthy parentes of their private patrimonie, and publike patrones of their supererogatorie wealth, will but drive to a meane in both these two mains, neither shall wealth make the one to wanton, nor want make the other to servile: neither the one to leape to fast, for feare he loose some time, nor the other to hast to fast, for feare he misse some living. Sure to provide for poore scholers but a poore patche of a leane living, or but some meane halfe, is more then halfe a maime, the desire to supplie that which wanteth, distracting the studie more by many partes, then that petie helpe, which they have can possibly further it: bycause the charge to maintaine a scholer is great, the time to prove well learned, long, and when ripenesse is ready, there would be staye to chuse and time to take advice, where neede turnes the deafe eare. The paterne of to prodigall wealth oftimes causeth the toward student to overshoote himselfe by corrupt imitation, as braverie and libertie be great allurers, where studie and staye pretend restraint. [140] And therfore neither must to much be butte to allurementes, nor to litle a burden to judgement: the one the meane to lewdnesse the other a maime to libertie. The midle sorte of parentes which neither welter in to much wealth, nor wrastle with to much want, seemeth fittest of all, if the childrens capacitie be aunswerable to their parentes state and qualitie: which must be the levell for the fattest to fall downe to, and the leanest to leape up to, to bring forth that student, which must serve his countrey best. Religion and learning will frame them in judgement, when wealth and abilitie have set them once on foote.

For the choice of wittes definitely, till they come to the time, or verie neare to it, when they are themselves naturally and for ripenesse of yeares to chuse their owne kinde of life, how so ever circunstance free, or binde their choice, I cannot say much, though I do see what other have said in that behalfe. A quicke witte will take soone, a staid memorie will hold fast, a dull head may prove somwhat, a meane witte offers faire, praise bewrayeth some courage, awe some, in eche kinde there is likelyhood , and yet error in eche. For as there be faire blossomes, so there be nipping frostes. And till the daunger of revolt be past, the quicke must be helde in hope, the dull without dispaire, the meane the meetest, if the sequele do aunswere. I can limit no one thing, though I see great shewes, where there is such uncertaine motion, both in soule and body, as there is in children. The maisters discretion in time and upon triall, may see and say much, and in a number there will some leaders appeare of themselves, as some speciall deare in the whole heard. Where great appearance is, there one may prophecie, and yet the lying spirite may sit in his lippes. For God hath reserved his calling and discovering houres, as all other future eventes to his owne peculiar and private knowledge: probabilities be our guides, and our conjectures be great, though not without exception. What kinde of witte I like best for my countrey, as most proper to be the instrument for learning, it shall appeare herafter. But for the first question of the two, it seemeth to me verie plaine that all children be not to be set to schoole, but onely such as for naturall wittes, and sufficient maintenance, either of their naturall parentes, or civill patrones, shall be honestly [141] and wel supported in their study, till the common weale minding to use their service, appoint their provision, not in hast for neede, but at leasure with choice.

Chapter 37.

The meanes to restraine the overflowing multitude of scholers. The cause why everie one desireth to have his childe learned, and yet must yelde over his owne desire to the disposition of his countrie. That necessitie and choyce be the best restrayners. That necessitie restrayneth by lacke and lawe. Why it may be admitted, that all may write and read that can, but no further. What is to be thought of the speaking and understanding of Latine, and in what degree of learning that is. That considering our time and the state of religion in our time, lawe must needes helpe this restraint: with the answere to such objections as are made to the contrary. That in choice of wittes, which must deale with learning, that wit is fittest for our state, which answereth best the monarchie, and how such a wit is to be knowne. That choice is to helpe in scholing, in admission into colledges in proceeding to degrees, in preferring to livinges, where the right and wrong of all the foure pointes be handled at full.

In the last title we have concluded, that there must be a restraint, and that all may not passe on to learning, which throng thitherward, bycause of the inconveniences, which may ensue, by want of preferment for such a multitude, and by defeating other trades of their necessarie travellours. Our next labour therefore must be, how to handle this restraint, that the tide overflow not the common, with to great a spring of bookish people, if ye crie come who will, or ring out all in. Everie one desireth to have his childe learned: the reason is, for that how hardly soever either fortune frowne, or casualtie chastice, yet learning hath some strength to shore up the person, bycause it is incorporate in the person, till the soule dislodge, neither lyeth it so open for mischaunce to mangle, in any degree, as forren and fortunes patrimonie doth. But though everie parent be thus affected toward his owne child, as nature leades him to wish his owne best, yet for all that [142] everie parent must beare in memorie that he is more bound to his country, then to his child, as his child must renounce him in countermatch with his countrie. And that country which claymeth this prerogative of the father above the child, and of the child above the father, as it maintained the father eare he was a father, and will maintaine the child, when he is without a father: so generally it provideth for all, as it doth require a dutie above all. And therefore parentes in disposing of their children may upon good warrant surrender their interest to the generall consideration of their common countrie, and thinke that it is not best to have their children bookish, notwithstanding their owne desire, be it never so earnestly bent: if their countrie say either they shall serve in this trade, without the booke: or if shee say I may not allow any more booke men without my to much trouble. I pray thee good parent have pacience, and appoint some other course for thy childe, there be many good meanes to live by, besides the booke, and I wilbe thy childes friend, if thou wilt fit in some order for me. This verie consideration of the countrie, uttered with so milde a speach, spoken by her that is able to performe it, may move the reasonable parent, to yealde to her desire as best, as she can tell the headstrong in plaine termes, that he shall yeelde perforce, if he will not by entreatie. For private affection though supported by reason of strength whatsoever, must either voluntarily bend, or forcibly breake, when the common good yeeldeth to the contrary side.

Seeing therefore the disposition of wittes according to the proportion of ech state is resigned over to the countrie: and she sayth all may not be set to schole, bycause ech trade must be furnished, to performe all duties belonging to all parts: it falleth out in this case of restraint which bridles desire, that two speciall groundes are to be considered, which strip away excessive number, necessitie and choice, the one perforce, the other by your leave.

As for necessitie, when the parent is over charged with defect in circumstance, though desire carie him on, it then restraineth most, and lesseneth this number when desire would encrease it, and straines to the contrary. You would have your [143] childe learned, but your purse will not streatch, your remedy is pacience, devise some other way, wherein your abilitie will serve. You are not able to spare him from your elbow, for your neede, and learning must have leysure: a scholers booke must be his onely busines, without forreine lettes, you may be bold of your owne: let booking alone, for such as can entend it, from being called away by domesticall affaires, and necessarie busines. For the scholers name will not be a cypherlike subject, as he is termed of leasure, so must he have it. And they that cannot spare their children so, must forebare their scholing, by the olde Persian ordinance, bycause leasure is the foregoer to liberall profession: necessitie compelleth and bastardeth the conceit, a venym to learning, whom freedom should direct. You have no schole neare you, and you cannot pay for teaching further of, let your owne trade content you: keepe your childe at home. Your childe is weake tymbred, let scholing alone, make play his physician and health his midle end. Which way soever neede drives you perforce, that way must ye trot, if he will not amble, and bid Will thinke that well. He that governeth all seeth what is your best, your selfe may be missled either by ignorance in choice, or affection in blood. In these and the like cases lacke is the leader, which way soever she straineth. Whereby if the restrained childe cannot get the skil to write and read: I lament that lacke, bycause I have allowed him somuch before, upon some reasonable perswasion even for necessary dealings. For these two pointes concerne every man neare, bycause they submit themselves to everie mans service: yea in his basest busines and secretest affaires. I dare not venture to allow so many the latin tungue nor any other language, unlesse it be in cases, where their trades be knowne, and those toungues be founde to be necessarie for them. For all the feare is, though it be more then feare, where it still falleth out so, least having such benefits of schole, they will not be content with the state which is for them, but bycause they have some petie smak of their booke, they will thinke any state be it never so high to be low ynough for them. Which petie bookemen do not consider, that both clounes in the countrie, and artificers in townes be allowed latin in well governed [144] states, which yet rest in their calling, without pride or ambition, for that small knowledge, whereby they be better able to furnish out their trades, without further aspiring. Neither measure they the meaner qualities, as the thinges be in nature, but as themselves be in conceit: neither can they consider that at this daye it is not the toungue, but the treasure of learning and knowledge, which is laid up in the toungue whereunto they never came, which giveth the toungue credit, and the speaker authoritie. For want of this right judgement there ensueth in them a miscontentment of minde, not liking their owne state, and a cumbersome conceit, still aspiring higher, that disquieteth the whole state. Wherefore necessitie is a good meane to prevent this in many, which would if they could, now may not, bycause they cannot.

The second point of necessitie I do assigne to lawe and ordinaunce upon consideration to cut of this flocking multitude, which will needes to schoole. Whereupon two great goods must needes ensue. Contentment of minde in the partie restrained, when he shall perceive publike provision to be the checke to his fantsie: and timely preventing, eare conceit take roote, and thinke it selfe wronged. Bycause it is much better to nip misorder in the verie ground, that it may not take hold, then when it is growen up, then to hacke it downe. He that never conceived great thinges maye be helde there with ease, but being once entred in the waye to mount, and then throwne backward, he will be in some greife and seeke how to returne gaule, whence he received greife, if he chaunce to prove pevish, as repulse in great hope is a perillous grater. Yet in both these cases of necessarie restraint, I could wish provision were had to some singular wittes, found worthy the avauncement: either by private patronage, or publike: and yet againe if they passe on, and bewtifie some other trade: that also is verie good, seeing they serve their countrey, whersoever they be loated, and in those also whom libertie of circunstance doth set to schoole povertie will appeare, and towardnesse call for helpe: and yet the number will neverthelesse prove still with the most.

It is no objection to alleadge against such a lawful restraint, the abilitie of good wittes, and great learning in men, that either [145] now be, or heretofore have bene, which we might have lackt if so strait a lawe had bene then: or that it were pitie by severitie of an unkinde lawe to hynder that excellencie, which God commonly gives to the poorer sort. To the first I aunswere, besides that, which even lawe to that ende will aunswere for it selfe. As in time to come we know not, who shall serve the state, if the lawe be made straite, and yet we know well, that he which defendes states will provide sufficient persons, by whom they shalbe served: so in time past or present, if these were not, or those had not bene, whom we now see or of whom we have heard, God would have raised up other, whose benefites in serving governmentes may not be restrained to any degree of men, as they be men, but to the appointment of a civill societie, which hath direction over men: as a thing which God doth most cherish, both in respect of this Church which is of number, and in regard of societie it selfe, which is the naturall ende of mans being here, and not to live alone. And I warrant you whensoever such an orderly restraint shalbe put in practise that there wilbe as good foresight had to have necessarie functions served, as there will be regard to draine away the unnecessarie overflow. A thing not new faingled, but ever in use, where the common weales, had an eye to distribute their multitude to the best and easiest proportion of their owne state: which otherwise improportionate would breade an aposteme. And therefore if the generall judgement appoint it so, it is best to yeelde. And private opinion in politike cases will prove an errour, if the generall liking contrarie it flat. I do not now meane, where the generall is blinded by common errour, but where private conceit can take no exception saving that, which he bredeth from out of his owne braine. If the state of my countrey take order, that my child shall not go to schoole, sure I will obay, and provide some other course, though I like learning exceeding well, and be verie farre in love with it, besides the affection to my child, bycause the squaring with the generall, is to farre out of square for any particular. And I pray you may it not be, that for want of such an ordinance we mist better wittes, then those were, or are, which we either had or have, though we thinke very well of both the sortes, whether [146] now living with us, or tofore parted from us? And doth not negligence for want of looking to, overthrow as gaie and gallant heades, as diligence by doing even her verie best, hath ever brought to light? Advised and considerate planting is like enough to receive verie good encrease, and eventes in such cases, by authoritie and testimonie of two the greatest oratours in both the best tongues, be but foolish maisters, and febler argumentes.

As for pytying the poore, it is no pitie, not to wish a begger to become a prince, though ye allow him a pennie, and pitie his needefull want. Is he poore? provide for him, that he may live by trade, but let him not loyter. Is he wittie? why? be artificers fooles? and do not all trades occupie wit? sometimes to much, and thereby both straine their owne heades to the worse, and prove to suttle for a great deale their betters. Is he verie likely to prove singuler in learning? I do not reject him, for whom I provide a publike helpe in common patronage. But he doth not well to oppose his owne particular, against the publike good, let his countrie thinke of him enough, and not he of him selfe to much. If nobilitie and gentlemen would fall to diligence, and recover the execution of learning, where were this objection? The greatest assurers of it affirme, that learning was wont to be proper to nobilitie, and that through their negligence it is left for a pray to the meaner sort, and a bootie to corruption, where the professours neede offereth wrongfull violence to the liberalitie of the thing. Do they not therein confesse, where the right of the thing lyeth and themselves to be usurpers, if they should enter upon their owne, whose the interest is, and whom in so many discourses of nobilitie, they themselves blame so much for their so great negligence? They must needes here yeelde without law to their owne confession. But we see God hath shewed himselfe mervelous munificent and beneficiall this way to the poorer sort. I graunt, yet that proves not, but that he bestowed as great giftes of them which shewed not. And that as diligence in the one did shew that they had, to the glorie of the giver, and their owne praise: so negligence in the other, did suppresse that they had to their owne shame, who neither honoured the giver, [147] nor honested themselves, nor profited their countrie. So that here not the gift, but the shew is brought in allegation. And why not the greater talent hid seeing it is no noveltie? But the other shew. Nomore then that they have. And the other shew not. No argument that they have not. Take order then, that they shew, which have and hide, and then make comparisons. Be great giftes tied to the meane, or banished from the mighty? be there not as good wittes in wealth, though oftimes choked with dissolutenes and negligence, as there be in povertie appearing thorough paines and diligence? Nay be there not as untoward poorelinges, as there be wanton wealthlinges? I know yes, and when untowardnes and an ill inclynation hittes in a base condition, it proves more vile. So that this thing turnes about to my other conclusion, that neither povertie is to be pitied more then the countrey, if pitie must needes take place: neither riches more to be esteemed then the common weale, if wealth must needes be wayed: but that the value in wittes must be heelde of most worth, which hath her haven already appointed, where to harbour her selfe, in maintenaunce to studie, either by private helpe, if the parents be wealthy, or by publike ayde, if povertie praie for it.

Certainly there is great reason (if even the terme, great, be not to small, when the thing is more then needfull, and the time to prevent it, is almost runne to farre) why order should be taken, to restraine the number, that will needes to the booke. For while the Church was an harbour for all men to ride in, which knew any letter, there needed no restraint, the livinges there were infinite and capable of that number, the more drew that waye, and found releife that way, the better for that state, which encroached still on, and by clasping all persons, would have graspid all livinges. The state is now altered, that bookmaintenance maimed, the preferment that waye hath turned a new leafe. And will ye let the fry encrease, where the feeding failes? Will ye have the multitude waxe, where the maintenance waines? Sure I conceive of it thus, that there is as great difference in ground, betwene the suffring all to booke it in these dayes, and the like libertie to the same number, in the ruffe of the papacy amongst us: as there is betwene the two religions, [148] the one expelled and the other retained, in the grounds of their kinde. The expelled religion was supported by multitude, and the moe had interest, the moe stood for it: the retained must pitch the defence of her truth, in some paucity of choice: seeing the livinges are shred, which should serve the great number. So that our time, of necessitie must restraine: if not: what you breede and feede not, the adversarie part will allure by living, and arme by corrupting, against their unwise countrey, which either bestowed them not at first, or despised them at last. Where your thankes shalbe lost, which brought up, and forsooke, their desert shall sinke deepe, which fed the forsaken. And is it not meere folly by sufferance to encrease your enemies force, which you might by ordinance supplant at ease? it is the booke, which bredes us enemies, and causeth corruption to creepe, where cunning never came. The enemy state cared not so much for many well learned, as for the multitude though unlearned, which backt much bould ignorance, with a gaie surface of some small learning: our state then must reject the multitude, and rempare with the cunning. Our owne time is our surest touch, and our owne trouble our rightest triall, if wisedome in time do not prevent it, folly in triall will surely repent. It is to no purpose to alledge, when people see, that there is no preferment to be had for all learners, that then the number will decay, and abate of it selfe without any lawe: onelesse ye can worke so, as no moe may hope, though but one can hit: or els, if ye can appoint us, how long the controversie for religion is like to endure. For while hope is indifferent, eche one will croud: and while religion is in brake, eche one under hand, will furnish where he favoreth. The adversarie of our religion, as in deede he needed none, so dreamed he not of any defense, while he was rockt in ease, and his state unassailed by any miscontentment: but now that he is skirmished with so much, and so sore gauled, he is driven to studie, and seeketh by new coined distinctions to recover, that credite and reputation which he lost by intruding: wherin as he dealeth more cunningly with the person of his adversarie, so he bewrayeth still the great avantage, which his adversaries cause hath wonne over his. For in disputing, good Logicians know that it is an evident shift, to [149] avoide manifest foile, when the disputer in dispaire of his cause, is forced to bend against his adversaries person. And therefore provision must be, to defend by a learned paucitie, where the flocking number by reason of ingenerate wantes, will prove but a scare crow, and by apparent defection doth encrease the embush, which lyeth still in waite, to intercept our possession. Thus much of Necessitie, which stayeth the multitude of learners either by defect in circunstance, or by law in ordinance, when the parties be letted, either by lack that they can not, or by law that they may not, lay claime to the booke.

Now are we come to a larger compasse, where libertie gives leave to learne if he can, where forraine circumstances be free, and no let for any to be learned but either his wit, if he be dull, or his will, if he be stubburne. In this kinde, choise is a great prince, which by great reason and good advice, abbridgeth that which is to much, and culs owt the best. Which choice, as it begins at the entrie of the elementarie schole, so it proceedeth on, till the last preferment be bestowed, which either the state hath in store for any person, or any person can deserve, for service in the state. And therefore as it keepeth in an ordinate course, so it may full well be orderly handled, and by convenient degrees.

But bycause the choice is to be made by the wit, and the wit is to be applied to the frame and state of the countrie, where it continueth: I will first seeke out, what kinde of wit is even from the infancie to be thought most fit, to serve for this state in the learned kinde. Which if it be to stirring, troubleth, if it be well staied, setleth the countrie where it lyveth, so farre as it dealeth. And yet oftymes that wit maketh least shew at the first, to be so plyable, which at the last doth best agree with the pollicy. And therfore it is then to be taken, when it beginnes first to shew, that it will prove such: wherefore precise rejecting of any wit, which is in way to go onward, before due ripenes, as it is harmefull to the partie rejected, so it bewraieth some rashnes in him that rejecteth: bycause the varietie is exceeding great, though the conjectures be as great, and the most likelyhood must needes leade, where certaintie is denied. But to the wittes: wherein as lacke and law do guide necessitie [150] so the qualitie of the witte, conformable to the state directeth choice.

There be three kindes of government most noted among all writers, whereof the first is called a monarchie, bycause one prince beareth the sway, by whose circumspection the common good is shielded, and the common harme shouldred: the second an oligarchie: where some few beare all the swinge: the third a democratie, where every one of the people hath his interest in the direction, and his voice in elections. Now all these three be best maintained by those kindes of wit, which are most proper for that kinde of government, wherein they live. But bycause the government of our countrie is a monarchie: I will in choise seeke out that kinde of wit, which best agreeth with the monarchie, neither will I touch the other two, unles I fortune to trip upon them by chaunce. And for as much as I have made the yong child my first subject, I will continue therein still: bycause that which beginneth to shew it selfe neare upon infancie, will so commonly continue, though alteration creepe in sometime. But lightly these wittes alter not, bycause the tokens be so fast and firme in nature, and tend to so certaine and so resolute a judgement.

That child therefore is like to prove in further yeares, the fittest subject for learning in a monarchie, which in his tender age sheweth himselfe obedient to scholeorders, and eitheir will not lightly offend, or if he do, will take his punishment gently: without either much repyning, or great stomaking. In behaviour towardes his companions he is gentle and curteous, not wrangling, not quarelling, not complaining, but will put to his helping hand, and use all perswasions, rather then to have either his maister disquieted, or his fellowes punished. And therefore he either receiveth like curtesie againe of his scholefellowes: or who so sheweth him any discurtesie, must abyde both chalenge and combate with all the rest.

If he have any excellent towardnes by nature, as commonly such wittes have, whereby he passeth the residue in learning, it will shew it selfe so orderly, and with such modestie, as it shall soone appeare, to have no loftines of minde, no aspiring ambition, no odiouse comparisons joyned withall. [151]

At home he will be so obsequious to parentes, so curteous among servauntes, so dutiefull toward all, with whom he hath to deale: as there will be contention, who may praise him most behinde his backe, who may cherish him most before his face: with prayer that he may go on, with feare of too hastie death, in so od a towardnes of wit and demeanour. These thinges will not lightly make any evident shew, til the child be either in the grammer schole, by orderly ascent, and not by two forewardly hast, or upon his passage from the perfited elementarie, bycause his yeares by that time, and his contynuance under government, will somwhat discover his inclination. Before that time we pardon many thinges, and use pointes of ambition and courage, to enflame the litle ones onward, which we cut of afterward, for making them to malapart, as in their apparell frise is successour to silke. When of them selves without any either great feare, or much hartening, they begin to make some muster and shew of their learning to this more then that, then is conjecture on foote to finde, what they willbe most likely to prove.

But now to examine these signes more nearely and narowly, which I noted to be in the child that is like to prove so fit a subject for a monarchie, in matters of learning: Is not obedience the best sacrifice, that he can offer up to his prince and governour, being directed and ruled by his countrie lawes? And in the principles of government, is not his maister his monarche? and the scholelawes his countrey lawes? wherunto if he submit himselfe both orderly in perfourmance, and patiently in penaunce, doth he not shew a mynde already armed, not to start from his dutie? and so much the more, bycause his obedience to his maister is more voluntarie, then that to his prince, which is meere necessarie. For in perswasions of children, which the parentes will give eare to: in desire to chaunge, where their wills be chekt: in multitude of teachers, who thrive by such chaunges: all meanes be good, where there is such plentie, to offer such parentes as be tikelish, and such scholers as be shifting, removing from maisters and renouncing of obedience. The child hath many shadowes to shift in upon any pretence, and as many baites, to winne his parentes beleefe, and specially if [152] he stand in feare of beating. Whereas neither he, ne yet his parentes, can forsake their prince, upon any colour without forfaiting more then a quarters scholehire. And therfore in so many meanes to change, and some perhaps offered, bycause who will not very willingly deale with such a witte, where his travell will make shew, that child which notwithstanding all these entisementes, will continue both on, and one, and digest dyscurtesies, though his mayster sometyme chaunce to prove churlish, is the peculiar and proper witte, which I commende for obedience, and that is like to prove both honestly learned, and earnestly beloved. In his owne demeanour towardes his fellowes and freindes, and all sortes of people generally, either at home, or abroade, either in schoole, or elsewhere and in their love and liking of him againe, doth he not shew forth an evident sociabilitie and liklyhood, that he will be very well to be lived withall? and prove a very curteous man, which is so loving, and so beloved while he is yet a boye? In letting nature shew her owne excellencie without unsweetning it with his owne sawcinesse, doth he not argue that he hath stuffe towards preferment, without any sparke of ambition to move further flame? or to prease to fast forwarde? which shall never neede: bycause all men that know him, will either willingly helpe to preferre him, if their voice be in it: or will rejoyce at his preferment, if they be but beholders. For who will not be glad to see vertue, which he loveth, avaunced to rewarde? or what can envie do, in so plausible a case, but set forth the partie, by declaring his desert, in that she is there? There be many consequentes, which hange upon these, as neither vertue nor vice be single where they be, but are alwaie accompanied with the whole troupe of the like retinue. And one convenience graunted draweth on a number of the like kinde, as well as one inconvenience draweth on his like traine.

But these be the maine as I conceive at the first blush: obedience to superiours and superioritie, freindlynesse and fellowship toward companions, and equalles: substance to deserve well and winne it, desire to avoide ill and flie it. What duetie either towardes God or man, either in publike or private societie, in any either hie or low kinde of life is there, wherunto [153] God hath not seemed in nature to have framed and fashioned this so toward a youth? and therefore to have appointed him for the use of learning to be ruled by his betters, and to rule his inferiours, nothing offensive nor unpleasant to any? Many such wittes there be, and at them must choice first begin. And as those be the best, and first to be chosen, in whom there is so rare metall, so the second or third after these be unworthy the refusall, in whom the same qualities do appeare, though not in the same, but in some meaner degree. For wheras great ill is oft in place, and proves the generall foe to that which would be better, there meane good, if it may have place, will be generall freind to preferre the better: as even this second mediocritie, if it may be had, as choice will finde it out, will prove verie freindly to set forward all good. Now these properties and signes appeare in some, verie soone, in some verie late, yea oftimes when they are least looked for: as either judgement in yeares, or experience in dealinges do frame the parties.

The plat for the monarchicall learner being alwaye reseant in the chusers head, concerning the propertie of his witte: and appearance towardes proofe: the rest is to be bestowed upon the consideration of learning, and towardnesse in children generally (wherof these wittes be still both the first and best frutes) where to stay, or how farre to proceede in the ascent of learning. Whether he be riche or poore, that makes no matter, and is already decided, whether he be quicke or slow, therein is somwhat, and requireth good regard.

Wherfore when sufficient abilitie in circunstances bids open the schoole dore, the admission and continuance be generall, till upon some proofe the maister, whom I make the first chuser of the finest, and the first clipper of the refuse, begin to finde and be able to discerne, where abilitie is to go on forward, and where naturall weaknesse biddes remove by times. For if negligence worke weaknesse, that is an other disease, and requires an other medecine, to heale it withall. Now when the maister hath spied the strength or infirmitie in nature, as by lightsomnesse or heavinesse in learning, by easinesse or hardnesse in retaining, by comparing of contrarie or the like wittes, he shall easely sound both, then as his delite wilbe to have the [154] toward continue, so must his desire be, how to procure the diverting and removing of the duller and lesse toward, to some other course, more agreeing with their naturall, then learning is: wherin they are like to go forward verie litle, though their fortune be to go to schoole very long: but here two considerations are to be had: neither to soone to seeke their diverting, till some good ripenesse in time, though with some great paines to the teacher in the meane time, wish them to be weined from booking: neither yet before their bodies be of strength to abide the paines of some more laborious prenticeship. For it may so prove, that those wittes, which at the first were found to be exceeding hard and blunt, may soften, and prove sharp in time and shew a finer edge, though that be not to be made a generall caution, to cover dullardes with all. For the naturall dulnesse will disclose it selfe generally in all pointes, that concerne memorie and conceit: that dulnesse which will once breake out sharp, will shew it selfe by glaunces, as a clowdy day useth, which will prove faire, when all shrews have dined. Wherefore peremptorie judgement to soone, may prove perillous to some: and againe he that is fit for nothing else, for the tendernesse of his bodie, may abide in the schoole a litle while longer, where though he do but litle good, yet he may be sure to take litle harme.

Moreover if the parentes abilitie be such, as he may, and his desire such, as he will maintaine his child at schoole, till he grow to some yeares, though he grow to small learning, the maister must have pacience, and measure his paines by the parentes purse, where he knowes there is plentie, and not by the childes profit, which he seeth will be small. Wherein yet he must impart his opinion continually with the parent both for his duetie sake, and for avoiding of displeasure. But in the meaner sorte the case altereth, for that as a good witte in a poore child, deserves direct punishment, if by negligence he forslow the obtaining of learning, which is the patrimonie to wittie povertie: so a dull witte in that degree would not be dalyed with all to long, but be furthered to some trade, which is the fairest portion to the slow witted poore. Now bycause the maister to whose judgement I commend the choice, is no absolute [155] potentate in our common weale, to dispose of wittes, and to sorte mens children, as he liketh best, but in nature of a counsellour, to joine with the parent, if he will be advised: therfore to have this thing perfectly accomplished, I wish the parentes and maisters to be freindly acquainted, and domestically familiar. And though some parentes neede no counsell, as some maisters can give but litle, yet the wise parent will heare, and can judge: and the skilfull maister can judge, and should be heard. Where neither of these be, neither skill in the teacher to tell it, nor will in the parente to heare it, and lesse affection to follow it, the poore child is wrung to the worse in the meane while, and the parent receives small comfort in conclusion.

This course for the maister to keepe in judging of his scholer, and the parent to follow in bestowing of his child, according to his wit, continueth so long as the child shalbe either under maistership in schole, or tutorship in colledge. During the which time, a great number may be verie wisely and fitly bestowed, unlearned trades sufficiently appointed, the proceding in letters reserved to them, to whom for wit and judgement they seeme naturally vowed: and finally the whole common weale in every braunch well furnished with number, and the number it selfe discharged of to much. Bycause this tyme under the maisters goverment, is the time wherin youth is to be bestowed by forraine direction: for afterward in a more daungerous age, and a more jeoperdouse time, they grow on to their owne choice, and these unfitnesses in nature, or frailtes in maners, being not foreseene to, may cause the friendes forthinke it, and the parties sore rue it. And though the maister shall not allway have his counsell followed in this case, yet if he do signifie his opinion to the parent, his dutie is discharged, and that which I require is orderly performed. For if the parent shew himselfe unwilling to be directed that way, which the maister shall allow, upon great ground, and be blynded by affection, measuring his childes wit to learning, by his doing of some errand, or by telling of some tale, or by marking of some pretie toy, as such argumentes there be used, which yet be no argumentes of a towarde learner, but of a no foolish observer: in this case though the maister to his owne gaine [156] draw on under his hand a desparate wit, the fault is his that would not see, if he that saw did honestly tell it. Whereby it still proveth true, that parentes and maisters should be familiarly lynked in amitie, and contynual conference, for their common care, and that the one should have a good affiance of judgement in the thing, and of goodwill towards himselfe, reposed in the other. Which will prove so, when the maister is chosen with judgement, and continued with conference, and not bycause my neighbours children go to schole with you, you shall have myne to. A common commendation among common coursiters, which post about still to survey all scholes, and never staie in one: and reape as much learning, as the rowling stone doth gather mosse.

But concerning scholes, and such particularities, as belong thereunto I will then deale, when I shall take in hand the peculiar argumentes, of schooles and schooling, both for the elementarie and the gramarian. Wherein we are no lesse troubled with number and confusion in our petie kingdomes, then the verie common weale is molested with the same in greater yeares, and larger scope.

But bycause it were not orderly delt, to rip the faultes, and not to heale them, I wil post all these points over to their owne treatises, in my particuler discourses hereafter, where I will presently helpe, whatsoever I shall blame. The other meanes wherby choice lesseneth number, be admissions into colleges, prefermentes to degrees, advauncement unto livings, wherein the common weale receiveth the greater blow, the nearer these thinges be to publike execution, and therefore the playner dealing to prevent mischiefe before it infect, is the more praiseworthy.

As concerning colleges I do not thinke the livinges in them to be peculiar, or of purpose ment to the poorer sort onely, whose want that small helpe could never suffice, though there be some prerogative reserved unto them, in consideration of some great towardnes, which might otherwise be trod down, and that way is held up: but that they be simply preferments for learning, and avauncementes to vertue, as wel in the wealthy for reward of well doing, as in the poorer for necessarie [157] support. And therefore as I give admission scope to chuse of both the sortes, so I do restraine it to honest and civill towardnes. For if favour and friendship not for these furnitures, but for private respectes, carie away elections though with some enterlarding of towardnes and learning, and some few to give countenaunce to some equitie of choice, and theerby to maintaine the credit of such places, surely the scholers and heades which devised the sleight, and conceived they were not seene, shall repent without recoverie, and finde themselves bound, and their colleges bowelled, when they shal fele themselves overruled by their owne devise: bycause such as come in so, will communicate the like with others, and never care for the common, which were helpt by the private. For where favour bringes in almost in despite of order, there must favour be returned with mervelous disorder, and yet I do not mislike favour, which helpeth desert, which otherwise might be foiled, if favour friended not. But when the ground wherupon favour buildes is not so commendable, founders be discouraged, common provision supplanted, learning set over to loytering, braverie made enheritour to bookes. Stirringe wittes have their will for the time, and repentance at leasure. The fault hereof commeth from scholers themselves, which first make way to sinister meanes, and afterward blame, and verie meane which they used themselves. For finding some ease at first in working their owne will, either more cunningly to hide some indirect dealing, or more subtilly to supplant some contrary faction: or in deede desiring rather by commaundement to force, and so to seeme somebodie, then of dutie to entreat, and so seeme abject to honestie: they stumble at the last upon the blocke of bondage, being bridled of their owne will, even when they are in ruffe, by the selfe same meanes, which brought them unto it, and thought so to staule them, as themselves would commaund where they caused the speed. These fellowes be like to Horaces horse, which to overcome the stag, used man for his meane once, and his maister alway: neither refusing the saddle on his ridg, to be rid on, nether the bit in his mouth, to be bridled by. A brave victory so dearely bought, to the victours bondage, and perpetuall slaverie. Whereas if learning and those [158] conditions which I did lymit to a civill wit in this state, were the end in elections, the unfit should be set over to some other course, in convenient time: the fittest should be chosen, the founders mynde fulfilled: some perjurie for non perfourmaunce of statutes avoided: new patrones procured, religion avaunced, good studentes encouraged, and favour upon extreame and importunate sute disfranchised: which never will oppose it selfe to so honest considerations, so constantly kept: neither ever doth intrude, without some such sollicitours, as should be sorie for it, and use no meane to have it, which oftimes use this meane, to do il by warrant, as if they were forced to that, which in deede they ment before, and sought favour but for a shadow to hide their devise. Now if you that are to chuse, yeeld so much to your selves, and your owne conceit to bring your devises to passe, though ye wring by the waie, and your state in the ende, why should you not in good truth relent, and give place your selves being in places, to your betters and bidders, which gaive you the roome, and yet would have left all to you, if you would have left any place to reason: or have bene led by right, as ye leaned all to the wronge? you had your will by them, and why not they have theirs of you? requitall among equalles is of common curtesie, recompence in inequalities is enforced of necessitie.

If any metall be to massie, and way downe the ballance, or if any metallish meane, where money will scale, do enter that forte, where is small resistance, that is solde, which ought not, the enheritaunce of vertue: that is bought, which should not, the livelihood of learning: that is betrayed, which neither should for feare, nor ought for freindship, the treasure of the state, and provision of the countrey. And if there be neede, which enforceth such dealing, yet deale, where it is due, and let neede be remedyed, with her owne provision, not by unhonest intrusion. I do not blame any one, bycause my selfe know none, and I thinke well of most, bycause I know some sincere. But some thing there is that feedeth the generall complaint, and some contentious factions there be, that bring catchers into colleges. For both these two inconveniences, worse then mischeifes as our common law termeth them, I have nothing to say more [159] then to renue the memorie of two accidentes, which happened to the Romain common weale, and may be understood by scholers, that will marke and applie them. The first is, that in Tullie, when Pontius the Samnite wished that he either had not bene borne untill, or but then borne, when the Romains would have received giftes and rewardes. Why? what if? I would not have suffred them to have reigned one day longer, by selling their libertie, they should have become bond. The fellow said much, and that state felt more, when they fell to fingering.

The second is this, not noted in any one, but observed by all, that marke and write of the declining and ruine of the Romain Empire. The principall cause among many, to raze that state, which did rise in the blood of other nations and fell in their owne, was, when their generalls used the helpe of forreine and barbarous fellowes, late foes, new freindes, to overthrow the contrarie factions in their civill warres, both before and in their Emperours time, and let them both smell and taste of the Romish wealth and fatnesse of Italie. Wherwith the horesons being ravished, ever as they went home sent more of their countreymen to serve in seditious or necessarie defenses: till at the last their whole nations overflew that florishing towne, and that fertile countrey. Wherby that great abundance, that unspeakeable wealth, those inestimable riches, which the whether conquering or ravening Romaines had gathered together in so many hundred yeares, from so many severall countries, in a verie small time, became a bootie to that barbarous offall of all kinde of people, which never had any, till they became lordes, both of the Romain substance and the soile of Italie. A glasse for those to gase on, which will rather stirre to fall, then be still to stand. If ye shew a child an apple, he will crye for it, but if you make a mightier then your selfe privie to your pleasures, if he be desirous to have, and speede not, he will make you crye for it.

But now as favour founded not upon desert, but upon some fetch, is foe to all choice, enforcing for the favorite, so free admissions into colledges, by but mildely and honestly replying: upon favour may helpe it in sufficiency, and lighten the booke of some needlesse burthen, which hurtes not onely in the admission, [160] but also by sending abroade such broad dealers, which corrupt where they go, and poison more incurably, bycause of their meane, which is mothered upon learning, which the cunninger it is, the craftyer meane it is: and of the more credit it is, the more conveiance it hath to corrupt with good colour, though it be to bad, when it is bewrayed. If hope were cut of to speede by disorder, such wittes would streight waye sorte themselves to order, as they be not the most blockheades, which offer violence to order: wherin I must needes say somwhat in plaine truth, and plausible to.

Those great personages, which be so tempted by the importunity of such petie companions, as seeke them for protection, to force good and godly statutes, are litle bound to them. For what do they? Their owne obscuritie comes in no daunger, as being but underlinges, neither much seene, nor a whit cared for, though they cause the mischeife: but they force good, and well given dispositions, excellent and noble natures, by false and coloured informations, to serve their owne turnes, and to beguile their great freindes: they bring them in hatred of all those, which builde upon the good zeale of vertuous founders. Which thing reacheth so farre, and to so many, as either the possibilitie to enjoye their benefit doth, or the praise of their doing, to procure the like: or the protection of posteritie, which cannot but lament the great misuse, and foull overthrow of their ancestours good and most godly meaning. They cast all men in feare of them to be likewise forced in their best interest, as a principle to tyrannie, and make them be odious to all, whom they would seeme to honour above all. The worst kinde of caterpillours, in countenaunce fine and neate, in speeche delicate and divine, in pretence holy and heavenly, in meaning verie furies, and divells: to themselves scraping howsoever they cover: to nobilitie and countenaunce, whatsoever shew they make, the verie seminarie of most daungerous dishonour, and therfore worthy to be thrust out, bycause they thirst so much. For if love and honour be the treasures of nobility, the contrarie meane howsoever it be coloured deserves coudgelling out, when it croutcheth most. It is no dishonour to nobilitie, not to have their will, but it is their greatest disgrace to yeilde to that, by unreasonable [161] desire, which they ought not to will, and so make a divorse betwene honestie and honour, which is unseemely, seeing honestie, how basely soever some ruffians regard it, is the verie mother to honour of greatest moment, and in the best kinde. That such honorable natures yeelde to such importunate promoters, halfe against their will, bycause otherwise they cannot be rid of them: their owne and honorable contentment doth oftimes prove, when they have bene answered truely and duetifully, by such either companies, or particulars, as have preferred plaine trueth, before painted colours, whereby noble dispositions do well declare to the world, how unwilling they be to force order by favour, if they be enfourmed of the truth: which will alway prove the enfourmers warrant, and foile such fetchers, when it comes to the hearing. And as the learned Quintilian sayth, that in a grammarian it is vertue not to seeme to know all: so sayth pollicy that in the verie highest, it is not good to do all, that authoritie and interest in the extremitie of right maie do, with some warrant to it selfe, though with small liking, where it goeth. Mine antecedent is of mine owne profession, which beareth blame of to much boldnesse, and hath bene thought to presumptuous for knowledg, as Rhemmius Palaemon one of our coate, was wount to brag, that learning began to live, and should die with him: My consequent concerneth my countrey, and good will to nobilitie, which as in degree it can do most, so were it great pitie that it should be used, but to worke the best. My chalenge is to those infamous meanes, which dishonour their honorable patrones, defeat honest men of best education, disturbe the state even while they live, poison the posteritie by their president, even when they are dead.

Now if choice had taken place in the beginning, such impudent wittes had wonne no place, and noble patrones had shaked of such sutes. For as deepe waters do seeme not to runne bycause of their stillnesse: so true vertue and honest learning will tary their calling, and not stirre to soone, to set forth their stuffe, though they be the deepest and most worthy the place. I must crave pardon: a well affected maister speaketh for all poore and toward scholers, well nusled in learning, well given in living, and ill thwarted in livinges, by such visardes of counterfect [162] countenaunces, which one may more then halfe gesse, what they will receive, when none seeth but the offerer: which dare themselves offer such dishonorable requestes to those personages, at whose countenaunces, they ought in conscience to tremble, if that impudencie, which first hath rejected God secretly, and all goodnesse openly, had not tyrannised them to much, so vilely to abuse, where they ought to honour. The consideration of the good, the canvasing for the ill, hath caryed me from colledges, though not from colleginers, where for necessarie roomes there must be boursares, and why not of the learned sorte? Which the more towarde they be, the more trusty they will prove, and cheifly to that colledge, which avaunced them for value. Never wonder if he do sacrifice to the purse, which was admitted either for it, or by it. And yet there is some wrong, to fill private purses for entring, and to punish the common, when they be entred. If they could use it so, as to still it from those, which strayned it from them, when they were to enter, the cunning were great, and the deceit not amisse, where craft is allowed to deceive the deceiver. But the common wrings, for the private wrong, and there the injury is.

Preferment to degrees in schole may, nay in deede ought to be a mightie stripper of insufficiencie, bycause that way, the whole countrie is made either a lamentable spoile to bould ignorance, or a laudable soyle to sober knowledge. When a scholer is allowed by authoritie of the universitie, to professe that qualitie, whereof he beares the title, and is sent abroad with the warrant of his commencement, and want of his cunning, who made either favour and friendship, either countenaunce or canvase, or some other sleight the meane to enstawle him, what must our common countrie then say, when she heareth the bragge of the universities title sound in her eares, and findes not the benefit of the universitie learning to serve her in neede? Shee must needes think that the unlearned and ignorant creature is free from blame, bycause he sought to countenaunce himselfe, as the customarie led him: but she must needes thinke her selfe not onely not bound to the universitie, but shamefully abused, nay most unnaturally offered to the spoile of ignorance and insufficiencie by the universitie, to whom committing her [163] sight shee is dealt with so blindly, in whom reposing her trust, she is betrayed so untruely. For what is it to say in common collection, when the universitie preferreth any, to degree: but as if she should protect thus much. Before God and my countrie, to whom I owe my selfe and my service, whereof the one I cannot deceive, the other I ought not, I do knowe this man, whom I now prefer to this degree, in this facultie, in the sufficiencie of abilitie, which his title pretendeth, not perfunctorilie taken knowledge of, but thoroughly examined by me, to be well able to execute in the common weale of my countrie, that qualitie in art and profession, which his degree endoweth him with: and that my countrie may rest upon my credit in securitie for his sufficiencie: and betrust her selfe unto him upon my warrant, which I do seale with the publike acknowledging of him to be such a one, as his title emporteth, being consideratly and advisedly bestowed upon him by me, as I will answere almightie God in judgement, and my countrie in my conscience and upon my credit. Now what if he be not such a one? where then is your advisednesse? where then is your credit? where then is then your conscience? nay where then is your God whom ye called to witnesse? What if the universitie knew before, that he neither was such a one, neither like ever to prove any such? let him that weyeth this, if it be to light, reject it as counterfect. Let the earnest professours of the truest religion in the universities at this day call their consciences to counsell, and redresse the defect, for their owne credit, and the good of their countrie. If it shall please the universities, to preferre these considerations of countrie and conscience, before any private persuasion (which if it were roundly repelled a while, would never be so impudent, as so to intrude it selfe) the matter were ended, and despaire that way would leave rowme to learning: and send such fellowes to those faculties, which were fitter for them: and not suffer them under the titles of learning, to supplant the learned, and forstaull away their livinges: to the discouraging of the right student in deede, and the defeating of the state. For if ye rip the cause why they seeke to set foorth them selves, with such forraine feathers, being unlikely to looke on, in their owne coloures, if the eye might behold that which the [164] minde conceiveth, ye shall finde that their desire to gaine under honorable titles, is the verie grounde whereupon they goe: which they seeke by indirect wayes, bycause they feele them selves to be of no direct worth. But what fooles be good scholers in deede, to lende such dawes their dignities, under that borowed habit, to rob them of preheminence, and to seeme to be eagles, where they be but bussardes? Nay do they not discredit the universitie more? as if they there were either so simple, as they could not descrie a calfe, or so easie to be entreated, as when they had discried it, they would sweare by perswasion, that the calfe were a camell? good my maisters make not all priestes that stand upon the bridge as the Poope passeth. For then the cobler as one consecrated, bycause his person was in compasse, and his showes within hearing, will sure be a priest, and set nothing by his naule, and as good as you and as fit for a benefice, as those that came to take orders in deede, and deserved them in doing. Looke to it betimes and lende not your garmentes to set forth bastardt and bold suters, for feare your selves be excluded, when ye entend to sue, both your labour and your love being lost, through your owne follie.

To seeme is not so much in weight as to be, but in paines it is much more. To counterfeat vertue, and to avoide spying, requireth a long labour, and dayly new devises: to be vertuouse in deede, and learned in deede, craves labour at the first, and lendes leysure in the end, borne out by it selfe, never needing any vele. And therefore great warines must be used to discerne and shake of the counterfeat: smaller consideration will soone finde, and sooner content sufficient stuffe. Let deepe dissembling and dubling hypocrisie leape the ladder, and honest learning be beholder the while. In these pointes to have worthinesse preferred, and to have choice to seeke, and save it, if a teacher deale thus earnestly, as me thinke I do now, he may deserve pardon as I hope I shall have, considering his end, to him selfe ward is delite, to his charge is their profit: to his countrie is sound stuffe sent from him. And can he be but grieved to see the effect so disorderly defeated, wherunto with infinite toile, with incomparable care, with incredible paines, he did so orderly proceed? I take it very tollerable for any, that hath charge of number [165] and multitude to be carefull for their good, not only in private government, but also in publike protection, so farre, as either the honestie of the cause, or the dutie to magistrate, will maintaine his attempt. As truely in learning and learned executions me thinke it concerneth all men to be very carefull, bycause the thing tucheth themselves so neare in age, and theirs so much in youth.

For the third part which consisteth in avauncement to livinges, as it is commonly handled by the highest in state, and eldest in yeares, which have best skill to judge, and least neede to be misled: so it needes least precept: bycause the misse there is mostwhat without amendes, being made by great warrant: and the hitting right is the blessed fortune of ech kinde of state, when value is in place, whence there is no appeale, but pleasure in the perfit: pitie in imperfection: the common good either caried to ruine by intrusion of insufficiencie, or strongly supported by sufficient staie. Repulse here is a miserable stripp, that insufficiencie should be suffered to growe up so high, and not be hewed downe before. And some great injurie is offered to the bestowers of prefermentes, that they are made objectes to the danger of insufficient boldnes, which ought to be cut of by sufficient modestie, who pretendeth the claime to be her owne of dutie, and to whom the patrones, would rediliest yeild, if they could discerne, and were not abused by the worthy themselves, which lend the unworthy the worth of their countenance to deceive the disposers, and to beguile their owne selves. But blind bayard, if he have any burden that is worth the taking downe, and bestowing somwhere else, wilbe farre bolder then a better horse, and so farre from shame, as he will not shrinke to offer himselfe to the richest sadle, being in deede no better then a blinde jade and seeking to occupie the stawle where Bucephalus the brave horse of duety ought to stand. And in this case of preferrement, store is lightely the greatest enemie to the best choice, bycause in number no condition wilbe offered, which will not be admitted, though some do refuse. The preventing of all or most of these inconveniences, I do take to be in the right sorting of wittes at the first, when learning shall be left to them alone, whom nature doth allow by evident signes, and such sent awaye to some other trades, as are made to that ende. Wherby [166] the sorters are to have thankes in the ende of both the parties, which finding themselves fitted in the best kinde of their naturall calling, must of necessitie honour them, which used such foresight in their first bestowing.

Thus much have I marked in clipping of, of that multitude which oppresseth learning with too too many, as too too many wheresoever they be, overcharge the soile in all professions. For the matter wheron to live justly and truly being within compasse, and the men which must live upon it, being still without ende, must not desire of maintenaunce specially if it be joyned with a porte, wring a number to the wall, to get wheron to live? I neede pinch no particular where the generall is so sore gauled. Marke but those professions and occupations, which be most cloyed up with number, whether they be bookish or not, and waye the poorer sort, wheron at the last the pinching doth light, though it passe many handes before, if to great a multitude making to great a state do not prove a shrew, then am I deceyved: so that it were good there were stripping used, and that be time in yonger yeares. For youth being let go forward upon hope, and chekt with dispaire while it rometh without purveyaunce, makes marveilous a doe before it will die. And if no miserable shift will serve at home, verie defection to the foe, and common enemie will send them abrode, to seeke for that, which in such a case they are sure to finde. Wherefore as countenaunce in the overflowing number, which findeth place in a state doth infect extremely, by seeking out unlawfull and corrosive maintenaunce: so roming in the unbestowed offaull, which findes no place in a state, doth festure fellonly, by seeking to shake it, with most rebellious enterprises.

Chapter 38.

That young maidens are to be set to learning, which is proved, by the custome of our countrey, by our duetie towardes them, by their naturall abilities, and by the worthy effectes of such as have bene well trained. The ende wherunto their education serveth, which is the cause why and how much they learne. Which of them are to learne, when they are to begin to learne. What and how much they may learne. Of whom and where they ought to be taught. [167]

When I did appoint the persons, which were to receive the benefit of education: I did not exclude young maidens, and therefore seing I made them one braunche of my division, I must of force say somwhat more of them. A thing perhaps which some will thinke might wel enough have bene past over with silence, as not belonging to my purpose, which professe the education of boyes, and the generall traine in that kinde. But seeing I begin so low as the first Elementarie, wherin we see that young maidens be ordinarily trained, how could I seeme not to see them, being so apparently taught?

And to prove that they are to be trained, I finde foure speciall reasons, wherof any one, much more all may perswade any their most adversarie, much more me, which am for them with toothe and naile. The first is the manner and custome of my countrey, which allowing them to learne, wil be lothe to be contraried by any of her countreymen. The second is the duetie, which we owe unto them, whereby we are charged in conscience, not to leave them lame, in that which is for them. The third is their owne towardnesse, which God by nature would never have given them, to remaine idle, or to small purpose. The fourth is the excellent effectes in that sex, when they have had the helpe of good bringing up: which commendeth the cause of such excellencie, and wisheth us to cherishe that tree, whose frute is both so pleasaunt in taste, and so profitable in triall. What can be said more? our countrey doth allow it, our duetie doth enforce it, their aptnesse calls for it, their excellencie commandes it: and dare private conceit, once seeme to withstand where so great, and so rare circunstances do so earnestly commende.

But for the better understanding of these foure reasons, I will examine everie of them, somwhat nearer, as inducers to the truth, ear I deale with the traine. For the first: If I should seeme to enforce any noveltie, I might seeme ridiculous, and never se that thing take place, which I tender so much: but considering, the custome of my countrie hath delivered me of that care, which hath made the maidens traine her owne approved travell, what absurditie am I in, to say that is true, which my countrie dare avow, and daily doth trie? I set not yong maidens [168] to publike grammer scholes, a thing not used in my countrie, I send them not to the universities, having no president thereof in my countrie, I allow them learning with distinction in degrees, with difference of their calling, with respect to their endes, wherefore they learne, wherein my countrie confirmeth my opinion. We see yong maidens be taught to read and write, and can do both with praise: we heare them sing and playe: and both passing well, we know that they learne the best, and finest of our learned languages, to the admiration of all men. For the daiely spoken toungues and of best reputation in our time, who so shall denie that they may not compare even with our kinde in the best degree, they will claime no other combate, then to talke with him in that verie tongue, who shall seeke to taint them for it. These things our country doth stand to, these qualities their parentes procure them, as either oportunitie of circunstance will serve, or their owne power wil extend unto, or their daughters towardnesse doth offer hope, to be preferred by, for singularitie of endowment, either in mariage, or some other meane. Nay do we not see in our country, some of that sex so excellently well trained, and so rarely qualified, either for the toungues themselves, or for the matter in the toungues: as they may be opposed by way of comparison, if not preferred as beyond comparison, even to the best Romaine or Greekish paragonnes be they never so much praised: to the Germaine or French gentlewymen, by late writers so wel liked: to the Italian ladies who dare write themselves, and deserve fame for so doing? whose excellencie is so geason, as they be rather wonders to gaze at, then presidentes to follow. And is that to be called in question, which we both dayly see in many, and wonder at in some? I dare be bould therefore to admit yong maidens to learne, seeing my countrie gives me leave, and her custome standes for me.

For the second point. The duetie which we owe them doth straitly commaund us to see them well brought up. For what be young maidens in respect of our sex? Are they not the seminary of our succession? the naturall frye, from whence we are to chuse our naturall, next, and most necessarie freindes? The very selfe same creatures, which were made for our comfort, [169] the onely good to garnish our alonenesse, the nearest companions in our weale or wo? the peculiar and priviest partakers in all our fortunes? borne for us to life, bound to us till death? And can we in conscience but carefully thinke of them, which are so many wayes linked unto us? Is it either nothing, or but some small thing, to have our childrens mothers well furnished in minde, well strengthened in bodie? which desire by them to maintaine our succession? or is it not their good to be so well garnished, which good being defeated in them by our indiligence, of whom they are to have it, doth it not charge us with breache of duetie, bycause they have it not? They are committed and commended unto us, as pupilles unto tutours, as bodies unto heades, nay as bodies unto soules: so that if we tender not their education duetifully, they maye urge that against us, if at any time either by their owne right, or by our default, they winne the upper roome and make us stand bare head, or be bolder with us to.

They that write of the use of our bodies, do greatly blame such parentes, as suffer not their children to use the left hand, as well as the right, bycause therby they weaken their strength and the use of their limmes: and can we be without blame, who seeke not to strengthen that, which was once taken from us, and yet taryeth with us, as a part of us still: knowing it to be the weaker? Or is there any better meane to strengthen their minde, then that knowledge of God, of religion, of civil, of domesticall dueties, which we have by our traine, and ought not to denie them, being comprised in bookes, and is to be compassed in youth?

That some exercise of bodie ought to be used, some ordinarie stirring ought to be enjoyned, some provision for private and peculiar trainers ought to be made: not onely the ladies of Lacedaemon will sweare, but all the world will sooth, if they do but wey, that it is to much to weaken our owne selves by not strengthning their side. That cunning poet for judgement in matter, and great philosopher for secrecie in nature, our well knowen Virgill, saw in a goodly horse that was offered unto Augustus Caesar an infirmitie unperceaved by either looker on or any of his stable, which came as he said by some weaknes in [170] the damme, and was confessed to be true. Galene and the whole familie of Physicians ripping up our infirmities, which be not to be avoided, placeth the seminarie and originall, engraffed in nature, as our greatest and nearest foes. And therfore to be prevented by the parentes, thorough considerate traine, the best and fairest meane, to better weake nature: so that of duety they are to be cared for. And what care in duetie is greater, then this in traine?

Their naturall towardnesse which was my third reason doth most manifestly call upon us, to see them well brought up. If nature have given them abilities to prove excellent in their kinde, and yet thereby in no point to let their most laudable dueties in mariage and matche, but rather to bewtifie them, with most singular ornamentes, are not we to be condemned of extreme unnaturallnes, if we gay not that by discipline, which is given them by nature? That naturally they are so richely endowed, all Philosophie is full, no Divinitie denyes. Plato and his Academikes say, that all vertues be indifferent, nay all one in man and woman: saving that they be more strong and more durable in men, weaker and more variable in wymen. Xeno and his Stoikes though they esteeme the ods betwene man and woman naturally to be as great as the difference, betwene an heavenly and an earthly creature, which Plato did not, making them both of one mould, yet they graunt them equalitie and samenesse in vertue, though they deliver the strength and constancie over unto men, as properly belonging unto that side. Aristotle and his Peripatetikes confessing them both to be of one kinde, though to different uses in nature, according to those differences in condition, appointeth them differences in vertue, and yet wherin they agree: alloateth them the same. When they have concluded thus of their naturall abilities, and so absolutely entitled them unto all vertues, they rest not there, but proceede on further to their education in this sorte. That as naturally every one hath some good assigned him, wherunto he is to aspire, and not to cease untill he have obtained it, onlesse he will by his owne negligence reject that benefit, which the munificence of nature hath liberally bestowed on him: so there is a certaine meane, wherby to winne that perfitly, which [171] nature of her selfe doth wish us franckly. This meane they call education, whereby the naturall inclinations be gently caryed on, if they will curteously follow, or otherwise be hastened, if they must needes be forced, untill they arive at that same best, which nature bendeth unto with full saile, in those fairer, which follow the traine willingly, in those meaner, which must be bet unto it. And yet even there where it is sorest laboured, it worketh some effecte unworthy of repentaunce, and is better forced on in youth, then forgon in age: rather in children with feare, then not in men with greife. Now as the inclinations be common to both the kindes, so they devide the meane of education indifferently betwene both. Which being thus, as both the truth tells the ignorant, and reading shewes the learned, we do wel then perceave by naturall men, and Philosophicall reasons, that young maidens deserve the traine: bycause they have that treasure, which belongeth unto it, bestowed on them by nature, to be bettered in them by nurture. Neither doth religion contrarie religious nature. For the Lorde of nature, which created that motion to continue the consequence of all living creatures, by succession to the like, by education to the best, appointing either kinde the limittes of their duetie, and requiring of either the perfourmaunce therof, alloweth all such ordinarie and orderly meanes, as by his direction in his word may bring them both from his appointment to their perfourmance, from the first starting place, to the outmost gole: that is unto that good, which he hath assigned them, by such wayes as he hath willed them: so that both by nature the most obedient servant, and by the Lorde of nature our most bountifull God, we have it in commandement not onely to traine up our owne sex, but also our female, seeing he hath to require an account for naturall talentes of both the parties, us for directing them: them for perfourmance of our direction.

The excellent effectes of those women, which have bene verie well trained, do well declare, that they deserve the best training: which reason was my last in order, but not my least in force, to prove their more then common excellencie. This is a point of such galancie, if my purpose were to praise them, as it is but to give precept, how to make them praiseworthie, as I [172] might soner weary my selfe with reckening up of writers, and calling worthy wymen to be witnesses in their owne cause then worthely to expresse their weight and worth, bycause I beleeve that to be most true, which is cronicled of them. I will not medle with any moe writers to whom wymen are most bound, for best speaking of them, and most spreading of their vertues, then with one onely man a single witnes in person, but above all singularitie in profe: the learned and honest Plutarch, whose name emporteth a princis treasure, whose writings witnes an unwearied travel, whose plaine truth was never tainted. Would he so learned, so honest, so true, so sterne, have become such a trumpet for their fame, to triumph by, so have gratified that sex, whom he stood not in awe of: so have beutified their doings, whom he might not have medled with, so have avaunced their honour, to hasard his owne sex, by setting them so hie, if he had not resolutely knowne the truth of his subject? he durst be so bould with his owne Emperour the good Trajan, to fore his scholer, in his epistle to him before his booke of governing the comon weale, as to say and call his booke to witnes thereof, that if he went to governe, and overthrew the state, he did it not by the authoritie of Plutarch, as disavowing his scholer, if he departed from his lessons. And would that courage have bene forced to frame a false argument? or is so great a truth not to have so great a credit? howsoever some of the lighter heades have lewdly belyed them, or vainly accused them: yet the verie best and gravest writers thinke worthely of them, and make report of them with honour. Ariosto and Boccacio will be loth to be tearmed light being so great doctours in their divinitie, yet they be somwhat over heavie to wymen, without any great weight as in generall the Italian writers be, which in the middest of their loving levities still glaunce at their lightnes, and that so beyound all manhoode, as they feele their owne fault, and dispaire of reconcilement, though they crie still for pardon. As those men know well, which will rather mervell, that I have red those bookes, then mistrust my report, which they know to be true. In all good and generally authorised histories, and in many particuler discourses, it is most evident, that not onely private and [173] particular wymen, being very well trained, but also great princesses and gallant troupes of the same sex have shewed fourth in them selves mervelous effectes of vertue and valure. And good reason why. For where naturally they have to shew, if education procure shew, is it a thing to be wondered at? Or is their singularitie lesse in nature, bycause wymen be lesse accustomed to shew it, and not so commonly employed, as we men be? Yet whensoever they be, by their dealinges they shew us that they have no dead flesh nor any base mettle. Well, I will knit up this conclusion and burne day light no longer, to prove that carefully, which all men may see clearely, and ther adversaries grieve at, bycause it confutes their follie, which upon some private errour of their owne, to seeme fautles in wordes, where they be faithles in deedes, blame silly wymen as being the onely cause why they went awrie.

That yong maidens can learne, nature doth give them, and that they have learned, our experience doth teach us, with what care to themselves, them selves can best witnes, with what comfort to us, what forraine example can more assure the world, then our diamond at home? our most deare soveraine lady and princesse, by nature a woman, by vertue a worthy, not one of the nyne, but the tenth above the nyne, to perfit in her person that absolute number, which is no fitter to comprehend all absolutnes in Arithmetike, then she is knowne to containe al perfections in nature, all degrees in valure, and to become a president to those nyne worthy men, as Apollo is accounted to the nyne famouse wymen, she to vertues and vertuous men, he to muses, and learned wymen: thereby to prove Plutarches conclusion true, that oppositions of vertues by way of comparison is their chiefe commendation. Is Anacreon a good poet, what say you to Sappho? Is Bacis a good prophet, what say you to Sibill? was Sesostris a famouse prince, what say you to Semiramis? was Servius a noble king, what say you to Tanaquill? was Brutus a stowt man, what say you to Porcia? Thus reasoneth Plutarch, and so do I, is it honorable for Apollo a man to have the presidencie over nyne wymen, the resemblers of learning? then more honorable it is for our most worthy Princesse, to have the presidencie over nyne men, the paragons of vertue: [174] and yet to be so familiarly acquainted with the nyne muses, as they are in strife who may love her best, for being best learned? for whose excellent knowledge and learning, we have most cause to rejoyce, who tast of the frute: and posteritie to praise, which shall maintaine her memorie: though I wish their memorie abridged, to have our tast enlarged: our proving lengthened, to have their praising shortened: to be glad that we have her, not to greve, that we had her: as that omnipotent god, which gave her unto us, when we had more neede of such a prince, then shee of such a people, will preserve her for us, I do nothing dout, that we both may serve him, she as our carefull soveraine, to set forth his glory, we as her faithfull subjectes to submit our selves to it.

If no storie did tell it, if no state did allow it, if no example did confirme it, that yong maidens deserve the trayning, this our owne myrour, the majestie of her sex, doth prove it in her owne person, and commendes it to our reason. We have besides her highnes as undershining starres, many singuler ladies and gentlewymen so skilfull in all cunning, of the most laudable, and loveworthy qualities of learning, as they may well be alleaged for a president to prayse, not for a patern to prove like by: though hope have a head, and nature be no nigard, if education do her dutie, and will seeke to resemble even where presidentes be passing, both hope to attaine to, and possibilitie to seeme to. Wherefore by these profes, I take it to be very cleare, that I am not farre overshot, in admitting them to traine, being so traineable by nature, and so notable by effectes.

But now having graunted them the benefit and society of our education, we must assigne the end, wherfore their traine shall serve, whereby we may apply it the better. Our owne traine is without restraint for either matter or maner, bycause our employment is so generall in all thinges: theirs is within limit, and so must their traine be. If a yong maiden be to be trained in respect of mariage, obedience to her head, and the qualities which looke that way, must needes be her best way: if in regard of necessitie to learne how to live, artificiall traine must furnish out her trade: if in respect of ornament to beawtifie her birth, and to honour her place, rareties in that kinde and seemely for that [175] kinde do best beseeme such: if for government, not denyed them by God, and devised them by men, the greatnes of their calling doth call for great giftes, and generall excellencies for generall occurrences. Wherefore having these different endes allwayes in eye, we may point them their traine in different degrees. But some Timon will say, what should wymen do with learning? Such a churlish carper will never picke out the best, but be alway ready to blame the worst. If all men used all pointes of learning well, we had some reason to alleadge against wymen, but seeing misuse is common to both the kinds, why blame we their infirmitie, whence we free not our selves? Some wymen abuse writing to that end, some reading to this, some all that they learne any waye, to some other ill some waye. And I praie you what do we? I do not excuse ill: but barre them from accusing, which be as bad themselves: unlesse they will first condemne themselves, and so proceede in their plea with more discretion after a repentant discoverie. But they will not deale thus, they will rather retire for shame, and prove to be nonsuite, then confesse themselves faulty, and blush for their blaming. Wherfore as the communitie of vertues, argueth the communitie of vices naturally in both: so let us in that point enterchaunge forgivenesse, and in hope of the vertues direct to the best, not for feare of the vices, make an open gap for them. Wherefore in directing of that traine, which I do assigne unto young maidens, I will follow this methode, and shew which of them be to learne, and when, what and how much, where and of whom.

As concerning those which are to be trained, and when they are to begin their traine, this is my opinion. The same restraint in cases of necessitie, where they conveniently cannot, and the same freedom in cases of libertie, when they commodiously may, being reserved to parentes in their daughters, which I allowed them in their sonnes, and the same regarde to the weaknesse and strength of their witts and bodies, the same care for their womanly exercises, for helpe of their health, and strength of their limmes, being remitted to their considerations, which I assigned them in their sonnes, I do thinke the same time fit for both, not determinable by yeares, but by ripenesse [176] of witte, to conceive without tiring, and strength of bodie to travell without wearying. For though the girles seeme commonly to have a quicker ripening in witte, then boyes have, for all that seeming, yet it is not so. Their naturall weaknesse which cannot holde long, delivers very soone, and yet there be as prating boyes, as there be pratling wenches. Besides, their braines be not so much charged, neither with weight nor with multitude of matters, as boyes heades be, and therefore like empty caske they make the greater noise. As those men which seeme to be very quicke witted by some sudden pretie aunswere, or some sharp replie, be not alwaye most burthened, neither with lettes, nor learning, but out of small store, they offer us still the floore, and holde most of the mother. Which sharpnesse of witte though it be within them, as it bewraeth it selfe: yet it might dwell within them a great while, without bewraying of it selfe, it studie kept them still, or great doinges did dull them: as slight dealinges and imperious, do commonly maintaine that kinde of courage. Boyes have it alwaye, but oftimes hide it, bycause their stuffe admitteth time: wenches have it alwaye, and alwaye bewray it, bycause their timber abides no tarying. And seeing it is in both, it deserves care in both, neither to timely to stirre them, nor let them loyter to long. As for bodies the maidens be more weake, most commonly even by nature, as of a moonish influence, and all our whole kinde is weake of the mother side, which when she was first made, even then weakned the mans side. Therefore great regard must be had to them, no lesse, nay rather more then to boyes in that time. For in proces of time, if they be of worth themselves, they may so matche, as the parent may take more pleasure in his sonnes by law, then in his heires by nature. They are to be the principall pillers in the upholding of housholdes, and so they are likely to prove, if they prove well in training. The dearest comfort that man can have, if they encline to good: the nearest corrosive if they tread awry. And therfore charilie to be cared for, bearing a jewell of such worth, in a vessel of such weaknesse. Thus much for there persons whom I turne over to the parentes abilitie for charge: to their owne capacitie for conceit: in eche degree some, from the lowest [177] in menaltie, to the highest in mistriship.

The time hath tied it selfe to strength in both partes, for the bodie to travell, for the soule to conceive. The exercises pray in no case to be forgot as a preservative to the body, and a conserve for the soule.

For the matter what they shall learne, thus I thinke, following the custome of my countrie, which in that that is usuall doth lead me on boldly, and in that also which is most rare, doth shew me my path, to be already troden. So that I shall not neede to erre, if I marke but my guide wel. Where rare excellencies in some wymen, do but shew us some one or two parentes good successe, in their daughters learning, there is neither president to be fetcht, nor precept to be framed. For preceptes be to conduct the common, but these singularities be above the common, presidentes be for hope, those pictures passe beyond al hope. And yet they serve for profe to proceede by in way of argument, that wymen can learne if they will, and may learne what they list, when they bend their wittes to it. To learne to read is very common, where convenientnes doth serve, and writing is not refused, where oportunitie will yeild it.

Reading if for nothing else it were, as for many thinges else it is, is verie needefull for religion, to read that which they must know, and ought to performe, if they have not whom to heare, in that matter which they read: or if their memorie be not stedfast, by reading to revive it. If they heare first and after read of the selfe same argument, reading confirmes their memorie. Here I may not omit many and great contentmentes, many and sound comfortes, many and manifoulde delites, which those wymen that have skill and time to reade, without hindering their houswifery, do continually receive by reading of some comfortable and wise discourses, penned either in forme of historie, or for direction to live by.

As for writing, though it be discommended for some private cariages, wherein we men also, no lesse then wymen, beare oftentimes blame, if that were a sufficient exception why we should not learne to write, it hath his commoditie where it filleth in match, and helpes to enrich the goodmans mercerie. Many good occasions are oftentimes offered, where it were [178] better for them to have the use of their pen, for the good that comes by it, then to wish they had it, when the default is felt: and for feare of evill, which cannot be avoided in some, to avert that good, which may be commodious to many.

Musicke is much used, where it is to be had, to the parentes delite, while the daughters be yong, more then to their owne, which commonly proveth true, when the yong wenches become yong wives. For then lightly forgetting Musicke when they learne to be mothers, they give it in manifest evidence, that in their learning of it, they did more seeke to please their parentes, then to pleasure them selves. But howsoever it is, seeing the thing is not rejected, if with the learning of it once, it may be retained still (as by order it may) it is ill let go, which is got with great paines, and bought with some cost. The learninge to sing and plaie by the booke, a matter soone had, when Musike is first minded, which still preserve the cunning, though discontinuance disturbe. And seeing it is but litle which they learne, and the time as litle wherein they learne, bycause they haste still on toward husbandes, it were expedient, that they learned perfitly, and that with the losse of their pennie, they lost not their pennieworth also, besides the losse of their time, which is the greatest losse of all. I medle not with nedles, nor yet with houswiferie, though I thinke it, and know it, to be a principall commendation in a woman: to be able to governe and direct her houshold, to looke to her house and familie, to provide and keepe necessaries, though the goodman pay, to know the force of her kitchin, for sicknes and health, in her selfe and her charge: bycause I deale onely with such thinges as be incident to their learning. Which seeing the custome of my country doth permit, I may not mislike, nay I may wish it with warrant, the thing being good and well beseeming their sex. This is the most, so farre as I remember, which they commonly use in youth, and participate with us in. If any parent do privately traine up his children of either sex in any other private fantsie of his owne, I cannot commend it, bycause I do not know it, and if it fortune to die within his private walles, I cannot give it life by publike rehearsall. The common and most knowne is that, which I have saide. [179]

The next pointe how much, is a question of more enquirie, and therefore requireth advised handling. To appoint besides these thinges, which are already spoken of, how much further any maide maye proceede in matter of learning and traine, is a matter of some moment, and concerneth no meane ones. And yet some petie lowlinges, do sometimes seeke to resemble, where they have small reason, and will needes seeme like, where their petieship cannot light, using shew for a shadow, where they have no fitter shift. And therfore in so doing, they passe beyond the boundes both of their birth, and their best beseeming. Which then discovereth a verie meere follie, when a meane parent traineth up his daughter hie in those properties, which I shall streight waye speake of, and she matcheth lowe, but within her owne compasse. For in such a case those overraught qualities for the toyousnesse therof being misplaced in her, do cause the young woman rather to be toyed withall, as by them giving signe of some idle conceit otherwise, then to be thought verie well of, as one wisely brought up. There is a comlynesse in eche kinde, and a decentnesse in degree, which is best observed, when eche one provides according to his power, without overreaching. If some odde property do worke preferrement beyond proportion, it commonly stayes there, and who so shootes at the like, in hope to hit, may sooner misse: bycause the wayes to misse be so many, and to hit is but one, and wounders which be but onse seene, be no examples to resemble. Every maide maye not hope to speede, as she would wishe, bycause some one hath sped better then she could wishe.

Where the question is how much a woman ought to learne, the aunswere may be, so much as shall be needefull. If that also come in doubt, the returne may be, either so much as her parentes conceive of her in hope, if her parentage be meane, or provide for her in state, if her birth beare a saile. For if the parentes be of calling, and in great account, and the daughters capable of some singular qualities, many commendable effects may be wrought therby, and the young maidens being well trained are verie soone commended to right honorable matches, whom they may well beseeme, and aunswere much better, [180] their qualities in state having good correspondence, with their matches of state, and their wisedoms also putting to helping hand, for the procuring of their common good. Not here to note, what frute the common weale may reape, by such witts so worthily advaunced, besides their owne private. If the parentes be meane, and the maidens in their training shew forth at the verie first some singular rarenesse like to ensue, if they florish but their naturall, there hope maye grow great, that some great matche may as well like of a young maiden excellently qualified, as most do delite in brute or brutish thinges for some straunge qualitie, either in nature to embrase, or in art to marvell. And yet this hope may faile. For neither have great personages alwaye that judgement, nor young maidens alwaye that fortune, though the maidens remaine the gainers, for they have the qualities to comfort their mediocrity, and those great ones want judgement to set forth their nobilitie.

This how much consisteth either in perfiting of those forenamed foure, reading well, writing faire, singing sweete, playing fine, beyond all cry and above all comparison, that pure excellencie in things but ordinarie may cause extraordinarie liking: or else in skill of languages annexed to these foure, that moe good giftes may worke more wonder. For meane is a maime where excellencie is the marvell. To hope for hie mariages, is good meat, but not for mowers, to have leasure to take delite in these gentlewomanly qualities, is no worke for who will: Nay to be a paragon among princes, to use such singularities, for the singular good of the general state, and the wonder of her person, were a wish in dispaire, were not true proofe the just warrant, that such a thing may be wished, bycause in our time we have found it, even then, when we did wish it most, and in the ende more marvellous, then at first we durst have wished. The eventes in these wymen which we see in our dayes, to have bene brought up in learning, do rule this conclusion. That such personages as be borne to be princes, or matches to great peeres, or to furnish out such traines, for some peculiar ornamentes to their place and calling, are to receive this kinde of education in the highest degree, that is convenient for their kinde. But princely maidens above all: bycause [181] occasion of their height standes in neede of such giftes, both to honour themselves, and to discharge the duetie, which the countries committed to their hands, do daily call for, and besides what matche is more honorable, then when desert for rare qualities, doth joine it selfe, with highenesse in degree? I feare no workmanship in wymen to give them Geometrie and her sister sciences: to make them Mathematicalls, though I meane them Musicke: nor yet barres to plead at, to leave them the lawes: nor urinalls to looke on, to lend them some Physicke, though the skil of herbes have bene the studie of nobilitie, by the Persian storie, and much commended in wymen: nor pulpittes to preach in, to utter their Divinitie: though by learning of some language, they can talke of the lining: and for direction of their life, they must be afforded some, though not as preachers and leaders: yet as honest perfourmers, and vertuous livers. Philosophie would furnish their generall discourses, if their leasure could entend it: but the knowledge of some toungues, either of substaunce in respect of deeper learning, or account for the present time may verie well be wisht them: and those faculties also, which do belong to the furniture of speache, may be verie well allowed them, bycause toungues be most proper, where they do naturally arme. If I should allow them the pencill to draw, as the penne to write, and thereby entitle them to all my Elementarie principles, I might have reason for me. For it neither requireth any great labour to fraye young maidens from it, and it would helpe their nedle, to beautifie their workes: and it is maintainable by very good examples even of their owne kinde. Timarete the vertuous, daughter to Mycon: Irene the curteous, daughter to Cratinus: Aristarete the absolute, daughter to Nearchus: Lala the eloquent, and ever maide of Cyzicus: Martia the couragious, daughter to Varro the best learned and most loved of any Romain, and many mo besides, did so use the pencill, as their fame therefore is so much the fairer, bycause the fact in that sex is so seldome and rare.

And is not a young gentlewoman, thinke you, thoroughly furnished, which can reade plainly and distinctly, write faire and swiftly, sing cleare and sweetely, play wel and finely, understand and speake the learned languages, and those toungues also which [182] the time most embraseth, with some Logicall helpe to chop, and some Rhetoricke to brave. Besides the matter which is gathered, while these toungues be either learned, or lookt on, as wordes must have seates, no lesse then rayment bodies. Were it any argument of an unfurnished maiden, besides these qualities to draw cleane in good proportion, and with good symmetrie? Now if she be an honest woman, and a good housewife to, were she not worth the wishing, and worthy the shryning? and yet such there be, and such we know. Or is it likely that her children shalbe eare a whit the worse brought up, if she be a Laelia, an Hortensia, or a Cornelia, which were so endued and noted for so doing? It is writen of Eurydice the Epirote, that after she began to have children, she sought to have learning, to bring them up skilfully, whom she brought forth naturally. Which thing she perfourmed in deede, a most carefull mother, and a most skilfull mistresse. For which her well doing, she hath wonne the reward, to be enrowled among the most rare matrones.

Now there is nothing left to ende this treatise of young maidens, but where and under whom, they are to learne, which question will be sufficiently resolved, upon consideration of the time how long they are to learne, which time is commonly till they be about thirtene or fouretene yeares old, wherein as the matter, which they must deale with all, cannot be very much in so litle time, so the perfitting thereof requireth much travel, though their time be so litle, and there would be some shew afterward, wherein their trayning did availe them. They that may continue some long time at learning, thorough the state and abilitie of their parentes have also their time and place sutably appointed, by the foresight of their parentes. So that the time resting in private forecast, I can not reduce it to generall precept, but onely thus farre, that in perfitnes it may shew, how well it was employed.

The places wherein they learne be either publike, if they go forth to the Elementarie schole, or private if they be taught at home. The teacher either of their owne sex, or of ours.

For publike places, bycause in that kinde there is no publike provision, but such as the professours of their training do make [183] of them selves, I can say little, but leave them to that and to their parentes circumspection, which both in their being abroad, during their minority, and in bringing them up at home after their minoritie, I know will be very diligent to have all thinges well. For their teachers, their owne sex were fittest in some respectes, but ours frame them best, and with good regard to some circumstances will bring them up excellently well, specially if their parentes be either of learning to judge, or of authoritie to commaund, or of both, to do both, as experience hath taught us in those, which have proved so well. The greater borne Ladyes and gentlewymen, as they are to enjoy the benefit of this education most, so they have best meanes to prosecute it best, being neither restrained in wealth, but to have the best teachers, and greatest helpes: neither abbridged in time, but to ply all at full. And thus I take my leave of yong maidens and gentlewymen, to whom I wish as well, as I have saide well of them.

Chapter 39.

Of the traning up of yong gentlemen. Of private and publike education, with their generall goods and illes. That there is no better way for gentlemen to be trained by in any respect then the common is being well appointed. Of richmens children which be no gentlemen. Of nobilitie in generall. Of gentlemanlie exercises. What it is to be a nobleman, or a gentleman. That infirmities in noble houses be not to be triumphed over. The causes and groundes of nobilitie. Why so many desire to be gentlemen. That gentlemen ought to professe learning and liberall sciences for many good and honorable effectes. Of travelling into forraine countries: with all the braunches allowance and disallowance thereof: and that it were to be wished, that gentlemen would professe, to make sciences liberall in use, which are liberall in name. Of the trayning up of a yong Prince.

In the last title I did declare at large, how yong maidens in ech degree were to be avaunced in learning, which me thought was verie

incident to my purpose, bycause they be counterbraunches [184] to us in the kinde of mortall and reasonable creatures, and also for that in ech degree of life, they be still our mates, and sometime our mistresses, through the benefit of law, and honorablenes of birth. Now considering they joyne allway with us in number and nearenes, and sometime exceede us in dignitie and calling: as they communicate with us in all qualities, and all honours even up to the scepter, so why ought they not in any wise but be made communicantes with us in education and traine, to performe that part well, which they are to play, for either equalitie with us, or soveraintie above us? Here now ensueth another title of mervelous importaunce, for the kinde of people, whereof I am to entreat: bycause their state is still in the superlative, and the greatest executions be theirs by degree, though sometime they leese them by their owne default, and set them over to such, as nature maketh noble by ingenerate vertues. I meane the trayning up of yong gentlemen in every degree and to what so ever ascent, bycause even the crowne and kingdome is their height, though it come to the female, when their side faileth. For gentlemen will commonly be exempt from the common, as in title, so also in traine, refrayning the publike, though they hold of the male, and preferring the private, to be liker to maidens, whose education is most private, bycause of their kinde, and therefore not misliked: whereas yong gentlemen should be publike, bycause of their use. And for not being such, they beare some blame, as therein contrarying both all the best ordered common weales, and all the most excellent and the learnedest writers, which bring up even the best princes allway with great company.

But seeing they wilbe private, and I take upon me not to leap over any, which light within my compasse, and chiefly yong gentlemen, whose ordinarie greatnes is to governe our state, and to be publike pillers for the prince to leane on, and the people to staie by: their private choice commaundes me a private consideration, which in yong gentlewymen needed not any handling, bycause it beseemeth them to be taught in private: in gentlemen it needeth, the case being doutfull, whether private trayning be their best or no. And though this [185] argument succede yong maidens in order of methode, I hope yong gentlemen will not be offended neither with me for the placing, seeing the other sex is in possession of prerogative, nor with them for being so placed, which have wone the best place.

This question for the bringing up of yong gentlemen offereth the deciding of an other ordinarie controversie, betwene publike education and private, which verie name in nature is enemy to publike, as inclosure is to common, and swelling to much overlayeth the common, not onely in education, where it both corrupteth by planting a to private habit, and is corrupted it selfe by a degenerate forme, but also in most thinges else. Yet do I not deny both personall properties and private realities, which law doth allow in private possessions, even there, where friendship makes thinges to be most common by participation. I will therefore speake a litle of this private traine, before I passe to the education of gentlemen. What doe these two wordes import, private education? Private is that, which hath respect in all circumstances to some one of choice: as publike in all circumstances regardeth every one alike. Education is the bringing up of one, not to live alone, but amongest others, (bycause companie is our naturall cognisaunce) whereby he shall be best able to execute those doings in life, which the state of his calling shall employ him unto, whether publike abrode, or private at home, according unto the direction of his countrie whereunto he is borne, and oweth his whole service. All the functions here be publike and regard every one, even where the thinges do seeme to be most private, bycause the maine direction remaineth in the publike, and the private must be squared, as it will best joyne with that: and yet we restraine education to private, all whose circumstaunces be singular to one. As if he that were brought up alone, should also ever live alone, as if one should say, I will have you to deale with all, but never to see all: your end shalbe publike your meane shalbe private, that is to say, such a meane as hath no minde to bring you to that end, which you seeme to pretend: Bycause naturally private is sworne enemy to publike in all eventes, as it doth appeare when private gaine undoeth the common, though publike still pretend friendship to [186] all that is private in distributive effects, as it is plainely seene when the publike care doth helpe ech private, and by cherishing the singuler maintaineth the generall, whereas the private letteth the publike drowne, so it selfe may flete above. For in deed they march mostwhat from severall groundes to severall issues by most severall and least sutable meanes, the one in nature a rowmy pallace full of most varietie to content the minde, the other a close prison, tedious to be tied to, where the sense is shakled: the one in her kinde, a libertie, a broade feild, an open aire, the other in the contrarie kinde, a pinfold, a cage, a cloister: Neither do I take these tearmes to make a fit division, where the end is still common and the abuse private. For how can education be private? it abuseth the name as it abuseth the thing. If they will say education is either good or ill, and use the naturall name, then methinke the disembling which is shadowed in the tearme private would soone appeare: though there can be no worse name then private, saving where the publike doth appoint it, which in education it will not, thereby to foster her owne foe: though in possessions it do, to have subsidies to sustaine, and paimentes to maintaine her great common charge.

And though in communities of kinde which naturally is devided into spieces, nature engraffe private differences for distinction sake, as reason in man to part him from a beast, yet that difference remaineth one still, bycause there is none better: which countenaunce of best cannot here be pretended, bycause in education private is the worst. This private renting in sunder of persons, for a pretended best education, which must passe on togither after education is verie daungerous in all daies, for many private pushes, while every parent can serve his owne humour, be it never so distempered: by the secrecie of his owne house, not to be discovered: by the choyce of his teacher, which will be ready to follow, if he forgoe not in folley: by the obedience of his child, which must learne as he is led, or else be beaten for not learning: which must obey as he is bid, or els lease his parent blessing. In publicke schooles this swarving in affection from the publicke choice in no case can be. The master is in eye, what he saith is in eare: the doctrine is examined: the childe is not alone, and there must he learne that which is laid unto him [187] in the hearing of all and censure of all. Whatsoever inconveniences do grow in common schooles, (as where the dealers be men, how can there be but maimes?) yet the private is much worse, and hatcheth moe odde ills. Naturally it is not built upon unitie, brad by disunion, to seeme to see more then the common man doth, to seeme to prevent that by private wit, which the common doth incurre by unadvised follie: to seeme to gaine more in secrecie, then the common gives in civilitie. By cloistering from the common it will seeme to keepe a countenaunce farre above the common, even from the first cradle. Wherby it becomes the puffer up to pride in the recluse, and the direction to disdaine, by dreaming still of bettership: the enemie to unitie, betwene the unequall: the overwayning of ones selfe, not compared with others, the disjointing of agreement, where the higher contemneth his inferiour with skorne, and the lower doth stomacke his superiour with spite: the one gathering snuffe, the other grudge.

This kinde of traine which soweth the corne of dissension by difference, where the harvest of consent is the harbour of common love, the indissoluble chaine of countriemens comfort, may very well be bettered, and much better be forborne, bycause by the waye it tempereth still the poyson of a creeping spite. And certainly the nature of the thing doth tend this way, though chaunging bytimes to better choice, or the common check, which will not be controwled, do many and often times interrupt the course. And though the child in proces prove better, and shew himselfe curteous, contrarie to my note, and the verie nature of private education, thanke naturall goodnesse or experience seene abroad, not the kinde of education, which in her owne sternnesse alloweth no such curtesie, though the childe see it in his parentes, and finde it in his bookes. And somtimes also it maketh him to shepish bashfull, when he comes to the light: as being unacquainted with resort: though generally he be somwhat to childish bold, by noting nothing, but that which he breedes of himselfe in his solitarie traine, where he is best himselfe, and hath none to controwle him, no not his maister himselfe, but under confession, how so ever the title of maister do pretend authoritie and the name of scholer, [188] make shew of obedience in private cloistring. I neede not saie all, but in this short manner, I seeke to give occasion for them to see all, which desire to sift more, both for the matter of their learning, and the manner of their living.

Do ye know what it is for one to be acquainted with all children in his childhood, which must live with them being men in his manhood? Is the common bringing up being well appointed good for the common man, and not for him of more height? and doth not that deserve to be liked on in private, which is thoroughly tryed being showed forth in common, and sifted by the seeing? which without any great alteration, for the matter of traine will be very well content to be pent up within private dores, though it mislike the cloistring, in privating the person. Sure that common which is well cast, must needes helpe the private, as one of her partes and feede one child very well being a generall mother to all: but private be it never so well cast in the sternnesse of his kinde, still drawes from the publike. I count not that private which is executed at home for a publike use, in respect of the place, for so all doinges be private, but that which will be at home, as better so. And why? for the private parties good. But it should seeme generally that the question is not so much for the manner of education, nor for the matter, wherin, but for the place, where, as if that, which is good for all in common, should not be good for some but in private. I must speake it under pardon. The effect commendes the common: for that the common education in the middest of common mediocritie bringeth up such wittes to such excellencie, as serve in all degrees, yea even next to the hyest, wheras private education in the middest of most wealth, if it maintaine it selfe with any more then bare mediocritie both of learning and judgement, when it is at the hyest, let him that hath shewed more, give charge to the chalenge. And yet some one young mans odnesse, though it be odde in deed, overthroweth not the question. And oftimes the report of that odnesse which we see not in effect, but heare of in speeche, falles out very lame, if the reporters judgement be advisedly considered, though for the authoritie and countenaunce of the man, skill give place to boldnesse, and silence to [189] civilitie: which otherwise would replie against it. There is no comparison betwene the two kindes, set affection apart. If the private pupill chaunce to come to speake, it falleth out mostwhat dreamingly, bycause privitie in traine is a punishment to the toungue: and in teaching of a language to exclude companions of speeche, is to seeke to quenche thrist, and yet to close the mouth so, as no moysture can get in. If he come to write, it is leane, and nothing but skinne, and commonly bewrayes great paines in the maister, which brought forth even so much, being quite reft of all helping circunstance, to ease his great labour, by his pupilles conference, with more companie. Which is but a small benefit to the child, that might have had much more if his course had bene chaunged. He can but utter that, which he heares, and he heares none but one, which one though he know all, yet can utter but litle, bycause what one auditorie is two or three boyes for a learned man to provoke him to utteraunce? If he travelled to utter, and one of judgement should stand behinde a covert to heare him, methinke he should heare a straunge orator straining his pipes, to perswade straung people, and the boye if he were alone, fast a sleepe, or if he had a fellow, playing under the bourd, with his hand or feete, having one eye upon his talking maister, and the other eye on his playing mate. If the nyne Muses and Apollo their president were painted upon the wall, he might talke to them without either laughing or lowring, they would serve him for places of memorie, or for hieroglyphicall partitions. If he that is taught alone misse, as he must often, having either none, or verie small companie to helpe his memorie, which multitude serves for in common scholes, where the hearing of many confirmes the sitter by, shall he runne to his maister? if he do that boldly, it will breede contempt in the ende: if he do it with feare, it will dull him for not daring. And though it be verie good for the child, not to be afrayd to aske counsell of his maister in that, where he doubteth, yet if he finde easie entertainment he will doubt still, rather then do his diligence, not to have cause to doubt. If the private scholer prove cunninger afterward, then I conceive he can be by private education, there was some forreine helpe which avaunced him abroad, [190] it was not his traine within being tyed to the stake, which offereth that violence to my assertion.

But what leades the private, and why is it so much used? there must needes be some reason, which alieneth the particular parente from the publike discipline, which I do graunt to very great ones, bycause the further they rise from the multitude in number, and above them in degree, the more private they grow as in person, so in traine: and the prince himselfe being one and singular must needes embrace the private discipline, wherin he sheweth great valure in his person, if by private meanes, he mount above the publike. And yet if even the greatest, could have his traine so cast, as he might have the companie of a good choice number, wherein to see all differences of wittes, how to discerne of all, which must deale with all, were it any sacrilege?

But for the gentleman generally, which flyeth not so high, but fluttereth some litle above the ordinarie common, why doth he make his choice rather to be like them above, which still grow privater, then to like of them below, which can grow no lower, and yet be supporters, to stay up the whole, and liker to himselfe, then he is to the highest? To have his child learne better maners, and more vertuous conditions? As bad at home as abroad, and brought into schooles, not bred there. To avoide confusion and multitude? His child shall marke more, and so prove the wiser: the multitude of examples being the meanes to discretion. Nay in a number, though he finde some lewd, whom to flie, he shall spie many toward, whom to follow: and withall in schooles he shall perceave that vice is punished, and vertue praised, which where it is not, there is daunger to good manners, but not in schooles, where it is very diligently observed, bycause in publike view, necessitie is the spurre. To keepe him in health by biding at home for feare of infection abroad? Death is within dores, and dainties at home have destroyed more children then daunger abroad. Doth affection worke stay, and can ye not parte from your childes presence? That is to fond. And any cause else admittes controwlement, saving onely state in princes children, and princelike personages, which are to farre above the common: by reason [191] of great circunstance. And yet their circunstance were better, if they saw the common, over whom they command, and with due circumspectnesse could avoid all daungers, wherunto the greatest be commonly subject, by great desires, not in themselves to have, but in others that hope, which make the greatnesse of their gaine their colour against justice, where they injurie most. It is enough that is ment, though I say no more: besides that by a Persian principle, the seldome seing in princes, workes admiration the more, when they are to be seene.

Use common scholes to the best, joyne a tutor to your childe, let Quintilian be your guide, all thinges will be well done, where such care is at hand, and that is much better done, which is done before witnes to encourage the childe. Comparisons inspire vertues, hearing spreads learning: one is none and if he do something at home, what would he do with company? It is never settled, that wanteth an adversarie, to quicken the spirites, to stirre courage, to finde out affections.

For the maisters valew, which is content to be cloistered, I will say nothing, entertainement makes digressions even to that, which we like not. But if it would please the private parent, to send his sonne with his private maister to a common schoole, that might do all parties verie much good. For the schole being well ordered, and appointed for matter and maner to learne, where number is pretended to cumber the maister, and to mince his labour so, as ech one can have but some litle, though his voice be like the Sunne, which at one time with one light shineth upon all: yet the private scholer, by the helpe of his private maister in the common place hath his full applying, and the whole Sunne, if no lesse will content him. The common maister thereby will be carefull to have the best: the private teacher will be curiouse to come but to the very best: wherby both the private and publike scholers shall be sure to receive the best. And if the publike maister be chosen accordingly, as allowance will allure even the principall best, private cunning will not disdaine to be one degree beneth, where he knoweth himselfe bettered. And thereby disagreement betwene the two teachers willbe quite excluded which onely might be the meane to marre both my meaning and [192] Quintilianes counsell. Sure my resolution is, which if it winne no liking abroade may returne againe homeward, and be wellcome to his maister, that that which must be continued and exercised in publike, the residue of ones life, were best to be learned in publike, from the beginning of ones life. And if ye will needes be private, make your private publike, and drawe as many to your private maister, for your private sonnes sake, seeing you are able to provide rowme, bycause that will prove to be best for your child, as shalbe able to keepe some forme of our multitude, that he may have one companie before him to follow and learne of, an other beneth to teach and vaunt over, the third of his owne standing, with whom to strive for praise of forwardnes. Whereby it falleth out still, that that private is best, which consisteth of some chosen number for a private ende: and that multitude best, where choice restraines number, for the publike service: for in deede the common scholes be as much overcharged with too many, as any private is with to few. Which how it may either be helpt, or in that confusion be better handled, I will hereafter in my private executions declare, seeing I have noted the defect.

To knit up this question therefore of private and publike education, I do take publike to be simply the better: as being more upon the stage, where faultes be more seene, and so sooner amended, as being the best meane both for vertue and learning, which follow in such sort, as they be first planted. What vertue is private? wisedome to forsee, what is good for a desert? courage to defend, where there is no assailant? temperance to be modest, where none is to chaleng? Justice to do right, where none is to demaunde it? what learning is for alonnesse? did it not come from collection in publike dealinges, and can it shew her force in private affaires, which seeme affraid of the publike? Compare the best in both the kinds, there the ods wil appeare. If ye compare a private scholer, of a very fine capacity, and worthy the open field, so well trayned by a diligent and a discreat maister as that traine will yeald: with a blockhead brought up under a publike teacher, not of the best sort, or if in comparison ye match a toward private teacher with a weake publike maister, ye say somwhat to the persons but smallie to the thing, which in equalitie [193] shewes the difference, in inequaltie deceives the doubter, and then most, when to augment his owne liking, he wil make the conference odde, to seeme to avaunce errour, where the truth is against him. And to saye all in one, the publike pestring with any reasonable consideration, though it be not the best, yet in good sooth, it farre exceedeth the private alonenesse, though sometime a diligent private teacher shew some great effect of his maine endevour.

But to the education of gentlemen and gentlemanly fellowes. What time shal I appoint them to begin to learne? Their witts be as the common, their bodies oftimes worse. The same circunstance, the same consideration for time must direct all degrees. What thing shall they learne? I know none other, neither can I appoint better, then that which I did appoint for all. The common and private concurre herin. Neither shall the private scholer go any faster on, nay perhaps not so fast, for all the helpe of his whole maister, then our boyes shall, with the bare helpe, that is in number and multitude, every boye being either a maister for his fellow to learne by, or an example to set him on, to better him if he be negligent, to be like him, if he be diligent.

Onely this, young gentlemen must have some choice of peculiar matter, still appropriat unto them, bycause they be to governe under their prince in principall places: those vertues and vertuous lessons must be still layd before them, which do appertaine to governement, to direct others well, and belong to obedience, to guide themselves wisely. For being in good place, and having good to leese, it will prove their ill, by undiscrete attemptes to become prayes to distresse. And yet for all this, the generall matter of duetie being commonly taught, eche one may applie the generall to his owne private, without drawing any private argument into a schoole, for the privitie not to be communicate but with those of the same calling: considering the property of that argument falleth as oft to the good of the common, whom vertue avaunceth, as the gentlemens credit, whom negligence abaseth. What exercises shall they have? The verie same. What maisters? The same. What circunstance else? All one and the same: but that for their place [194] and time, their choice makes them private, though nothing the better for want of good fellowship. And if they prove so well trained, as the generall plat for all infancie doth promise, and so well exercised, as the thing is well ment them, they shall have no cause, much to complaine of the publike, nor any matter at all why to covet to be private. For it is no meane stuffe, which is provided even for the meanest to be stored with.

These thinges gentlemen have, and are much bound to God for them, which may make them prove excellent, if they use them well: great abilitie to go thorough withall, where the poorer must give over, eare he come to the ende: great leasure to use libertie, where the meaner must labour: all oportunities at will, where the common is restrained: so that singularitie in them if it be missed, discommendes them, bycause they have such meanes and yet misse: if it hit in the meaner, it makes their account more, bycause their meane was small, but their diligence exceeding. Whereby negligence in gentlemen is ever more blamed, bycause of great helpes, which helpe nothing: diligence in the meaner is alway more praised, bycause of great wantes, which hinder nothing: and those prefermentes, which by degree are due unto gentlemen, thorough their negligence being by them forsaken, are bestowed upon the meaner, whose diligent endevour made meane to enjoy them.

As for riche men which being no gentlemen, but growing to wealth by what meanes soever, will counterfeat gentlemen in the education of their children, as if money made equalitie, and the purse were the preferrer, and no further regard: which contemne the common from whence they came, which cloister up their youth, as boding further state: they be in the same case for abilitie, though farre behinde for gentilitie. But as they came from the common, so they might with more commendacion, continue their children in that kinde, which brought up the parentes and made them so wealthy, and not to impatronise themselves unto a degree to farre beyond the dounghill. For of all the meanes to make a gentleman, it is the most vile, to be made for money. Bycause all other meanes beare some signe of vertue, this onely meane is to bad a meane, either to matche with great birth, or to mate great worth. For the most [195] parte it is miserably scraped to the murthering of many a poore magot, while lively cheese is lusty cheare, to spare expenses, that Jacke maye be a gentleman. If sparing were the worst, though in the worst degree, that were not the worst, nay it hath shew of witte: The rest which I tuch not, be so shamefull and so knowen to be such, and deserve so great hatred as nothing more. Besides the insolencie of the people, triumphing over them in their cuppes, by whom they buy their drinke: which shiftes be shamefull to the world and hatefull to heaven: and too too filthy to be honored upon earth with either armes by harold, or honour by any. He that will read but Aristophanes his blinde Plutus the God of richesse, and marke the old fellowes fashions shall see his humour naturally, as that poete was not the worst resembler though he were not the best man.

For to become a gentleman is to beare the cognisance of vertue, wherto honour is companion: the vilest divises be the readiest meanes to become most wealthy, and ought not to looke honour in the face, bycause it joynes not with justice, which greate wealth by the Greeke verse, {Greek}, is noted to refuse, and commonly dare not name the meane right, whereby it groweth great. And though witte be pretended to have made their way, it is not denied but that witte may serve even to the worst effectes, and to wring many a thousand to make one a gentleman. It is not witte, that carieth the praise, but the matter, wheron, and the manner how it is, or hath bene ill or well employed. Witte bestowed upon the common good with wise demeanour, deserveth well: the same holy given to fill a private purse, by any meane, so it be secrete: by any misdemeanour, so it be not seene: deserveth no prais for that which is seen, but is to be suspected, for that which is not seene. These people by their generall trades, will make thousandes poore: and for giving one penie to any one poore of those many thousandes will be counted charitable. They will give a scholer some petie poore exhibition to seeme to be religious, and under a sclender veale of counterfeat liberalitie, hide the spoile of the ransaked povertie. And though they do not professe the impovershing of purpose, yet their kinde of dealing doth pierce as it passeth: and a thousand pound gaines [196] bowelles twentie thousand persons. Of these kinde of folkes I entend not to speake, bycause their state is both casuall, and belongeth to the common: and their gentilitie bastardise: and yet while I frame a gentleman, if any of them take the benefit of my advice, gentle men must beare with me, if my preceptes be usurped on, where their state is intruded on.

My purpose is to employ my paines upon such as are gentlemen in deede, and in right judgement of their unbewitched countrie do serve in best place: neither will I rip up what some write of nobilitie in generall, whether by birth or by discent: nor what other write of true nobilitie, as disclayming in that which vertue avaunceth not: nor what other write of learned nobilitie, as accounting that simply the best, where vertue and learning do beawtifie the subject. One might talke beyond enough, and write beyond measure, that would examine what such a one saith of nobilitie in greeke, such a one in latin, such in other severall toungues, bycause the argument is so large, the use of nobilitie streaching so farre, and so brave a subject cannot chuse but minister passing brave discourses. There be so many vertues to commend it, all the brymmer in sight the clearer their subject is: so many vices to assaile it whose disfiguring is foulest, where it falleth in the face, and must needes be sene.

All these offered occasions, to enlarge and amplyfie this so honorable an argument, I meane to forbeare, and give onely this note unto yong gentlemen: That if their calling had not bene of very great worth in deede, as it is of most shew in place, it could never have wone so many learned workes, it could never have perced so many excellent wittes, to rejoyce with it in good, to mourne with it in ill, and to make the meditation of nobilitie, to be matter for them to marvell. And that therfore it doth stand nobilitie upon, to maintaine that glorie in their families with prayse, which learned men in so many languages, do charge them with in precept. My friend to be carefull, that I keepe all well, and my selfe to be carelesse and consume all ill? an honest friend and an honorable care. But what am I? my auncestours to avaunce my howse to honour, my selfe to spoile it, and bring it to decaye? The avauncement vertuous, the advauncer commendable. But what am I? a gentleman in [197] birth and nothing else but braverie. A sory shew which shameth, where it shapeth. It is value that gives name and note to nobilitie, it is vertue must endow it, or vice will undoe it. The more high the more heynouse, if it fortune to faile: the more bruted the more brutish if it fatall under fame. Which seeing it is so, as I wish the race well, so I wish their traine were good, and if it were possible even better then the common, but that cannot be. For the common well appointed is simply the best, and even fittest for them, bycause they may have it full, where the meaner have it maimed. Their sufficiencie is so able to wyn it with perfection, for leasure at will, for labour at ease, for want the least, for wealth the most, in all thinges absolute, in nothing unperfit, if they faile not themselves.

But bycause I meane briefly to runne through this title of nobilitie, which concerneth the worthiest part of our state and country, whatsoever cavelling the enemies of nobility pretend, whose good education must be applied according unto their degrees and endes, to the commoditie and honour of our state and countrie: Before that I do meddle with their traine, and shew what is most for them, and best liked in them, I will examine those pointes which by good education be best got, and being once got do beawtifie them most, which two considerations be not impertinent to my purpose, bycause I tender their education, to have them prove best.

My first note in nature of methode must needes be, what it is to be a gentleman or a nobleman, and what force the termes of nobilitie or gentrie do infer to be in the persons, to whom they are proper. Then what be the groundes and causes of gentrie and nobilitie: both the efficient which make them, and the finall why they serve, wherein the rightnes of their being consisteth, and why there is such thronging of all people that way.

But ear I begine to deale with any of these pointes, once for all I must recommend unto them exercise of the bodie, and chiefly such as besides their health shall best serve their calling, and place in their countrie. Whereof I have saide, methinke, sufficiently before. And as those qualities, which I have set out for the generall traine in their perfection being best compassed [198] by them, may verie well beseeme a gentlemanly minde: so may the exercises without all exception: either to make an healthfull bodie, seeing our mould is all one: or to prepare them for service, wherein their use is more. Is it not for a gentleman to use the chase and hunt? doth their place reprove them if they have skill to daunce? Is the skill in sitting of an horse no honour at home, no helpe abroad? Is the use of their weapon with choice, for their calling, any blemish unto them? For all these and what else beside, there is furniture for them, if they do but looke backe: and the rather for them, bycause in deede those great exercises be most proper to such persons, and not for the meaner. Wherefore I remit them to that place.

What is it to be a nobleman or a gentleman? and what force do those termes of nobilitie and gentilitie infer to be in those persons, whereunto they are proper? All the people which be in our countrie be either gentlemen or of the commonalty. The common is devided into marchauntes and manuaries generally, what partition soever is the subdivident. Marchandize containeth under it all those which live any way by buying or selling: Manuarie those whose handyworke is their ware, and labour their living. Their distinction is by wealth: for some of them be called rich men, which have enough and more, some poore men, which have no more then enough: some beggers which have lesse then enough: There be also three kindes in gentilitie, the gentlemen, which be the creame of the common: the noblemen, which be the flowre of gentilitie, and the prince which is the primate and pearle of nobilitie. Their difference is in authoritie, the prince most, the nobleman next, the gentleman under both. And as in the baser degree, the begger is beneth all for want of both abilitie to do with, and vertue to deserve with: so the prince being opposite to him, as the meere best, to the pure worst, is of most abilitie to do good, and of most vertue to deserve best. The limiting of either sort to their owne lystes, will bewray either an usurping intruder upon superioritie, or a base degenerat to inferioritie, either being ravished with the others dealinges, and neither deserving the degree that he is in. To be vertuous or vicious to be rich or poore, be no peculiar badges to either sort, but common to both, for [199] both a gentleman, and a common man may be vertuous or vicious, both of them may be either rich or poore: landed or unlanded, which is either the having or wanting of the most statarie substance: Examples neede not in familiar knowledge. And as the gentleman in any degree must have forreine abilitie for the better executing of his lawfull authoritie: so there be some vertues which seeme to be wedded properly to that side: As great wisedom in great affaires: great valiancy in great attemptes: great justice in great executions and all thinges excellent, in a great and excellent degree of people. The same vertues but in a meaner degree in respect of the subject, whereon they be employed: in respect of the persons, which are to employ: in respect of circumstance, wherefore they are employed: and all thinges meaner be reserved for the common: of whom I will speake no more now, bycause this title is not for them, though they become the keepers of vertues and learning, when nobilitie becomes degenerate. Hereby it is evident that the tearme of nobilitie amongest us, is restrained to one order, which I named the flowre of gentilitie: and that the gentlemen be in degree next unto them. Whereof where either beginneth, none can dout, which can call him a nobleman that is above a knight. So that whosoever shall use the terme of gentilitie, speaking of the whole order opposite to the common, doth use the ground whence all the rest doth spring, bycause a gentleman in nature of his degree is before a nobleman, though not in the height: as nobilitie employeth the flowre of the gentlemen, which name is taken of the primacie and excellencie of the oddes, and where it is used in discourse it comprehendeth all above the common. When the Romaine speaketh of the gentleman in generall, nobilitie is his terme, being in that state opposite to the common, wherein they acknowledged no prince, when that opposition was made. For generosus which is our common tearme signifieth the inward valure, not the outward note, and reacheth to any active living creature though without reason, wherein there doth appeare any praisworthy valiance or courage in that kinde more then ordinarie, as in Alexanders horse and Porus his dog. Therefore whether I use the terme of nobilitie hereafter or of gentilitie, [200] the matter is all one, both the names signifying the whole order, though not of one ground, nobilitie being the flower and gentilitie the roote. The account wherof how great it is, we may very well perceave by that opinion, which the nobilitie it selfe hath usually of it. For truth being the private protest of a gentleman, honour, of a noble man, fayth of a Prince, yet generally they do all joine in this, As they be true gentlemen. Such a reputacion hath the name reserved even from his originall.

Now then nobilitie emplying the outward note of inward value, and gentilitie signifying the inward value of the outward note, it is verie easie to determine, what it is to be a nobleman, in excellencie of vertue shewed, and what it is to be a gentleman to have excellent vertue to shew. Whereby it appeareth that vertue is the ground to that whole race, by whether name so ever ye call it, wisedome in pollicie, valiance in execution, justice in deciding, modestie in demeanour. There shall not neede any allegations of the contraries, to grace out these vertues, which be well content with their owne gaines and desire not to glister by comparison with vices, though different colours in contarietie do commend, and thinges contrarie be knowne in the same moment. For if true nobilitie have vertue for her ground, he that knoweth vice, can tell what it bringes forth. Whether nobilitie come by discent or desert it maketh no matter, he that giveth the first fame to his familie, or he that deserveth such honour, or he that enlargeth his parentage by noble meanes, is the man whom I meane. He that continueth it in discent from his auncestrie by desert in his owne person hath much to thanke God for, and doth well deserve double honour among men, as bearing the true coate of right and best nobilitie, where desert for vertue is quartered with discent in blood, seeing aunciencie of linage, and derivation of nobilitie is in such credit among us and alwaye hath bene.

And as it is most honorable in deede thus to aunswere auncestry in all laudable vertues, and noble qualities of a well affected minde: so the defect in sufficiencie where some of a noble succession have not the same successe in pointes of praise and worthinesse, either naturally by simplenesse, or casually, by fortune: though it be to be moaned in respect of their place, [201] yet it is to be excused in respect of the person. Bycause the person is, as his parentes begate him, who had not at commaundement the discent of their vertues, which made them noble, as they had the begetting of a child to enherite their landes. For if they had, their nobilitie had continued on the nobler side. But vertues and worthinesse be not tyed to the person, they be Gods meere and voluntarie giftes to bestow there, wheras he entendes that nobilitie shall either rise or continue, and not to bestow, where he meanes to abase, and bring a linage lowe. Wherefore to blame such wantes, and raile upon nobilitie as to much degenerate, is to intrude upon providence. Where we cannot make our selves, and may clearly see, that he which maketh, hath some misterie in hande, where he setts such markes.

To exhort young men to those qualities, which do make noble and gentlemen, is to have them so excellently qualified, as they maye honest their countrey, and honour themselves. To encourage noble young gentlemen to maintaine the honour of their houses, is to wish them to apply such vertues, as both make base houses bigge in any degree, and tofore did make their families renowmed in theirs. If abilitie will attaine, and idlenesse do neglecte, the ignominie is theirs: if want of abilitie appeare to be so great, as no endevour can prevaile, God hath set his seale and men must cease to muse, where the infirmitie is evident, and thinke that every beginning is to have an ende. Hereby I take it to be very plaine both what the termes of noble and gentle do meane, and what they infer to be in those parties to whom they are proper. For as gentility argueth a courteous, civill, well disposed, sociable constitution of minde in a superiour degree: so doth nobilitie import all these, and much more in an higher estate nothing bastarded by great authoritie. And do not these singularities deserve helpe by good and vertuous education?

What be the groundes and causes of nobilitie, both the efficient which make it, and the finall for whom it serves? Concerning the efficient. Though the cheife and soveraigne Prince, of whom for his education I will saye somwhat herafter, be the best and fairest blossom of nobilitie, yet I will not medle any further with the meane to attaine unto the dignitie of the [202] crowne, then that it is either come by, by conquest, which in meaner people is called purchace, and hangeth altogether of the conquerours disposition: or else by discent, which in other conveyances continueth the same name, and in that highnesse continueth the same lawes, or altereth with consent. Neither will I speake of such, as the Prince upon some private affection doth extraordinarily prefer. Alexander may avaunce Hephestio for great good liking, Assuerus Hester, for great good love, Ptolome Galetes for secret vertue. And upon whom soever the Prince doth bestow any extraordinarie preferment, it is to be thought that there is in them some great singularity, wherewith their princes, which can judge be so extraordinarily moved. Neither will I say any more then I have said of nobilitie by discent, which enjoyeth the benefite of the predecessours vertue, if it have no private stuffe: but if it have, it doth double and treble the honour and praise of auncestrie.

But concerning other causes, that come by authoritie, which make noble and gentlemen under their Prince, who be therefore avaunced by their Prince, bycause they do assist him in necessarie functions of his government, they be either single or compound, and depend either holy of learning: or but only for the groundes of their execution. Excellent wisedome which is the meane to avaunce grave and politike counsellours, is but a single cause of preferment: likewise valiancie of courage which is the meane to make a noble and a warrious captaine is but a single cause of avauncement: but where wisedome for counsell, doth concurre with valiancie of courage in the same man, the cause is compound and the deserte doubled. The meanes of preferment, which depend upon learning for the ground of their execution be either Martiall for warre and defence abroad, or politike, for peace and tranquillitie at home. For the man of warre will seeme to hange most of his owne courage and experience, which without any learning or reading at all hath oftimes brought forth excellent leaders, but with those helpes to, most rare and famous generalles, as the reason is great, why he should prove an excellent man that waye with the assistance of learning which without all learning [203] could attaine unto so much. Sylla the cruell in deede, though surnamed the fortunate of such, as he favored, was a noble generall without any learning. But Caesar which wondred at him for it, as a thing scant possible to do any great matter without good learning, himselfe with the helpe of learning, did farre exceede him.

Such as use the penne most in helping for their parte, the direction of publike government, or execute offices of either necessarie service for the state, or justiciarie, for the common peace and quietnesse, without profession of further learning, though they have their cheife instrument of credit from the booke, yet they are not meere dettours to the booke, bycause private industrie, considerate experience, and stayed advisement seeme to chalendge some interest, in their praiseworthie dealing. The other which depend wholy upon learning be most incident to my purpose, and best beseeme the place, where the question is, how gentlemen must be trained to have them learned.

The highest degree wherunto learned valure doth prefer, is a wise counsellour, whose learning is learned pollicie: not as pollicie is commonly restrayned, and opposed to plainnesse, but as we terme it in learning and philosophie, the generall skill to judge either of all, or of most thinges rightly, and to marshall them to their places, and strait them by circunstance, as shall best beseeme the present government, with least disturbaunce, and most contentment to the setled state, of what sorte soever the thinges be, divine or humaine, publike or private, professions of minde, or occupations of hande. This man for religion is a Divine, and well able to judge of the generalities, and application of Divinitie, for governement, a lawyer, as one that first setts lawes, and knowes best how to have them kept: generally for all thinges, he is simply the soundest, whether he be choosen of the Ecclesiasticall or Temporall, out of whatsoever degree, or whatsoever profession: so able as I say, and so sufficient in all pointes. And though the particular professour know more then he in every particular, which his leasure will not suffer him to runne thorough, like the particular student: yet of himselfe he will enquire so consideratly, and so [204] methodically of the particuler professour, as he will enter into the very depth of the knowledge, which the other hath, and when he hath done so, handle it better, and more for the common good, then the private professour can, for all his cunning in all his particuler: Nay he will direct him in the use, which enformed him in the skill. Of all them that depend wholy upon learning, I take this kinde of man worthyest to be preferred, and most worthily preferred for his learned judgement, the first and chiefe naturally in divinitie among divines though he do not preach: in law among lawyers though he do not pleade: and so throughout in all other thinges that require any publike direction.

Of the secondary and particuler professions, the worthynes of the subject, and the authoritie of the argument preferreth the divines. For they dealing carefully with the charge of soules, the principall part of our composition, and the fairest matter that is dealt in, beside the soule of a civill societie which is compounded of infinite particular soules: and being the ministers and trumpettes of the allmightie God, avancing vertue, and suppressing vice, denouncing death and pronouncing life, which be both most sure, and that everlastingly to ensue according to demeanour: do well deserve to be honoured of men, with the simple benefit of their temporall estimation, as what they can do, where they cannot do enough. For what reward for vertue is an olyve braunch, though it signifie the rewarders good will, confessing the thing to be farre above any mortall reward? which estimation yet is not to be desired of them, though it be deserved by them. For humilitie of minde in avauncing the divine draweth him still backeward, as officious thankefullnes in the profited hearer doth worthely and well push him still on forward. And as the temporall braunche of the common weale being so many in number hath distinction in degrees, for the better methode in government, which function doth honour the executours: so likewise with proportionate estimation for the parties executours, the church consisting of many, and having charge over all hath her distinction in dignities and degrees to stay that state the better, which would soone be shaken, if there [205] were no such stay: the argument of religion being used mostwhat contemplative, and in nature of opinion, and therefore a verie large field to bring forth matter of controversies, specially in yong men, whose naturall is not staied, though their resolution seeme to be, and their zeale carie them on, to the profit of their hearer, their owne commendation, and the honour of him, whose messengers they are. Howbeit in the middle of all these contradictions, the particuler execution to beleeve this, and to do that, according to ones calling, which is but one in all, to beleeve truely, and to do honestly, by that same one, doth check the diversities of all difference in saying. Which great difference in saying, and diversities in opinion, the church may most thanke the Grecian for, who joyning with religion after divorce with philosophie, was as bold to be factious in the one, as he had bene in the other, and could not rest in one, still devided into numbers, as it still appeareth in the ecclesiasticall historie where factious heresies assaile the firme catholike. Neither doth this difference in publike degrees empaire that opinion, that all be but ministers, and in that point equal any more, then that both the prince and the plowman be one, in respect of their humanitie, and first creation. And yet the prince is a thought above him for all he be his brother in respect of old Adam. The matter of both these two, the wise counseller, and the grave divines honour is best proved to be in the worthynes of their owne persons, which is the true ensigne of right nobilitie, bycause both their places and lyvinges, in respect of their degree depart and die with them (though their honorable memorie remaine after) and be not transported to their heires, as the inheritaunce of blood, but to their successours, as the reward of vertue. If it so chaunce that the same person for worthynes be successour both in place, and patrimonie, it is most honorable to himselfe, and most comfortable to his friends, and rejoyced at of all men.

The peace, and quietnes of civill societie, by composing, and taking up of quarelles, and by directing justice, makes the lawyer next, whose publike honour dyeth also with him: and declareth the substaunce of his worthines, though his private [206] name remaine, and his children enjoy the benefit of his getting. As why may not the divines to, enjoy that, which their parentes have honestly saved, if they have any surplus, whereon to save, for necessarie reliefe of their necessarie charge in succession? Which among the Jewes was of such countenaunce, as Josephus, vaunteth himselfe of his nobilitie that way. And. But it were to large a roming place, to runne over the port that the churchmen have kept, not among christians and Jewes onely.

The Physician is next, and his circumstaunce like, and so furth in learning, where the preferment dying with the partie, and transposed to other, not by line in nature but by choice in valure, is the evidentest argument, that those thinges be most worthiely tearmed the best matter of honour, which die with the partie, and yet make him live through honorable remembraunce, though he have no successour but the common weale, which is generally surest, bycause private succession in blood is oftimes some blemish. And yet succession in state, is not allway so steddie, but that the old house may have a very odde maister. These do I take to be the truest, and most worthy causes of nobilitie, lymited not by wealth, but by worth, which accompany the party, and expire with his breath. For sure that which one leaveth behinde him besides an honorable remembraunce of his owne worthynes, cannot noble him while he hath it, nor his, when he leaves it, bycause it bettereth not the owner, but oftimes makes him worse, though it be a necessary stay for that person which is of good worthynes to shew his worth the better. Therefore when wealth is made the way to gentilitie: or if it be exceeding great, the gap to nobilitie, it is like to some universitie men, which for favour or feasting lend their schole degrees to doltes to intercept those livinges by borowed titles which them selves should have for learning, and might have without let, if they hindered not them selves. But both gentlemen and scholers be well enough served, for overshooting them selves so farre: nobilitie being empaired in note, though encreased in number by such intruders, and learning empoverished in purses, though replenished in putfurthes by [207] such interceptours.

Yet it is no mervell if the base covet his best, as his perfection in nature, and his honour in opinion: no more then that the asse doth desire the lions skin, to be thought though but a while, very terrible to behold. But counterfeat mettall for all his best shew will never be so naturall, as that is, which it doth counterfeat: neither will naturall mettalles ever enterchaunge natures, though the finest be severed, and the Alcumist do his best: And for all the lions skin, sure the asse is an asse as his owne eares will bewray him, if ye fortune to see them: or your eares will discerne him, if you fortune to heare him: he will bray so like a beast. I can say no better, though this may seeme bitter, where I see nobilitie betraid to donghillrie, and learning to doultrie. You gentlemen must beare with me, for I wish you your owne: you scholers must pardon me, I pity your abuse. Your apes do you harme, and scratch you by the face, for all the friendship they finde, which if they found not, they might tarie apes still. Their suttletie supplantes you, and your simplenes lettes them see, what fellowes you are. Call vertue to aide, and put slaverie in pinfold, let learning leade you, and send loselles to labour, more fit for the shovell then to shuffle up your cardes. Thus much for the causes which make nobilitie, whose leader is learning, and honour is vertue, not to use more discourse to prove by particular, where the matter is so plaine, as either vertue will admit praise, or historie bring proofe.

For the finall cause it is most evident, that if some sufficiencie this way be the meane to nobilitie, the effect of such sufficiencie doth crowne the man, and accomplish the matter. But wherefore is all this? to shew how necessarie a thing it is to have yong gentlemen well brought up. For if these causes do make the meane man noble, what will they do in him, whose honour is augmented with perpetuall encrease, if with his nobilitie in blood he do joyne in match the worthines of his owne person? Wherefore the necessitie of the traine appearing to be so great, I will handle that as well as I can in generall precept, for this present place, as having to deale with such personages, whose wisedom is their weight, learning their [208] line, justice their ballance, armour their honour, and all vertues in all kindes their best furniture in all executions, and their greatest ornamentes in the eies of all men, all this tending directly to the common good.

As concerning the traine it selfe, wherof I said somwhat before, I know none better then the common well appointed, which the common man doth learne for necessitie at first, and avauncement after: the greater personage ought to learne for his credit, and honour, besides necessarie uses. For which be gentlemanly qualities, if these be not, to reade, to write, to draw, to sing, to play, to have language, to have learning, to have health, and activitie, nay even to professe Divinitie, Lawe, Physicke, and any trade else commendable for cunning? Which as gentlemen maye get with most leasure, and best furniture, so maye they execute them without any corruption, where they neede not to crave. And be not sciences liberall in terme, that waye to be recovered from illiberalitie in trade, and can those great livinges be better employed, then in sparing the pillage of the poore people? which are to sore gleaned: by the needie and never contented professours? which making their ende as to do good, and their entent but to gaine, do pluk the poore shrewdly, while they covet that they have not, by a meane that they should not. Bicause though the professours neede do seeke such a supplie, yet the thing which they professe protesteth the contrarie: and prayes for ability in the professour to deale franckely himselfe in the freedome of his cunning, and not to straine her for neede. Doth Divinitie teache to scrape, or Lawe to scratche, or any other learning, whose epithet is liberall? Divines do use it, lawyers do use it, learned men do use it. But their profession is free and liberall, though the execution be servile and corrupt, and cryeth for helpe of nobilitie to raunsome it from necessity, which hath emprisoned it so, by the negligence of nobilitie who thinke any thing farre more seemly to bestow their time and wealth on, then professions of learning. But if it would please toward young gentlemen to be so wel affected towards their naturall countrey, or to suffer her to overtreat them so farre, as to shoulder out corruption, by professing themselves, who neede not to be covetuous for want of any thing, which [209] have all thinges at will, how blessed were our state, nay how fortunate were even the gentlemen them selves? They may spare number enough that way, besides such furniture, as they do affoord unto the court, to all martiall and militare affaires, to all justiciarie functions by reason of their multitude, which groweth on dayly to farre and to fast, and lessen the middle commoner to much: whose bignes is the best meane, if Aristotle say true, as his reason seemes great, for peace and quietnes in any publicke estate, to desire the rich gentlemen, which have most, and the poore meany, which have least, to holde their handes, and put up their weapons, when they would be seditious, as the two extremities in a publicke body. If the couragious gentlemen tooke them selves to armes, and mynded more exercise: if the quieter tooke bookes, and fell unto learning, calling home to them againe by their laudable diligence all those faculties, which they have so long delivered over, for prayes to the poorer, thorough their to great negligence, were not the returne to be received with sacrifice? and would not the other aswell provide for them selves by other trades wherwith to live? Whereby the honestie of that subject, wherein they should travell, would in the meane while, deliver the honest gentlemen from such faultes, as they be now subject unto, while intending so good, they avoided so evill. This were better then braverie, and more triumphant then travelling, to remaine at home with their prince, not to rome abroad with the pilgrime, to see farre in other countries, and be starke blinde in their owne.

For what is it to travell, seeing that word hath so sodainly crossed me? I will not here make any Epitome of other mens travell, which have set downe whole treaties against this travelling in diverse languages: neither will I amplyfie the thing with any earnest aggravations, which though they may be true, and so may somewhat taint the unadvised travellour, yet they be not worthy the rehearsall here. For what reason carieth it, to finde fault with the forraine, and to foster the fault at home? or for particular misdemener, to condemne some whole nations? or for some error in some few to wish a general restraint? and by to sharp blaming to bitterly to eager not the [210] meanest wittes: as commonly dawes be not most desirous to travell. It is lightly the quintessence which will be a ranging. Silence in thinges peradventure blameworthy, and friendly entertainement where there is no sting, by curtesie wil call, and by liking will winne such dispositions sooner to come to the lure where we would wish to have them, then any either launsing, their woundes by to bytter speches, or aliening their hartes by too much harping on one string: chieflie considering that travell and going abroad for knowledge in learning, and skill in language have for their protection much antiquitie, long time, and great number, though still chekt as either needeles or harmfull: and oftimes countermaunded, not onely by private mens argumentes, but by publike constitutions, of the best common weales, which were very unwilling to have their people to wander.

But what is this travelling? I meane it not in marchauntes, whom necessitie for their owne trade, and oftentimes neede for our use, enforceth to travell, and tarie long from home. Neither yet in souldiers, whom peace at home sendes abroad for skill, in forraine warres to learne how to fend at home, when peace is displeased: which yet both have their owne, and overgreat inconveniences, to the wringing of their countrie. For marchauntes by forcing their naturall soile beyond her proportion to some gainefull commoditie verie utterable abroade, do breede gaules at home, and by bringing in also beyond proportion to serve pleasure and feede fantsie, prove great undoers to a great number, which can neither temper their tast, nor refraine the fashion.

The souldier likewise, which is trained in hoat blood abroad will hardly be but troublesome in cold blood at home: unlesse he be such a one as followed the warres for conscience to his countrie, and of judgement to learne skil, and not upon bare courage, or hardines of nature, or sinisterly to supply some other want. I meane not any of these, ne yet such travellers as Solon, to prevent a mischiefe in mutabilitie of his countrie mens mindes, whom he had tyed to his lawes, not revocable till his returne, when acquaintaunce for that time had wone allowance for ever: neither as Pythagoras, or Plato were, who sought cunning [211] where it was, to bring it where it was not. For Platoes journy into Sicile proceeded not of his minde to travell, but upon hope to do some good on Dionisius the tyrant, who did send for him by Diones meane. We neede not to travell in their kinde for learning. We have in that kind thankes be to God for the pen and print, as much at this day as any countrie needes to have: nay even as full if we will follow it well, as any antiquitie it selfe ever had. And yong gentlemen with that wealth, or their parentes in that wealth, might procure, and maintaine so excellent maisters and joine unto them so choise companions, and furnish them out with such libraries, being able to beare the charge, as they might learne all the best farre better at home in their standing studies, then they ever shall in their stirring residence, yea though the desire of learning were the cause of their travell. Which rule serveth even in the meaner personages, which love to looke abroade, and alleadge learning for their shew, which might be better had at home, with their good diligence, and confirmeth it selfe by sufficient persons, which never crossed the sea. Let them favour their owne fantsies never so much, and defende that stoutly, which they have begone youthfully: yet the thing will prove in the end as I have said. And if there be defect, we should devise, as those philosopher travellours did, to helpe it here at hoome in our owne countrie, that we be not allway borowers, where it is but of wantonnesse, bycause we are unwilling to straine out our owne, which of it selfe is able enough to breede, and needeth no more helpes then the generall studie, if it be studied in deede, and not be dalyed with for shew, as I wish it were not, and not I alone. Here lyeth a padde to be pitied though not to be published, they that may amend the thing are in conscience to thinke of it. But what is travell, as it is to be constrewed in this place, where it interrupteth traine, and bringes it in question, whether yong gentlemen, while they use travelling, do use that, which is best both for their countrie, and themselves. What is it to travell? It is to see countries abroad, to marke their singularities, to learne their languages, to returne from thence better able to serve their owne countrie here with such fourniture, as they provided, [212] and such wisedom, as they gathered by observing things there.

Sure a good countenaunce to helpe travelling withall, and to hide her skars, which in some may prove so in deede. But those some be not any generall patternes: in whom, some excellencie in nature, and vertuousnesse in disposition doth turne that to profit and good, which the thing of it selfe doth assure to be dangerous: bycause it may prove to be both perillous and pernicious in those and to those, which for heat are impetuous, for yeares to foreward, for wealth to rachelesse: and proceeding from them may be contagious to others, as cankers will creepe, and the ill taches of every countrey do more easely allure, and obteine quicker cariage to enlarge them selves, then the good and vertuous do. But while they travell thus, as sure me thinke I see, it is but of some errour caryed with the streame, which enwraps them so (onelesse some miscontentment at home in busie and displeased humours, use the colour of language and learning, to absent themselves the better from that, against the which they have conceyved some stomacke) what might they have gained at home in the meane while? sounder learning, the same language, besides the love and liking of their owne countrey soile which breed them, and beares them: by familiaritie, and continuance at home encreased, by discontinuance, and strangenesse mightely empared: while enamouring and liking of forreine warres doth cause lothing, and misliking of that they finde at home. Whereby our countrey receiveth a great blow, thorough alienation of their fantsies, by whom she should be governed, which will rather deale in nothing, then not force in the forreine.

What is the very naturall end, of being borne a countryman of such a countrey? To serve and save the countrey. What? with forreine fashions? They wil not fit. For every countrey setts downe her owne due by her owne lawes, and ordinaunces appropriate to her selfe, and her private circunstance upon information given by continuers at home, and carefull countreymen.

The verie division of lawes, into naturall, nationall, and civill emport a distinction in applying, though the reason runne thorough, and continue generally one. That which is very excellent good abroad, and were to be wished in our countrey [213] upon circunstance which either will not admit it, or not but so troublesomly, as will not quite the coast, nor agree with the state, is and must be forborne here, though it leave a miscontentment in the travellours heade, who likes the thing most, and thinkes light of the circunstance, which he sayth will yelde to it, though experience say no: and in some but petie toyes do shew him, how leaning to the forreine hath misfashioned our owne home. I do not deny but travelling is good, if it hap to hit right, but I think the same travel, with minde to do good, as it alwaye pretendeth, might helpe much more, being bestowed well at home. He that rometh abroade hath no such line to lead him, as the taryer at home hath, onlesse his conceit, yeares, and experience be of better stay, then theirs is, which be causes of this question, and bring travelling in doubt. For the ground of his vyage being private, though taken to the best, is unfreindly to our common. It is like to an idle, lasie, young gentlewoman, which hath a very faire heire of her owne, and for idlenesse, bycause she wil not looke to it, combe it, pick it, wash it, makes it a cluster of knottes, and a feltryd borough for white footed beastes: and therfore must needes have an unnaturall perug, to set forth her favour, where her owne had bene best, if it had bene best applied. Is not he worse then mad, that hath an excellent piece of ground, made for fertilitie, and suffereth it to be overgrowen with wedes, while he wandreth abroade, and beholdes with delite, the good housbandes, and housbandrie in other men and other soiles? The president of a copie makes a child resemble wel, and a certaine pitch to deale within a mans owne countrey in such a kinde of life, to his and her avauncement, is the surest, and soundest direction to any young gentleman: first to learne by, and then to live by: and to levell all that waye without any forreine longing.

If he take pleasure in travelling, and no care in expending, both the expense will bring repentaunce, when reason shall reclame, if ever she do, (as in some desperate cases, fantsie is froward, and wil bide no fronting:) and the pleasure bringes some greife, when the gentleman which in youth so much pleased himselfe, in his age shall not be able to pleasure his countrey, whom he cared for so litle, while he so counted of the forreine. [214] Forreine matters fit us not, and though our backes, yet not our braines, if we be not sicke there. Forreine thinges be for us in some cases, but we were better to call home one forreine maister to us, then they should cause us to be forreine scholers, to such a forraging maister, as a whole forreine countrey is, to learne so by travelling, and not by teaching.

Our ladies at home can do all this, and that with commendacion of the verie travelled gentlemen: bycause it is not that, which they have seene, that makes them of worth, but that which they have brought home in language and learning, which they do finde here at their retourne. Our ladie mistresse, whom I must needes remember, when excellencies will have hearing, a woman, a gentlewoman, a ladye, a Princesse, in the middest of many other businesses, in that infirmitie of sexe, and sundrie impedimentes to a free minde, such as learning requireth, can do all these thinges to the wonder of all hearers, which I say young gentlemen may learne better at home, as her Majestie did, and compare themselves with the best, when they have learned so much, as her Majestie hath by domesticall discipline. It may be said that her Majestie is not to be used for a president, which of a princely courage would not be overthrowne with any difficulty in learning that, which might avaunce her person beyond all praise, and profit her state beyond expectation. But yet withall it may be said, why may not young gentlemen, which can alledge no let to the contrarie, obtaine so much with more libertie, which her highenesse gat with so litle? It is wealth at will which egges them on to wander, and it is the same, which causeth them continue in the same humour, though they heare it misliked. If they went abroad as Embassadours, that their Princes authoritie might make their entrie to great knowledge in greatest dealinges: or if they were excellent knowen learned men, that all cunning would crepe to them, and honour them with intelligence, and notes of importance: or if they went in the traine of the one, or in the tuition of the other, where authoritie and awe might enforce their benefit, and save them from harme, I would not mislike it, to breede up such fellowes, as might follow them in service: but for any other of the particular endes, which be better had at [215] home, I cast of comparisons. Good, plaine, and well meaning young gentlemen in purse strong, in yeares weake, to travell at a venture in places of danger to bodie, to life, to living, though our owne countrey be also subject to all the same perills, but not so farre from succour and reskue, drive me to such a traunse, as I know not what to saye. Commende them I cannot bycause of my countrey: offend them I dare not, bycause of them selves, which may by discretion in themselves, and wisedome of their freindes provide well for themselves, as I do confesse, though I feare nothing so much, as the overliking of forreine, and so consequently some underliking at home, which will never let them staye. Olde lawes in some countries enacted the contrarie, and sillie Socrates in Plato being offered to be helpt out of prison, as unjustely condemned by the furie of the people, and persuasion of his unfreindes: would not go out of his countrey to save his owne life, as resolved to die by commandment of that lawe, thorough whose provision he had lived at home so long. Divisions for religion, and quarrells of state may worke that which is not well for generall quiet, by being hartned abroade with the sight, and hearing of that, which some could be content to see, and heare at home.

Plato in his twelfth booke of lawes, seemeth to rule the case of travelling, which moveth this controversie. Where he alloweth both the sending out of his countrymen, into forreine landes, and the receiving of forreine people into his countrey. For to medle neither with forreine actions, nor forreine agentes might savour of disdaine, and to suffer good home orders to be corrupted by our forreine travellers, or their forreine trafficquers might smell of small discretion. Wherfore both to build upon discretion to prevent harme at home, and to banish disdaine to be thought well on abroad: he taketh this order both for such as shall travell abroad into forreine countries from his, and for such as shall repare, from forreine countries unto his. For his owne travellers he enacteth first. That none under fourtie yeares in any case travell abroad. Then restraining still all private occasions, for the which he will not dispense with his lawe, neither graunt any travelling at all: he alloweth the state in publike to send abroad, embassadours, messagers, observers, [216] for so I turne Plato his {Greek}.

Such as are sent abroad to warre for the countrie, though foorth of the countrie, he holdes for no travellers, as being still of, and in the state: the cause of their absence continuing their presence, and the place of their abyding, not altering the nature of their being. And the like rekening he maketh of those solemne embassadors, which they sent to communicate in sacrifice with their neighbours, at Delphi, to Apollo, in Olympus, to Jupiter, at Nemea to Hercules, in Isthmos to Neptune: where he appointed the pacificque, and friendly Embassages to be furnished out of the most, the best, and bravest citisens, which with their port, their presence, their magnificence, might honest, and honour their countrie most: as to the contrary he requireth in his martiall lieuetenant, which in the camp, and fielde shall represent the state of his country, credit, estimation, honour, purchased before by vertue and valure. His observer, whom he alloweth to go abroad to see fashions: he will have not to be above threescore, nor under fiftie yeares old, and such a one, as shall be of good credit in his countrie, for great dealinges, both in warre and peace. For the occasion of his travell pretending to see the manners of men abroad, to marke what is well and them that are good, which be most times there, where the place is least likely: and not to be marred by that which is ill, and them that are naught, which be there oftest, where good orders be rifest: to correct his countrie lawes by the better forreine: or to confirme them by the worse: how can he judge of any of these thinges, which hath not dealt in great affaires, and shewed himselfe there to be a man of judgement? or how is he able to avoide the evill, and cleave to the good, whom yeares have not stayed and given reason the raine, to bridle all desires, that might turne him awry? Such a man, of such a credit, of so many yeares, but no man yonger doth Plato send abroad, to learne in forreine countries, and to see forreine fashions, so many of those ten yeares betwene fiftie and sixtie, as shall please him selfe best. But what must this travellour do at his returne? There is a counsell appointed of the gravest divines for religion, of ten justices for law, of the new and old overseers for education, whereof ech one taketh [217] with him one younger man, above thirtie and under fourtie. This counsell hath commission to deale in matters of lawe, either to make new, or to mend the olde: to consider of education, and learning, what is good and quickneth, what is ill and darckeneth. And what the elder men determine that the yonger must execute. If any of these young men behave himselfe not well, the elder that brought him into the parlament, beareth blame of the whole house: those that behave themselves well, are made honorable presidentes to their countrey to behold: as they are most dishonored if they prove worse then other. Where by the waye I note these three thinges. First the care they had to education, and learning even in their cheife parlament. Secondly the reason they had to traine, and use young men in their parlament. Thirdly their three speciall pointes of governement, according to the three kindes of persons, which were present in the parlament, religion, lawe, education. How to traine before lawe, how to rule by lawe, how to temper both traine, and lawe by divinitie, and religion.

Before this counsell, the observer presenteth himselfe at his returning home, and there declareth, what he hath either learned of them abroad, or devised by their doinges, for the helpe of his countrey lawes, of his countrey education, of his countries provision. And if he seemed neither better nor worse, neither cunninger, nor ignoranter, at his returne home, then he was at his departure from home: he was commended for his good will, and no more was said to him. If he seemed better and more skilfull, he was not only honored by the present parlament, while he lived, but by the whole countrey after his death. If he seemed to returne worse, he was commaunded to use companie, neither with young, nor olde, as one like to corrupt under colour of wisedom. And if he obayed that order, he might live still, howbeit but a private life. If he did not obay, he was put to death. As he was also if he were found to be busie headed, and innovating any thing after the forreine concerning either lawe, living, or education. Beholde the patterne of a travellour, rewarded for his well, punished for his ill: neither ill requited, where he meant but well.

Then for reparers from forreine countries into his, whom he [218] will have well entertained in any case, he appointeth foure kindes. The first wherof be merchantes, whose mercates, havens, and lodging, he assigneth to be without the citie but very neare to it: and certain officers to see, that they innovate nothing in the state, that they do, and receave right, that they have all thinges necessarie, but without overplus.

The second kinde of straungers he appointeth to be such as arrive for religion, for philosophie, for learning sake, whom he willeth the Divines, and church treasurers, to entertaine, to lodge, to care for, as the presidentes of true hospitalitie for straungers. That when they shall have taryed some convenient time, when they shall have seene, and heard, what they will desire to see or heare: they may depart without either doing, or suffering any injurie or wrong. And that during their abode for any plea under fiftie drammes, the Divines shalbe judges betwene them, and the other partie: if it be above that summe, that then the maior of the citie shall determine the matter.

The third sorte were Embassadours, sent from forreine Princes, and states, upon publike affaires. Their entertainment he commendeth to the common purse, their lodging to some generall, some coronell, or some captaine onely. The care of them was committed to the hie treasurer, and their host, where they lodged.

The fourth kinde was such observers from some other place, as his countrey did send abroad before, about fiftie yeares old, pretending a desire to see some good thing among them, or to saye some good thing unto them. This kinde of man he excludeth from none, as being comparable with the best, bycause of his person so advisedly choosen. Who so was wise, wealthy, learned, valiant, might entertaine, and entreat him. When he minded to depart after he had seene, and observed all thinges at full, he was sent away honorablely, with great presentes, and rewardes. Thus thinketh Plato both of comers in, and goers out of one countrey into another. But you will say this was a devise of Plato in his lawes, as other be in his common weale. Yet it is a wisemans devise, that findes the harme, and would avoide it, and in this our case is well worthy the weying. But as Plato neede not to blush for the devise, which is grounded [219] upon incorruption, wherunto we say that travelling is a foe: so if such a lawe were in very deede, politikly planted in any common weale, as it is naturally engraffed in any honest witte: there would be exception notwithstanding against it. In all this Platonicall provision, we may easely observe, that his cheife care is by travelling, either to amend the countrey, or not to marre it: and that the forreine usually is a steppemother to a strange countrey. Therefore as young gentlemen maye travell, both for their pleasure, to see forreine countries, and for their profit, to returne wise home: so their owne countrey desires them, to minde that profit in deede, and not to marre it with to much pleasure, which is the cause why that all ages have misliked travelling, as the occasion of corruption in most, and thinke it better forborne for hindring of so many, then to be allowed, for the good of some few, which is hasarded at the first, and uncertaine to prove well. The reason of all this is, both for the forreine evill, which may corrupt, and for the very good, which will not fit, be it never so fit their, from whence it is fetcht.

But to my purpose, and the training at home for home. I remit this travelling abroad to their consideration, which use it, which I dare not quite mislike, bycause I see very many honest people, which have travelled, and the argument of misliking receiveth instance, that the thing may be well used, even bycause some do misuse it, wherunto all other indifferences else be also subject. Nay I dare scant but thinke well of it, bycause my Prince doth allow it, thorough whose licence their travelling is warranted. I say but thus much generally though some traveller do some good to his countrey, even by the frute of his travell, and most in best places: that yet the statarie countrieman doth a great deale more. The reason why is this. The continuall residenciarie at home hath his eye still bent upon some one thing: where he meanes to light, and makes the direct and naturall meane unto it: which though the travellers do alledge to be their minde to, yet their meane is not so fit, as that is, which ordinarily, and orderly is made for the thing. Neither is this allegation generall. For we see the course which the most do use after their returne, to bewraie a passage for pleasure, [220] rather then any sound, and advised enterprise. And therefore I do wish the domesticall traine to be well travelled to better us with our owne, and that we did not so much trie how forraine effects do make us out of fashion, though they feede our fantsies, and that it would please well disposed yong gentlemen to sort them selves betimes to some kinde of learning to make them in deede liberall, their abilitie being throughly fensed, against feare of corruption, to serve their country honorably that way which doth so honour them.

For as all will be lawyers, or in houses of law, and court, to some private end: so what if some of choice became both divines, and physicianes, and so furth in other learned sciences, as I said before? If there be any gentleman in our countrie so qualified at this daie in any kind of learning, is he not therefore praysed, esteemed, and honoured of all others, and above all others of his calling, and somewhat higher to which are not comparably qualyfied? Whence I gather this argument: That the worthynes of the thing is confessed by the honour given unto it, and that such as desire honour ought to seeke for such worthinesse, as enforceth the assured confession of the best deserved honour. And I pray you be not these faculties for their subject to be reverenced, as they are? and for their effectes to be esteemed of speciall account? which have bene allway the very groundes of the best, and most beneficiall nobilitie? I do not hold Tamerlane, or any barbarous, and bloody invasions to be meanes to true nobilitie, which come for scourges: but such as be pacifike most, and warlike but upon defense, if the country be assailed: or to offend, if reveng be to be made, and former wrong to be awraked. Neither take I wealth to be any worthy cause to renowme the owner, unlesse it be both got by laudable meanes, and likewise be employed upon commendable works: neither any qualitie or gift, which beawtifieth the body unlesse vertue do commende it, as serviceable to good use, neither yet any endewement of the minde, but onely such as keepe residence in reason, having authoritie in hand, and direction to rule, by the philosophers termed {Greek}. Wherein those qualities do claime a tenure, which I have assigned as foundations to honour, and notes of nobilitie, [221] worthy the esteeming, and of inestimable worth. Who dare abase divinitie for the thing it selfe? or who is so impudent, as not to confesse that profession honorable which hath God himselfe to father, and friend, our most loving, and mercifull maker: the devill himselfe to enemie and foe, our most suttle, and despitefull marrer, the doctrine of life, the daunter of death? Some scruple there is now, which was not sometime when the allurement was larger, the living fatter, and the countenaunce greater: but the matter is now better, though the man be brought both to more basenes in opinion, and barenesse in provision, and will honour a good gentleman, which will seeke honour by it, and ought so to do. The time was when the great Cesar, at his going furth from his house in his sute for the great pontificate sayd to his mother, that she should either see her sonne at his returne the great bishop, or else no body. Such a step was that state to his whole preferment after. Isocrates in his oration, where he frameth a prince, joyneth priesthood with the prince, as two thinges of like care, requiring like sufficiencie in persons, like skill in well handling, which two sayth he, every one thinkes, he can cunningly weild, but hardly anie one can handle them well.

If gentlemen wil not travel and professe physicke, let them feele the price of ignorance, and punish their carcasses besides the consumption of their cofers, as all learning being refused by them hath no other way to reveng her selfe, then only to leave them to ignorance, which will still attend to flatter and fawne there where small stuffing is, and that which is most miserable, bycause themselves see it not, will cause them selves to be their owne Gnatoes, a most unproper part, to be seene upon a stage, when the same person plaieth Thraso, and answereth himselfe, as if he were two. Were it not most honorable for them to see these effectes in their owne persons? singuler knowledge where studie is for knowledge and knowledge for no neede? liberall execution, where desire to do good, and good for gramercie be the true ends of most honour? where the promises from heaven, the princes upon earth, the perpetuall prayer, and neverdying prayse of the profited people will remember, and require that honorable labour, so honestly employed, that fortunate [222] revenew so blessedly bestowed, not for private pleasure, but for common profit?

Albeit there is one note here necessarily to be observed in yong gentlemen that it were a great deale better that they had no learning at all and knew their owne ignorance, then any litle smattering, unperfit in his kinde, and fleeting in their heades. For their knowne ignorance doth but harme them selves, where other that be cunning may supply their rowmes: but their unripe learning though pretie in the degree, and very like to have proved good, if it had taryed the pulling, and hung the full harvest, doth keepe such a rumbling in their heades, as it will not suffer them to rest, such a wonder it is to see the quickesilver. For the greatnes of their place emboldeneth the rash unripenes of their studie, in what degree so ever it be, whether not in digesting that which they have read, or not in reading sufficiently, or in chusing of absurdities to seeme to be able to defende where their state makes them spared, and meaner mens regard doth procure them reverence, though their rashnes be seene, or in not resting upon any one thing, but desultorie over all. A matter that may seeme to be somewhat in scholes, even amongest good scholers: and very much in that state, where least learning is commonly best liked, though best learning be most advaunced, when it joynes with birth in sowndnes, and admiration. As the contrary troubleth all the world, with most perverse opinions, beginning at the insufficient, though stout gentleman, and so marching forward still among such, as make more account of the person whence the ground comes, then of the reason which the thing carieth. Wherefore to conclude, I wish yong gentlemen to be better then the common in the best kinde of learning, as their meane to come to it, is every way better. I wish them in exercise, and the frutes thereof to be their defendours, bycause they are able to beare out the charge, whereunder the common of necessitie must shrinke: That both those wayes they may helpe their countrie in all needes, and themselves, to all honour.

The prince and soveraigne being the tippe of nobilitie: and growing in person most private for traine, though in office most publike for rule, doth claime of me that private note, [223] which I promised before. The greatest prince in that he is a childe, is, as other children be, for soule sometimes fine, sometimes grosse: for body, sometimes strong, sometimes weake: of mould sometime faire, sometime meane: so that for the time to beginne to learne, and the matter which to learne, and all other circumstances, wherein he communicateth with his subjectes, he is no lesse subject, then his subjectes be. For exercise to health, the same: to honour, much above: as he is best able to beare it, where coast is the burden, and honour the ease. We must take him as God sendes him, bycause we cannot chuse, as we could wish: as he must make the best of his people, though his people be not the best. Our dutie is to obey him, and to pray for him: his care willbe to rule over us, and to provide for us, the most in safetie the least in perill. Which seeing we finde it prove true in the female, why should we mistrust to find it in the male? If the prince his naturall constitution be but feeble, and weake, yet good traine as it helpeth forwardnes, so it strengthneth infirmitie: and is some restraint even to the worst given, if it be well applyed, and against the libertie of high calling oppose the infamie of ill doing. Which made even Nero stay the five first yeares of his government, and to seeme incomparable good. When the yong princes elementarie is past, and greater reading comes on, such matter must be pikt, as may plant humilitie in such height, and sufficiencie in such neede, that curtesie be the meane to winne, as abilitie to wonder. Continuall dealing with forraine Embassadoures, and conferring at home with his owne counsellours require both tongues to speake with, and stuffe to speake of.

And wheras he governeth his state by his two armes, the Ecclesiasticke, to keepe, and cleare religion, which is the maine piller to voluntarie obedience: and the Politike, to preserve, and maintaine the civill government, which doth bridle will, and enforceth contentment: if he lacke knowledge to handle both his armes, or want good advice to assist them in their dealing, is he not more then lame? and doth not the helpe hereof consist in learning? Martiall skill is needfull: But it would be to defend, bycause a sturring Prince still redye to assaile, is a plague to his people, and a punishment to him selfe, and in his most [224] gaine, doth but get that, which either he or his must one daye loose againe, if the losse rest there, and pull not more with it. But religious skill is farre more massive: bycause religion as it is most necessarie for all, so to a Prince it is more then most of all, who fearing no man, as above mans reache, and commanding over all as under his commission, if he feare not God his verie next both auditour, and judge, in whose hand is his hart? and what a feare must men be in for feare of most ill, when the Prince feares not him, who can do him most good? Almighty God be thanked, who hath at this daye lent us such a Princesse, as in deede feareth him, that we neede not feare her which deserving to be loved desires not to be feared. I wish this education to be liked of the Prince, to pull the people onward, by example that they like of, though they cannot aspire to: as I pray God long preserve her, whose good education doth teach us, what education can do, wherby neither this lande shal ever repent, that education of it selfe did so much good in her: and I have good cause to rejoice that this my labour concerning education comes abroad in her time.

Chapter 40.

Of the generall place, and time of education. Publike places, Elementarie, Grammaticall, Collegiate. Of bourding of children abroad from their parentes houses, and whether that be best. The use and commoditie of a large, and well situate training place. Observations to be kept in the generall time.

These two circunstances for the generall place, and the generall time, concerne both the exercise of the bodie, and the training of the minde jointly, bycause they both are to be put in execution in the same place, and at the same time, though not at the same howres. For the particular times, and places I will deale in myne other treatises, where I will accomodate the particular circumstance to the particular argument. Private places, where every parent hath his children taught within his doares have but small interest in this place: bycause such a parent, as he may take or leave of the generall traine, what it shall please him, his owne liking being the measure to [225] leade him: so for exercise, or any other thing he is the appointer of his owne circumstance, and his house is his castle.

Publike places be either elementarie, grammaticall, or collegiate. For the collegiate places, whether they be in the universities, or without, they be lightly well situate, and for both the traines resonably well builded, specially such as have a cloysture or galerie for exercise in foule weather, and the open fieldes at hand for the faire. If there be any fault in that kinde, it may be set downe, in hope sooner to have it amended in new erections, when such founders shalbe found: then to be redressed in those which be erected already: bicause these buildinges be restrained to the soile, where on they stand. Yet wish for the better may take place, when the want is found, though the effect do follow a long while after, if it ever do at all.

The elementarie places admit no great counsell, bycause such as enter the yong ones, do provide the rowmes of them selves, and the litle people be not as yet capable of any great exercise: so that there is no more to be said herein but this, that the Elementarie teachers provide their rowmes as large as they may, and that the parentes domesticall care supply: where the maisters provision is not sufficient. For as the collegiate yeares must direct themselves most, bycause they are after a certaine degree set over to their owne government: so the elementarie, bycause of their weakenes and youth must be joyntly helpt betwene the maister and the parent, this point for the petie ones being altogither private, and upon private charge, as the other collegiate is altogither publicke and upon publicke erection though alway proceeding from some privat meane. But if any well disposed wealthie man for the honour that he beareth to the murthered infantes, (as all our erections have some respect that way,) would beginne some building even for the litle yong ons, which were no encrease to schooles, but an helpe to the elementarie degree, all they would pray for him, and he himselfe should be much bound to the memorie of the yong infantes, which put him in remembraunce of so vertuous an act. And rich men which have much more then necessary enough, though none of them thinke he have simply enough, would be stirred forward by all good and earnest people, which [226] favour the publicke weale, whose foundation is laide in these petie infantes, to spend the supererogation of their wealth that waie, where it will do most good to other, and least harme to themselves.

The places where the the toungues be taught, by order and art of grammer, require more observation, bycause the yeares that be or at the least ought to be emploied that way be fittest, both for the fashioning of the body, and for framing of the minde: most subject to the maisters direction, and consist of a compound care, publicke erection, which provideth them places wherein to learne: and private maintenaunce which furnisheth out the rest. The scholers either come daily from their fathers houses to schoole, or be bourded at their charges somewhere verie nigh to the schoole.

Where there riseth a question whether it be better for the childe to boord abroad with his maister, or some where else: or to come from home daily to schoole. If the place where the parentes dwell, be neare to the schoole, that the nighnes of his maisters house can be no great vantage: or but so farre of, as the very walke may be for the boyes health: and the parent himselfe be carefull and wise withall, to be as good a furtherer in the training, as he is a father to the being of his owne chield: certainely the parentes house is much better, if for nothing else, yet bycause the parent may more easily at all times entend the goodnes of his owne, being but one or few, then the maister can, at such extraordinarie times as the bourding with him, doth seeme to begge his diligence, being both tired before, and distracted among many. Further, all the considerations which do perswade men rather to have their children taught at home, then among the multitude abroad, for the bettering of their behaviour, do speake for their bourding at home, if the parentes will consider the thing well: Bycause the parent may both see to the entertainement of his childe, when he is from schoole, and withall examine, what good he doth at schoole. For undoutedly the maisters be wearied with travelling all the day, so that the private help within their houses, can be but litle, without both overtyring the maister, and shortening his life, and the dulling of the childe, if he still pore [227] upon his booke. Times of recreation must be had, and are as requisite to doe thinges well any long time, as studying is necessarie to do any thing well at any time. For can any man but thinke it a great deale more, then a sufficient time for the maister to teach, and the scholer to learne dayly from six in the morning till eleven, and from one in the afternoone till wellnigh six at night, if these houres be well applied? nay if they were a great deale fewer? And may not the residew be well enough bestowed upon solace and recreation in some chaunge to the more pleasant for either partie? In the maisters house, I graunt children may keepe schoolehowers better, and be lesse subject to loytering and trewantrie. The maisters care in his generall teaching may eye them nearer, bycause they be in his so neare tuition, and in place of his owne children, being committed unto his private care by their owne parentes and friendes, he may more easily dispence with their howers, if they fortune to minde many elementarie pointes at one time: and sooner finde out their inclination, then in the generall multitude. And if any particular preferment be incident to his house, without the common wearying both of the scholer and maister, some thing may be done. There be also many private considerations, which some parentes follow in the displacing of their children from their owne houses, which I remit to their thoughtes, as I reserve some to myne owne. If the maister do entend onely such scholers as he bourdeth, and have both in himselfe abilitie to performe, what is needefull for the best traine: and have such a convenient number as will rise to some hight in the traine, I know none better, so the place where he dwelleth, and teacheth do answere in convenientnes, and situation and some circumstances, else. But while he careth to have his bourders learne, sure some slow paying parentes will keepe him leane, if he looke not well to it, and his gaine will go backeward, besides the continuall miscontentmentes. At home spoiles, soilthes, twentie things, are nothing in the parentes homely eye, which selfe same be death abroad, where the parent hath another eye: and yet the things misliked not avoidable even at home. But what if sickenes, nay what if death come in deede, then all things be constrewed to the worst, as if death did not know [228] where the parent dwells. And though the maister doe that which the civill law requireth in deposing, and use not onely so much diligence to preserve, but much more then in his owne, yet all that is nothing. Wherefore as parentes must beware of boording out for their owne good: so maisters must be warie of admitting any for their owne harme. And sure to set downe my resolution, me thinke it enough for the maister to take upon him the traine alone, being so great both for exercise and learning, as I wish him well considered, that can do both well. If parentes dwell not neare the schoole, let some neighbours be hostes, which may and will entend it, and deliver the maister of the parentes care, whom even they will favour more, if they find profit by his schooling. They be distinct offices, to be a parent and a maister, and the difficulties in training do eager sore enough, though the same man be troubled with no more. Boording, that is the undertaking of both a fathers and a maisters charge requireth many circumstances of convenientnes in place, of provision for necessities, of trustie and diligent servauntes, and a number moe: besides indifferencie in the parent to be armed against accidentes, where there is no evident default, and to content truely where there is great desert: as the maister is to give a great account of two severall cures, a personage for his teaching, and a vicarage for his boording. The maisters charge is great of it selfe, but this composition of a duble office is a mervelous matter. If the maister minde his boorders eitheer only or most, where his charge is over moe, where then is his dutie? if not, what gaine have those boorders, by their maisters private? If he teach but boorders let him looke to himselfe, for his charge will prove chargeable moe wayes then one: and those that be best able to put forth to boord, are alway most strait in making all audittes, and to amplifie offences before they be proved, without eitheir conference or contentment. I wish parentes therefore to be warie, ear they set over their owne person for more then the training: and the maisters to be as warie for feare of had I wist. But to the grammer schooles. As the elementaries of force must be neare unto their parentes bycause of their youth, and therefore are not to be denied the middle of cities and townes: so [229] I could wish that grammer schooles, were planted in the skirtes and suburbes of townes, neare to the fieldes, where partely by enclosure of some private ground, for the closer exercises both in covert and open: partely for the benefit of the open fieldes for exercises of more raunge, there might not be much want of roome, if there were any at all. To have a faire schoole house above with freedome of aire for the toungues, and an other beneth for other pointes of learning, and perfiting or continuyng the Elementarie entrances, which will hardly be kept, if they be posted over to private practising at home: to have the maister and his familie though of some good number conveniently well lodged: to have a pretie close adjoyning to the schoole walled round about, and one quarter if no more covered above cloisture like, for the childrens exercise in the rainie weather, as it will require a good minde and no meane purse: so it needs neither the conference of a countrey, as Lacedemon did in Athenaeus, and Plato, as Athens did in Pausanias, Suidas and Philostratus, as Corinth did in Diogenes Laertius: nor yet the revenue of a Romain Emperour, whose buildinges in this kinde, were most sumptuous and magnificent, as Adrian the Emperours Athenaeum, Hermaeum and Panathaenaicum at Tibur, and Neroes Thermae at Rome, which in one building furnished out both learning and exercise as it appeareth by the discriptions of their places called, Gymnasia, xysta, and Palaestrae.

There is wealth enough in private possession, if there were will enough to publike education. And yet we have no great cause to complaine for number of schooles and founders. For during the time of her Majesties most fortunate raigne already, there hath bene mo schooles erected, then all the rest be, that were before her time in the whole Realme. My meaning is not to have so many, but better appointed both for the maisters entertainment, and the commoditie of the places. Small helpe will make most of our roomes serve, and small studie with great good will and honest salarie to maintaine a sufficient man, will make our teachers able both to enstructe well and to exercise better. The places of learning and exercise, ought to be joint tenementes, and neare neighbours capable of number, which must be limited by the neede of the countrey, [230] where the schoole standeth, and the maisters maintenaunce which way it must rise. For if it rise by the number, better for him few and choice, so they consider his paines accordingly. And sure experience hath taught me, that where the maister is left to the uncertaintie of his stipende to encrease or decrease with his diligence, that there he will do best, and the children profit most, allway provided that he deale with no more, then he can bring up under him selfe, and hasard not his owne credit, nor his childrens profit upon any absolute underteacher. Whose use is not, as we now practise it in schooles, where indeede ushers be maisters of them selves, but to assist the maister in the easier pointes of his charge, which ought to have all under his owne teaching, for the cheife pointes, and the same under the ushers, for more usuall and easie, as in the teaching of the Latin toungue, I will declare more at large. Where the very practise wil confirme my wordes, and prove them to be true.

Againe, it is halfe a wonder ever to bring forth a good scholer in the hart of a great towne: where there be chaunge of schooles, and many straunge circunstances to procure chaunge, as it shall please the child. Who notwithstanding he have his will followed in the chaunge, yet seldome winneth very much by the chaunge: though the second maister oftimes make shew of the formers ground worke, which is made but light of, bycause it kepeth lowe.

If the maisters stipend do rise by foundacion, and standing payment, yet the place may not be overcharged with number: nor the maister with care to provide things needfull any other wayes then onely by his trade. For what reason is it to have a mans whole labour, and to alow him living stant sufficient for a quarter? or what pollicie is it, to have him that should teache well, to be enforced for neede, to medle with some trade, quite different from the schoole. In this pointe the Pope, and Canon lawe weare merveilous freindly to maisters, and helped them still with some Ecclesiasticall maintenaunce, as it appeareth in Gregories Decretales, the fifth title of the fifth booke, De Magistris. And the Glose ripping further then the text, is yet more freindly. And our owne countrey also, in benefit of priviledge, by the common lawe at this day, doth not frowne upon us, and [231] for certaine immunities, letteth us enjoye that benefit, which the Canonist meant us. And the good Emperour Frederick did further by his freindly and favorable constitution, which he caused to be placed in the fourth booke of Justinians new Codex, the thirtenth title, Ne filius, pro patre, where the Glosse, making an anatomie of the Emperours meaning, and desirous to do us good, helpeth us particularly and properly to.

Among many causes which make schooles so unsufficiently appointed, I know not any, nay is there any? that so weakneth the profession as the very nakednesse of allowance doth. The good that commeth from and by schooles is great and infinite: the qualities required in the teacher many and resolute: the charges which his freindes have bene at in his bringing up much and heavy: and in the way of preferment, will ye wish any of any worth to set downe his staffe at some petie portion, which even they that praise it, would not be content to have their owne sit downe with, though the founder follow his president, and the time have bene, when with the Church helpe some litle would have served? but the case now is quite altered. In these our dayes eche man will enhaunce in his owne, without reason or remorse: but in professions of greatest neede and most account, they will yeelde no more allowance, then the auncient rent, where all thinges be improved. Yet oftimes they meete with bookmen in some kinds, which wil bite them coursdly. But those bookmen be neither Elementarie teachers, nor yet Grammarians. Our calling creepes low and hath paine for companion, stil thrust to the wall, though stil confessed good: Our comfort perforce is in the generall conclusion, that those thinges be good thinges, which want no praising, though they go a cold, for want of happing. For our schoole places, which I do know, the most are either commodiously situate already, or being in the hart of townes might easely be chopt for some field situation, farre from disturbaunce, and neare to all necessaries. It were no small part of a great and good erection, even to translate roumes to more convenient places, either by exchaunge or by new purchace: and I do thinke that licences to that ende, will be more easely graunted then to build moe schooles. The inconveniences which I my selfe have felt that [232] waye, both for mine owne, and for my scholers health, and the checking of that, which of long I have wished for: I meane some traine in exercise, do cause me so much to commend field roome. Though I my selfe be not the worst appointed within a citie for roome, thorough the great good will towardes the furtherance of learning, and the great cost, in the purchasing, and apparelling the roome to that use, done by the worshipfull companie of the marchaunttailours in London. In whose schoole I have bene both the first, and onely maister sence the erection, and their have continued now twenty yeares.

If ye consider, what is to be done in these roomes which I require, ye shall better judge what roomes will serve. In the schoole the toungues be taught, and the Elementarie traine continued at times therunto appointed, for those, two roomes will serve. An upper, with some convenient discharging the place from noysome ayre, which the verie children cause: and from to great noise if the place be vawted under, or enclosed with other building: and an other beneath likewise appointed, to serve for what else is to be done. They that will have their children learne all that I have assigned them upon good warrant of the best writers, and most commendable custome, if their capacities be according, may have their turne served so: and those that will not, need not, but the oportunity of the place, and the commoditie of such trainers, wherof a smal time wil bring forth a great meany, will draw many on, and procure good exhibitours to have the thing go forward. I could wish we had fewer schooles, so they were more sufficient, and that upon consideration of the most convenient seates for the countries, and shires, there were many put together to make some few good. Insufficiencie by distraction dismembers, and weakens: sufficiencie by uniting strengthens, and doth much good. To conclude I wishe the roome commodious for situacion, which in training up of youth hath bene an olde care, as it appeareth by Xenophon in the schooling of Cyrus and the Persian order: large to holde, and convenient to holde handsomely. For as reading, and thinges of that motion do require small elbow roome: so writing, and her appendentes may not be straited. Musicke will cumber if it be confounded. Where writing wilbe allowed, [233] there drawing will not be driven out. But exercise must have scope. And such kinde of roomes, if the multitude be not to bigge, or the waye to schoole not to farre for the infant, with some litle distinctions, and parting of places, will serve conveniently both for the Elementarie, and the Grammarian, and so much the better.

For the time there is but litle to be said at this time: bycause in the Elementarie and so onward, I meane by the grace of God to apply all circunstances so neare, and so precisely to schoole uses, as the maister shalbe able streight way to execute: if he do but follow that which shalbe set before him, for matter wherin: for manner how: for time when to do eche thing best. For the generall exercising time. These two groundes of Hippocrates, must be still kept in remembraunce, to use no exercise when ye be very hungrie: neither yet to eate before ye have used some exercise.

For the generall learning times: to begin, the strength of body, and conceit of minde were made the generall meanes: to continue, perfectnesse, and use were appointed the limittes: for the midle houres this I thinke, that it were not good, to go to your booke streight after ye rise, but to give some time to the clearing of your body. As also studie after meate, and fast before ye sleepe beareth great blame for great harmes to health, and to much shortning of life. From seven of the cloke, though ye rise sooner, (as the lambe and the larke be the proverbiale leaders, when to rise and when to go to bead) till tenne before noone, and from two till almost five in the after noone, be the best and fittest houres, and enough for children wherin to learne. The morening houres will best serve for the memorie and conceiving: the after noone for repetitions, and stuffe for memorie to worke on. The reasons be the freenesse, or fulnesse of the head. The other times before meat be for exercises, as hath bene fully handled hertofore. The houres before learning, and after meate, are to be bestowed, upon either neating of the bodie, or solacing of the minde, without to much motion: wherin as I said before the greatest part, and the best to be plaid consisteth usually in the trainers discretion, to apply thinges according to the circunstances of person, place, and time. To conclude [234] we must be content with those places, which be already founded, and use those houres which be already pointed to the best that we can, and yet prepare our selves towardes the better, when soever it shall please God to send them. And by perswasion some maisters maye well enough bring wise parentes to yeelde unto this note, and to give it the triall. In the meane time some excellent man having the commoditie of a well situate house, and being able to commaund his owne circunstance, neither depending of other mens helpe, wherof he cannot judge, and so that way leasing some authoritie in direction, may put many excellent conclusions in triall.

Chapter 41.

Of teachers and trainers in generall, and that they be either Elementarie, Grammaticall, or Academicall. Of the Elementarie teachers abilitie, and entertainement. Of the Grammer maisters abilitie and his entertainement. A meane to have both excellent teachers, and cunning professors in all kindes of learning, by the division of colleges according to professions: by sorting like yeares into the same roumes: by bettering the studentes allowance and living: by providing and maintaining notable well learned readers. That for bringing learning forward in his right and best course, there would be seven ordinarie ascending colleges for Toungues, for Mathematikes, for Philosophie, for Teachers, for Physicians, for Lawyers, for Divines, and that the generall studie of Lawe would be but one studie: Every of these pointes with his particular proofes, sufficient for a position. Of the admission of teachers.

Although I devided the traine of education into two partes, the one for learning to enrich the minde: the other for exercise to enable the body: yet I reserved the execution of both to one and the same maister: bycause neither the knowledge of both is so excessive great, but it may easely be come by: neither the execution so troublesome, but that one man may see to it: neither do the subjectes by nature receive partition seeing the soule and body joyne so freindly in lincke, and the one must needes serve the others turne: and he that seeth [235] the necessitie of both, can best discerne what is best for both. As concerning the trainers abilitie, whereby he is made sufficient to medle with exercises, I have already in my conceit sufficiently enstructed him, both for the exercises themselves, and for the manner of handling them according to the rules and considerations of Physick, and Gymnastick, besides some advertisements given peculiarly to his owne person: wherin I dwelt the longer, and delt the larger, bycause I ment not to medle with that argument any more then once, and for that point so to satisfie the trainer, wheresoever he dwelt, or of what abilitie soever he were, as if he listed he might rest upon my rules being painfully gathered from the best in that kinde. If he were desierous to make further search, and had oportunity of time, and store of bookes: I gave him some light where to bestow his studie.

Now am I to deale with the teaching maister, or rather that propertie in the common maister, which concerneth teaching: which is either Elementarie and dealeth with the first principles: or Grammaticall and entreth to the toungues: or Academicall, and becomes a reader, or tutour to youth in the university.

For the tutour bycause he is in the universitie, where his daily conversation among a number of studentes, and the opinion of learning which the universitie hath of him: wil direct choice and assure desire: I have nothing to saye, but leave the parentes to those helpes, which the place doth promise.

For the Elementarie bycause good scholers will not abase themselves to it, it is left to the meanest, and therfore to the worst. For that the first grounding would be handled by the best, and his reward would be greatest, bycause both his paines and his judgement should be with the greatest. And it would easily allure sufficient men to come downe so lowe, if they might perceave that reward would rise up. No man of judgement will contrarie this pointe, neither can any ignorant be blamed for the contrarie: the one seeth the thing to be but low in order, the other knoweth the ground to be great in laying, not onely for the matter which the child doth learne: which is very small in shew, though great for proces: but also for the manner of handling his witte, to harten him for afterward, [236] which is of great moment.

But to say somwhat concerning the teachers reward, which is the encouragement to good teaching, what reason is it, though still pretended, and sometimes perfourmed, to encrease wages, as the child waxeth in learning? Is it to cause the maister to take more paines, and upon such promise, to set his pupille more forward? Nay surely that cannot be. The present payment would set that more forward, then the hope in promise, bycause in such varietie and inconstancie of the parentes mindes, what assuraunce is there, that the child shall continue with the same maister: that he maye receive greater allowance with lesse paines, which tooke greater paines, with lesse allowance? Besides this if the reward were good, he would hast to gaine more, which new and fresh repare of scholers would bring, upon report of the furthering his olde, and his diligent travell. What reason caryeth it, when the labour is lesse, then to enlarge the allowance? the latter maister to reape the benefit of the formers labour, bycause the child makes more shew with him? why? It is the foundacion well and soundly laid, which makes all the upper building muster, with countenaunce, and continuaunce. If I were to strike the stocke, as I am but to give counsell, the first paines truely taken, should in good truth be most liberally recompensed: and less allowed still upward, as the paines diminish, and the ease encreaseth. Wherat no maister hath cause to repine, so he maye have his children well grounded in the Elementarie. Whose imperfection at this day doth marveilously trouble both maisters and scholers, so that we can hardly do any good, nay scantly tell how to place the too too raw boyes in any certaine forme, with hope to go forward orderly, the ground worke of their entrie being so rotton underneth. Which weaknes if the upper maister do redresse, when the child commeth under his hand, he cannot but deserve triple wages, both for his owne making, and for mending that, which the Elementarie either marred with ignoraunce, or made not for haste, which is both the commonest, and the corruptest kinde of marring in my opinion. For the next maisters wages, I do conceive, that the number in ripenesse under him, will requite the Elementarie allowance, be it never so [237] great. For the first maister can deale but with a few, the next with moe, and so still upward, as reason groweth on, and receives without forcing. For the inequalitie of children, it were good a whole companie removed still togither, and that there were no admission into schooles, but foure times in the yeare quarterly, that the children of foresight might be matched, and not hurled hand over head into one forme as now we are foreced, not by substaunce, but by similitude and conjecture at the sudden, which thing the conference betwene the maisters in a resolved plat will helpe wonderfully well forward, when the one saith this have I taught, and this can the child do: the other knoweth this ye should teach, and this your childe should do. Thus much for the elementarie maister, that he be sufficiently appointed in himselfe for abilitie, and sufficiently provided for, by parentes for maintenaunce. Now whether one man, or moe shalbe able to perfourme all the elementarie pointes, at divers houres, or of force there must be more teachers, that shalbe handled in the elementarie it selfe hereafter. Once fore all good entertainement by way of reward, will make very able men to leane this way, and one course of training will breed, a mervelous number of sufficient trainers, whose insufficiencie may now be objected, that such cannot presently be had, though in short time they may. And if there must be moe executours, entertainement will worke that to, and convenientnes of rowme will bring all togither.

My greatest travell must be about the grammer maister, as ech parent ought to be verie circumspect for his owne private that way. For he is to deale with those yeares, whereupon all the residew do build their likelyhoode to prove well or ill. Wherein by reason of the naturall agilitie of the soule and body, being both unsettled, there is most stirre, and least stay: he perfiteth the Elementarie in course of learning: he offereth hope or despaire of perfection to the tutor and universitie, in their proceeding further. For whom in consideration of sufficient abilitie, and faithfull travell I must still pray for good entertainement, which will alway procure most able persons. For it is a great daunting to the best able man, and a great cutting of of his diligent paynes, when he shall finde his whole dayes [238] travell not able to furnish him of necessarie provision: to do good with the best, and to gaine with the basest, nay much lesse then the lowest, who may entend to shift, when he must entend his charge: and enrich him selfe, nay hardly feede himselfe, with a pure, and poore conscience. But ye will perhaps say what shall this man be able to performe, for whom you are so carefull, to have him so well entertained? to whose charge the youth of our country is to be committed? If there were no more said, even this last point were enough to crave enough, for that charge is great: and if he do discharge it well, he must be well able to do it, and ought to be very well requited for doing it so well. Besides his maners and behaviour, which require testimonie and assurance: besides his skill in exercising and trayning of the body, he must be able to teach the three learned toungues, the latin, the greeke, the hebrew, if the place require so much, if not, so much as is required. Wherin assuredly a mediocritie in knowledge, will prove to meane, to emplant, that in another which he hath in himselfe. For he that meaneth to plant but some litle well: must himselfe farre exceede any degree of mediocrite. He must be able to understand his writer, to maister false printes, unskilfull dictionaries, simple conjectures of some smattering writers concerning the matter of his traine, and be so appointed ear he begine to teach, as he may execute readyly, and not make his owne imperfection, to be a torture to his scooler, and a schooling to him selfe. For it is an ill ground to grow up from ignoraunce by teaching, in that place, where no ignorance of matter at least should be, at the very first: though time and experience do polish out the maner. He must have the knowledge of all the best grammers, to give notes by the way still, though he burden not the childes memorie of course, with any more then shalbe set downe. There are required in him besides these, and further pointes of learning to, as I will note hereafter, hardnes to take paines: constancie to continew and not to shrinke from his trade: discretion to judge of circumstances: lightsomnes to delite in the successe of his labour: hartines to encourage a toward youth: regard to thinke ech childe an Alexander: courteous lowlines in himselfe, as if he were the meanest, though he were knowne to be [239] the best. For the verie least thing in learning, will not be well done, but onely by him, which knoweth the most, and doth that which he doth with pleasure and ease, by reason of his former store. These qualities deserve much, and in our scooles they be not generally found, bycause the rewardes for labour there be so base and simple, yet the most neare is best in choice, and many there be which would come neare, if entertainement were answerable. Let the parentes, and founders provide for the one: and certainely they shall finde no default in the other.

There were a way in the nature of a seminarie for excellent maisters in my conceit, if reward were abroad, and such an order might be had within the universitie: which I must touch with licence and for touching crave pardon, if it be not well thought of, as I know it will seeme straunge at the first, bycause of some difficultie in perfourming the devise. And yet there had never bene any alteration to the better, if the name of alteration had bene the object to repulse. This my note but by the way, though it presently parhapes doe make some men muse, yet hereafter upon better consideration, it may prove verie familiar to some good fantasies, and be exceeding well liked of, both by my maisters of the universities them selves, and by their maisters abroad. Whereby not onely schoolemaisters, but all other professours also shalbe made excellently able to performe that in the common weale which she looketh for at their handes, when they come from the universitie. But by the way I protest simply, that I do not tender this wish, as having any great cause to mislike the currant, which the universities be now in: but graunting thinges there to be well done already, I offer no discourtesie in wishing that good to be a great deale better. My conceit resteth in these foure pointes: what if the colleges were devided by professions and faculties? what if they of the like yeares, and the like profession, were all bestowed in one house? what if the livings by uniting were made better, and the colleges not so many: though farre greater? what if in every house there were great pensions, and allowances for continuall and most learned readers: which woud end their lives there? what harme could our countrie receive thereby? [240] nay, what good were not in great forwardnes to be done, if this thing were done? And may not the state of the realme do this by authoritie, which gave authoritie to founders to do the other, with reservation of prerogative to alter upon cause? or is not this question as worthy the debating to mend the universities, and to plant sownd learning: as to devise the taking away landes from colleges, and put the studentes to pension, bycause they cannot use them without jarring among themselves? Were there any way better to cut away all the misliking, wherewith the universities be now charged, and to bring in a new face of thinges both rarer and fayrer?

In the first erection of schooles and colleges, privat zeale enflamed good founders: in altering to the better, publicke consideration may cause a commoner good, and yet keepe the good founders meaning, who would very gladly embrace any avauncement to the better in any their buildinges. The nature of time is upon sting of necessitie, to enfourme what were best: and the dutie of pollicie is, advisedly to consider, how to bring that about which time doth advertise. And if time do his dutie to tell, can pollicie avoide blame in sparing to trie? And why should not publike consideration be as carefull to thinke of altering to fortifie the state now, as private zeale was hoat then to strengthen that which was then in liking?

But I will open these foure interrogations better, that the considerations which leade me, may winne others unto me, or at the least let them see, that it is no meere noveltie which moveth me thus farre.

Touching the division of colleges by professions and faculties, I alleege no president from other nations, though I could do diverse, begining even at Lycaeum, Stoa, Academia themselves, and so downeward, and in other nations east and southeast ascending upwarde, where studentes cloystured them selves together, as their choice in learning lay: but private examples in their applying to our country may be controuled by generall exception. If there were one college, where nothing should be professed, but languages onely, (as there be some people which will proceede no further) to serve the realme abroad, and studies in the universitie, in that point excellently and absolutelie, [241] were it not convenient? nay were it not most profitable? That being the ende of their profession, and nothing dealt withall there but that, would not sufficiencie be discried by witnes of a number? and would not dayly conference and continuall applying in the same thing procure sufficiencie? Wheras now every one dealing with every thing confusedly none can assuredly say, thus much can such a one do in any one thing, but either upon conjecture which oftentimes deceiveth even him that affirmes: or else upon curtesie which as oft beguiles even him that beleveth. These reasons hold not in this point for toungues onely: but in all other distributions, where the like matter, and the like men be likewise to be matched. For where all exercises, all conferences, all both private, and publike colloquies, be of the same argument, bycause the soile bringeth foorth no other stuffe, there must needes follow great perfection. When toungues, and learning be so severed, it will soone appeare, what ods there is betwene one that can but speake, and him that can do more, whereas now some few finish wordes, will beare away the glorie from knowledge, without consideration, that the gate is without the towne as dismantling bewraies, though it be the entrie into it.

If an other colledge were for the Mathematicall sciences I dare say it were good, I will not say it were best, for that some good wittes, and in some thinges not unseene, not knowing the force of these faculties bycause they never thought them worthey their studie as being without preferment, and within contempt, do use to abase them, and to mocke at mathematicall heades, bycause in deede the studie thereof requireth attentivenes, and such a minde, as will not be soone caried to any publike shew, before his full ripenes, but will rest in solitarie contemplation, till he finde himselfe flidge. Now this their meditation if they be studentes in deede: or the shadow of meditation, if they be but counterfettes, do these men plaie with all, and mocke such mathematicall heades, to solace themselves with.

Wherein they have some reason to mocke at mathematicall heades, as they do tearme them, though they should have greater reason, why to cherish, and make much of the mathematicall [242] sciences, if they will not discredit Socrates his authoritie, and wisedome in Plato, which in the same booke avaunceth these sciences above the moone, whence some learned men fetch his opinion, and force his judgement, as the wisest maister against such as allow of correction in schooles: which they would seeme to banishe, till their owne rod beat them. The very end of that booke is the course that is to be kept in learning in the perfitest kinde, which beginneth at the mathematikes, and it dealeth more with the necessitie of them, then with the whole argument besides: as it is no noveltie to heare that Plato esteemed of them, who forbad any to enter his Academie, which was not a Geometrician, whereunder he contained the other, but specially her sister Arithmetike.

For the men which professe these sciences, and give cause to their discountenaunce, they be either meere ignorant, and maintaine their credit with the use of some tearmes, propositions, and particularities which be in ordinarie courses that way, and never came nigh the kernell: or having some knowledge in them in deede, rather employe their time, and knowledge aboute the degenerate, and sophisticall partes of them, applyed by vaine heades to meere collusions though they promise great consequences: then to the true use, and avauncement of art. Howbeit in the meane time, though the one disgrace them with contempt, and the other make them contemptible, by both their leaves I do thinke thus of them: but what a poore thing is my thought? yet some thing it is where it shalbe beleeved. In time all learning may be brought into one toungue, and that naturall to the inhabitant, so that schooling for toungues, may prove nedeles, as once they were not needed: but it can never fall out, that artes and sciences in their right nature, shalbe but most necessarie for any common weale, that is not given over unto to to much barbarousnes. We do attribute to much to toungues, which do minde them more then we do matter chiefly in a monarchie: and esteeme it more honorable to speake finely, then to reason wisely: where wordes be but praised for the time, and wisedom winnes at length. For while the Athenian, and Romaine popular governementes did yeald [243] so much unto eloquence, as one mans perswasion might make the whole assembly to sway with him, it was no mervell if the thing were in price, which commaunded: if wordes were of weight, which did ravish: if force of sentence were in credit, which ruled the fantsie, and bridled the hearer. Then was the toungue imperiall bycause it dealt with the people: now must it obey, bycause it deales with a prince, and be servaunt unto learned matter, acknowledging it to be her liege, and mistresse. All those great observations of eloquence, are either halfe drowned, for want of a democratie: or halfe douted of for discredit of divinitie: which following the substance of matter, commendeth unto us the like in all studies.

For the credit of these mathematicall sciences, I must needes use one authoritie of great, and well deserved countenaunce among us, and so much the rather, bycause his judgement is so often, and so plausibly vouched by the curteouse maister Askam in his booke, which I wish he had not himselfe, neither any other for him entitled the scoolemaister, bycause myselfe dealing in that argument must needes sometime dissent to farre from him, with some hasard of myne owne credit, seeing his is hallowed. The worthy, and well learned gentleman Sir John Cheeke, in the middest of all his great learning, his rare eloquence, his sownd judgement, his grave modestie, feared the blame of a mathematicall head so litle in himselfe, and thought the profession to be so farre from any such taint, being soundly and sadly studied by others, as he bewraid his great affection towards them most evidently in this his doing. Being himselfe provost of the kings colledge in Cambridge, in the time of his most honored prince, and his best hoped pupill, the good king Edward, brother to our gracious soveraine Queene Elizabeth, he sent downe from the court one maister Bukley somtime fellow of the saide colledge, and very well studyed in the mathematicalls to reade Arithmeticke, and Geometrie to the youth of the colledge: and for the better encouraging of them to that studie gave them a number of Euclides of his owne coast. Maister Bukley had drawne the rules of Arithmeticke into verses, and gave the copies abroad to his hearers. My selfe am to honour the memorie of that learned knight, being partaker my selfe [244] of his liberall distribution of those Euclides, with whom he joyned Xenophon, which booke he wished, and caused to be red in the same house, and gave them to the studentes, to encourage them aswell to the greeke toungue, as he did to the mathematikes. He did I take it asmuch for the studentes in S. Johns colledge, whose pupill he had once bene, as he did for us of the kinges colledge whose provost he then was. Can he then mislike the mathematicall sciences, which will seeme to honour Syr John Cheeke, and reverence his judgement? can he but thinke the opinion to proceede from wisedom, which counteth Socrates the wisest maister? Nay how dare he take upon him to be a maister, not of art, but of artes (for so is the name,) which hath not studyed them, ear he proceeded? Are not the proceeders to reade in any of those sciences publickely, by the vice chauncelours appointment, after they have commenced? and do they not promise, and professe the things, when they seeke to procure the titles? And with what face dare ignorance open her mouth, or but utter some sounde of words, where she hath professed the weight of matter? So that the very university her selfe doth highly esteeme of them if she could entreat her people to esteeme of their mothers judgement. These sciences bewray them selves in many professions and trades which beare not the titles of learning, whereby it is well seene, that they are no prating, but profitable grounds: not gay to the shew, but good to be shewed, and such meanes of use, as the use of our life were quite maimed without them. Then gather I, if bare experience, and ordinarie imitation do cause so great thinges to be done by the meere shadow, and roat of these sciences, what would judiciall cunning do, being joyned with so well affected experience? Neither is it any objection of account to say, what should marchaunts, carpentars, masons, shippmaisters, maryners, devisours, architectes, and a number such do with latin, and learning? do they not well enough without, to serve the turne in our countrie? If they do well without might they not do better with? And why may not an English carpentar, and his companions speake that toungue to helpe their countrie the more, being gotten in youth, eare they can be set to other labour, which the Romaine artificer [245] did naturally use, seing it is more commendable in ours, where labour is the conquerour, then in the Romain where nature was commendour? As if none should have Latin but those which were for further degrees in learning.

The tounges be helpes indifferent to all trades as well as to learning. Neither is the speaking of Latin any necessarie argument of deeper learning, as the Mathematicall sciences be the olde rudimentes of young children, and the certaine directours to all those artificers, which without them go by roate, and with them might shew cunning. I maye not at this time prosecute this position, as to fremd for this place: but after my Elementarie and toungue schoole, I meane to search it to the very bottom, with the whole profession of those faculties, if God send me life, and health. For the while this shall suffise that these sciences, which we terme the Mathematicalles in their effectuall nature, do worke still some good thing, sensible even to the simple, by number, figure, sound, or motion: In the manner of their teaching they do plant in the minde of the learner, an habite inexpugnable by bare probabilities, and not to be brought to beleeve upon light conjectures, in any other knowledge, being still drawne on by unfallible demonstrations: In their similitudinarie applications, they let one see by them in sense the like affection in contemplative, and intelligible thinges, and be the surest groundes to retourne unto in replies and instances, either upon defect in memorie, or in checke of adversarie, contrarie to the common similitudes. For when ye compare the common weale to a ship, and the people to the passagers, the application being under saile, maye be out of sight, when ye seeke for your proofe. But in these sciences the similitudinarie teaching is so certain in applying, and so confirmed by effectes: as here is nothing so farre from sense, and so secret in understanding, but it will make it palpable. They be taken from the sense, and travell the thought, but they resolve the minde. And though such as understand them not, do mislike them, which yet is no reason in them, nor any disgrace to the thing misliked by them, seeing ignoraunce misliketh: yet those that understand them, maye boldly mislike the mislikers, and oppose the whole auncient Philosophie, and all well appointed [246] common weales against such mockmathematicalles, without whose helpe they could not live, nor have houses to hide their heades, though they thanke not their founders.

If Philosophie with her three kindes had the third colledge, were it thinke you unproper? Then the naturall might afterward proceede to Physick, whom she fitteth: the Politicke to Lawe, whom she groundeth: the morall to Divinitie, whom she helpeth in discourse. Which three professions Divinitie, Lawe, Physick should every one be endowed with their particular colledges, and livinges. To have the Physician thus learned, it were nothing to much, considering his absolutenesse is learning, and his ignoraunce butcherie, if he do but marke his owne maister Galene in his booke of the best profession. For the Divine to tarie time, and to have the handmaiden sciences to attend upon their mistres profession, were it any hindrance to his credit, where discretion the daughter of time is his fairest conusance, and if he come without her, what sternesse so ever he pretend in countenance, we will measure the man, though we marke his sayinges? The Lawyers best note in the best judgementes is contentment, not to covet to much, and for that desire not to strive to gaine to much: not beyond the extremitie of lawe, but farre on this side the extremitie of right. And can digesting time be but commodious in this case, and contempt of toyes eare he enter into them, be but mother to contentment? Time to bread sufficiencie, and sufficiencie to bring sound judgement, cut of all matter of blame, and leave all matter to praise. But in this distribution where is Logicke and Rethoricke, some will saye? Where is Grammer then will I saye? A directour to language. And so Logicke, for her demonstrative part, plaieth the Grammer to the Mathematicalles, and naturall Philosophie: for her probabilitie to morall, and politike, and such other as depend not upon necessitie of matter. Rhetoricke for puritie without passion doth joyne with the writer in any kinde, for perswasion with passion, with the speaker in all kindes, and yet both the speaker dealeth sometime quietly, and the plaine writer waxeth very hoate.

Of these colledges, that which is for toungues is so necessary as scant any thing more. For the toungues being receites for [247] matter, without the perfect understanding of them, what hope is there to understand matter? and seeing wordes be names of thinges applyed and given according to their properties, how can thinges be properly understood by us, which use the ministrie and service of wordes to know them by, onelesse the force of speeche be thoroughly knowen? And do you not thinke that every profession hath neede to have a title of the signification of wordes, as well as the civill lawyer? I do see in writers, and I do heare in speakers great defectes in the mistaking of meaninges: and evident errours thorough insufficiencie herin. And as toungues cannot be better perfitted, then streight after their entrie by the grammer schoole: so they must be more perfitted, then they can be there. And what if some will never proceede any further, but rest in those pleasaunt kinde of writers, which delite most in gaing of their language, as po‰tes, histories, discourses, and such, as will be counted generall men?

As for the Mathematicalles, they had the place before the toungues were taught, which though they be now some necessarie helpes, bycause we use forreine language for conveaunce of knowledge: yet they push us one degree further of from knowledge. That the Mathematicalles had the place, and were proposed still to children, he that hath read any thing in Philosophie cannot be ignorant. Plato is full of it, and termeth them commonly the childrens entraunce, but cheifly in the seventh booke of his common weale. So is his scholer though long after his death Philo the Jewe (whom even his countrieman Josephus, a man somwhat parciall in praising other, yet calleth a singular man for eloquence and wisdome, speaking of his embassage to Caius the Emperour) but specially in that treatise, which he maketh of the foretraine, for so I turne Platoes , {Greek} and Philoes {Greek}. There he deviseth, as he is a perpetuall allegoriser, Sara to be the image of Divinitie, and Agar the figure of all other handmaiden sciences, wherin he wisheth a young man to deale very long, or he venture upon Sara, which will not be fertil but in late, and ripe yeares. He construeth both in that place, and in Moses his life also, those wordes of the bringing up of Moses in all the doctrine of the Aegyptians, to be meant in the Mathematicalles, which was the [248] traine of that time, and the brood of that soile, or there about. And to saye the trueth let any man marke the course of all auncient learning, and he shall finde, that it could not be possibly otherwise, but that the Mathematicall was their rudiment, though no historie, no describer of common weale, no setter forth of Philosophers life, no Philosopher himselfe had tolde it us? Is not Aristotles first booke of all in course of his teaching, his Organum, which conteineth his whole Logicke? and in his proofes for the piking out of his syllogismes doth he not bewraie, wherin he was brought up? I use Aristotle alone for example, bycause our studentes be best acquainted with him: whom yet they cannot understand without these helpes, as one Bravardine espied well, though not he alone, who tooke the paines to gather out of Euclide two bookes purposely for the understanding of Aristotle. Can his bookes of Demonstration, the Analytica posteriora be understood without this helpe? His whole treatise of Motion wheresoever, commonly fetcht from the verie forme of the thing moved: His confutation of others by the nature of Motion, and site: His Mathematicall discriptions in many places: His naturall Theoremes echwhere can they be conceived, much lesse understood by any ignorant in this pointe? Wherin Aristotle sheweth us his owne education, to whom he commendeth the like, if we like of him, whose liking will not fall, though fooles oftimes shake it. It were to infinite to use proofes in so generall and so knowne a case, which the whole antiquitie still allowed of, and the famous Athenian common weale used even then, when she had the great brood of the most excellent persons, for her ordinary traine to her youth as Socrates still alledgeth in Plato: or rather Plato fathering the speach upon Socrates sayth so himselfe. Aristippus after his shipwrake found releife thorough that train, and encoraged his companions upon sight of Geometricall figures in the sande. He that will judge of these sciences in generall, what degree they have in the course of learning, and wherin they be profitable to all other studies whatsoever, let him read but either Proclus his foure bookes upon Euclides first in Greeke, or bycause the greeke is ill, and corruptly printed Io. Barocius, a young gentleman of Venice which hath turned [249] them into Latin, and corrected the copie. Though many have delt in the argument they be but secondarie to Proclus. For he handleth every question that either makes for them, or against them cheifly in his first booke. It were to much for me to stand upon enumeration of testimonies in this place, that the auncient schooling did begin at the Mathematicall after the first Elementarie, while they minded sound learning in deede, and sequestred their thoughtes from other dealinges in the world. He that marketh but the ordinary metaphores in the eloquentest Greeke writers of that time, whence we prescribe, shall easily bewray, where in the auncient discipline travelled. To alledge the Romain for learning is to alledge nothing, whose cunning Virgile describeth to lye in governement, and conquestes, remitting other faculties to other people. For till the forreine learning in latter yeares, was translated into their toungue, of themselves they had litle. Rhetoricke, poetrie, historie, civill lawe, and some petie treatises of Philosophie, and Physicke were the Romaines learning. Some one, or two as Gallus, and Figulus were noted for the Mathematicalles, as many yeares after them Julius Firmicus, and some architecture Mathematicke in Vitruvius. But their owne stories can tell, what an afterdeale in the wynning of Syracusae Archimedes by those faculties put Marcellus their generall unto, which yet was as carefull to have saved Archimedes, if the rashnesse of a rude soldiar had not prevented his proclamation: as Demetrius {Greek} was to save Protogenes at Rhodes. After the state was brought to a monarchie, the Greekes overlaid their learning, as it appeareth, from Dionysius of Halycarnassus, and Strabo, which were in Augustus Caesars time, downe still in a number of most notable Grecians, which served that state continually both for training up their young Emperours, and for all other kinde of learning: so that the authoritie of the Mathematicall must be fetcht from the Grekes, though they themselves borowed the matter of other nations, and were founders onely to language, methode, and those faculties, which serve for the direction of language.

For Philosophie to have the third place it will be easily obtained, though there be some pretended doubt in the order of the partes for the training. We use to set young ones to the morall [250] and politike first, and reason against Aristotles conclusion, that a young stripling is a fit hearer of morall Philosophie. But Aristotle himselfe being well brought up in the Mathematicalles placeth naturall Philosophie next unto them, as very intelligible unto very young heades, by reason of their necessarie consequence, and Theoreticall consideration. Wheras the other partes being subject to particular circunstance in life are to be reserved for elder yeares. For not onely the Philosophicall resolution, but also the very religious was in the best, and eldest time to cause youth abide long in study, and to forbeare publike shew, till it were very late. To make Logicke, and Rhetoricke serve to those uses, and in those places, where I appointed them, was no absurdity. For Rhetoricke, there will be small contradiction, though declamations, and such exercises seeme to make some further claime. Pythagoras his five yeares silence, hath a meaning that ye heare sufficiently, eare ye speake boldly. And Socrates that great maister in Plato calleth Logicke the ridge, or toppe of the Mathematicalles, as then to succeede, when they were gotten: and good reason, why, bycause their methode in teaching, and order in proving did bring forth Logicke. As he that will make Plato the example to Aristotles preceptes shall easily perceave.

For Divinitie, Lawe, and Physicke to have their owne colledges, for their full exercises, and better learning, then now thus to have their studentes scattered, it is a thing that implyeth no great repugnaunce with any reason, and is not without president. As for the Lawe, if the whole studie were made one and whatsoever appertaineth to that profession, for either Ecclesiasticall, or Temporall use were reduced into one body, had our countrey any cause to complaine? or but great cause to be very glad? wheras now three severall professions in lawe, bewraye a three headed state, one English and French, an other, Romish Imperiall, the third Romish ecclesiasticall, where meere English were simply our best. I shall not neede to say any more herein, but onely give occasion to those which can judge, and helpe it, to thinke of the position: the distraction of temporall, civill, and Canon lawe being in many pointes very offensive to our countrey. [251]

Some difficultie there will be to winne a colledge for such as shall afterward passe to teache in schooles.

There is no diverting to any profession till the student depart from the colledge of Philosophie, thence he that will go to Divinitie, to Lawe, to Physicke, may, yet with great choise, to have the fittest according to the subject. He that will to the schoole is then to divert. In whom I require so much learning to do so much good, as none of the other three, (honour alway reserved to the worthinesse of the subject which they professe,) can chalenge to himselfe more: either for paines which is great: or for profit which is sure: or for helpe to the professions: which have their passage so much the pleasaunter, the forwarder studentes be sent unto them, and the better subjects be made to obay them: as the scholing traine is the trak to obedience. And why should not these men have both this sufficiencie in learning, and such roome to rest in, thence to be chosen and set forth for the common service? be either children, or schooles so small a portion of our multitude? or is the framing of young mindes, and the training of their bodies so meane a point of cunning? be schoolemaisters in this Realme such a paucitie, as they are not even in good sadnesse to be soundly thought on? If the chancell have a minister, the belfray hath a maister: and where youth is, as it is eachwhere, there must be trainers, or there will be worse. He that will not allow of this carefull provision for such a seminarie of maisters, is most unworthy either to have had a good maister him selfe, or herafter to have a good one for his. Why should not teachers be well provided for, to continue their whole life in the schoole, as Divines, Lawyers, Physicians do in their severall professions? Thereby judgement, cunning, and discretion will grow in them: and maisters would prove olde men, and such as Xenophon setteth over children in the schooling of Cyrus. Wheras now, the schoole being used but for a shift, afterward to passe thence to the other professions, though it send out very sufficient men to them, it selfe remaineth too too naked, considering the necessitie of the thing. I conclude therfore that this trade requireth a particular college, for these foure causes. First for the subject being the meane to make or mar the whole [252] frye of our state. Secondly for the number, whether of them that are to learne, or of them that are to teache. Thirdly for the necessitie of the profession which maye not be spared. Fourthly for the matter of their studie which is comparable to the greatest professions, for language, for judgement, for skil how to traine, for varietie in all pointes of learning, wherin the framing of the minde, and the exercising of the bodie craveth exquisite consideration, beside the staidnes of the person.

These seven colledges being so set up, and bearing the names of the thinges which they professe, for Toungues, for Mathematickes, for Philosophie, for Traine, for Physicke, for Lawe, for Divinitie were there any great absurditie committed either in the thing if it were so, or in me for wishing it so? If it had bene thus appointed at the first, as it might, if the whole building had bene made at once, which is scant possible where thinges grow by degrees, and buildinges by patches: it would have bene liked very well, and the Universities in their commencementes, and publike actes would have commended their pollicy, and wisedome, which first did appoint it. And maye not that be now toucht without blame, which if it had bene then done, had deserved great honour, and when soever it shall be done will deserve everlasting memorie? and maye now be well done, seeing we have all thinges needful for the well doing redie: And why should it seeme straunge to wish such an alteration, seeing greater chaunges have bene both wished, and wrought within this our time? Sad, and lingring thoughts, which measure common weales as buildinges grounded upon some rocke of marble, finde many, and sober difficulties: resolute mindes make no bones: there is stuffe enough, the places be ready, the landes be neither to be begd, ne yet to be purchased, they be got, and given already: they maye be easily brought into order, seeing our time is the time of reformation. Before my wish be condemned, I desire my reader to consider it well, and marke if it maye take place, and whether it maye not with great facilitie.

For sorting like yeares into one roome, which was my second interrogatorie, it is no new device, nor mine: All good common weales not fained by fantsie, but being in deede such, [253] have used it both for likenes of education in like yeares, and for trying out where most excellencie lodged, to bestow prefermentes upon apparant desert, besides that it is most fit, and emulation to the better doth best beseeme like yeares. The greeke poet saith, that God draweth allway the like to the like, and therefore men may well follow the president.

For uniting of colledges, enlarging of the united, and bettering studentes livinges, I dare say none of them wilbe against me, which for a better living will chaung his colledge. Neither will he thinke it any great losse to leave his old poore place, for a fatter rowme, which for such a one will abandon the universitie and all. Sure the livings in colledges be now to to leane, and of necessitie force good wittes to fly ear they be well feathered. More sufficiencie of living will yeald more convenient time and furniture to studie, which two be the onely meanes to procure more sufficiencie in learning, more ripenes in judgement, more stay in maners. The necessitie of studentes may thus be supplyed of their owne, and they not forced by accepting of exhibition at some handes to admit some bondage under hand. Restraint will ridde needelesse number: sufficient livinges will maintaine, and make the nedefull number sufficiently well learned. I neede not staie any longer here. For methinke all those good studentes joyne with me in this fourme of the universitie, whom want, and barenes of living will not suffer to tarie long enough there, and better it were for our countrie to have some smaller meanie wel trayned, and sufficiently provided, then a loose number, and an unlearned multitude. And there were two questions more worthy the resolution, then all Iohannes Picus the erle of Mirandula his nine hundred propounded at Rome: the one whether it were agreable to the nature of learning being liberall in condition to be elemosinarie in maintenaunce: the other whether it were for a common weale to have the conceit bound to respectes, bycause of private exhibition, which ought to direct simply, without respect, saving to the state alone. For sure where learning growes up by props, it leaseth her propertie: where the stocke of it selfe will beare up the bowes, there it must be best, if choice be made leader, and fit wittes bestowed on bookes. [254] My three forraine pointes for the furtheraunce of learning be, choice for wittes, time for furniture, maintenaunce for direction: what shalbe peculiar to the partie, himselfe must tender, as therein being detter to God, and his countrie. Diligence to apply his wit, continuaunce to store his time, discretion to set furth his maintenaunce, are required at his handes.

For readers of yeares, of sufficiencie, of continuance, methinke I durst enter into some combat that it were beyonde all crie profitable, and necessarie, to have whom to follow, and of whom to learne how to direct our studies, for yeares auncient fathers: for sufficiencie most able to enstruct: for continuance cunning to discerne persons, and circumstaunces: for advise skillfull to rule rash heades, which runne on to fast, being armed with some private opinion of their owne petie learning. What was Plato to the Academikes? Aristotle to the Peripatetikes? Xeno to the Stoiks? Epicure to the Epecurians? Aristippus to the Anicerian and Cyrenaike? and other such fathers to the famulies of their professions, but readers? It is a mervell to thinke on, how longe those fellowes continued in their profession as Diogenes Laertius doth note. It should seeme that Plato taught above fiftie yeares, reckening the time that he left Speusippus his deputie during his travell into Aegypt and that way: whereby both himselfe proved an excellent maister, and his hearers proved most excellent scholers. They that have bene acquainted with cunning readers any where will subscribe to this I know.

Private studie tied to one booke led by one braine: not alway the best (as what counsellour is commonly worse to ones selfe, then himselfe?) so proceeding as the first impression leads, be it what it can be, cannot compare for judiciall learning with the benefit of hearing one, nay of repeating to one upon interrogatories after reading, to trie his judgement, his keeping, and remembrance: which one hath red, and digested all the best bookes, or at the least all the best bookes in that kinde, whereof he maketh profession: which hath a judgement settled and resolute by the helpe of all those good braines: which hath dealte with thousandes of the pregnantest wittes, whom experience hath taught stay, whom the common weale [255] by sufferance commendes as sufficient. He that is not acquainted with such an excellent reader or teacher (for both the names import one thing) and that with repetition, but pleaseth himselfe with his owne private studie, as he taketh more paines undoutedly, so getteth he lesse gaine I dare assure him, having in one lecture the benefit of his readers universall studie, and that so fitted to his hand, as he may streight way use it, without further thinking on: whereas when he hath beaten his owne braines privatly about a litle, for want of time to digest, being to forward to put foorth, he uttereth that which he must either amend upon better advice, or quite revoke when he findes he is over shot. Wherfore such readers, or rather such nurses to studie, must needes be maintained with great allowance, to make their heaven there, where ye meane to use them. Whose service, for the benefit that comes from them will save their whole hier in very bookes, which the student shall not so much neede, when his reader is his librarie: neither must they be soules, as we tearme them, though of great reading, neither is it enough to have read much, but they must be of great government withall, which are to bring up such a frie of governers. And therefore that great sufficiencie doth still call for great recompence to be tyed to a stake for it all ones life time.

But now I pray you by this wish of mine be the universities in common sence any whit endammaged? if they were, so the harme were but some litle and the good exceeding great, the dammage might be consumed by the greatnes of the good. I finde not any harme offered them, they lease no landes, studentes be not put to pensions, they that be thought fit, finde better and fuller maintenaunce, better meane is made to prove learned, by such excellent readers, which the cunninger they be, the more affable they be, and thereby the fitter to satisfie any studentes dout in that which they professe. And where yong men may staie untill they be singular, and have good meanes to make them singular, is not the thing to be wished, and he that wisheth it, not to be thought to wish the universitie harme, where it is universally holpen? If this transposing of houses to this use were commaunded by authoritie, and by [256] some helpe of wealthy patrones for the common goods sake, were happily accomplished, the universitie should lease nothing, though they break up for a time, and the studentes gave place, to masons, and carpenters, nay though the whole revenew of all the colledges were for that time bestowed upon the alteration. And yet all that trouble should not neede, if the first were first begune, and so particularly in order, neither should any student now well placed complaine of the chaunge if he would set himselfe to any certaine profession. This is but my conceit which the effect will confirme, and wise considerations will finde, that it carieth a good ground: besides that it is all ready in verie neare possibilitie, without any great charge, and with verie great good, as also certainetie, and greatnes of annuitie would streight way raise up readers, and afterward continew them. How good, and how easie a thing this were, the attempt by so many particular readers would shew, which being themselves excellently well learned in those argumentes, that I do appoint to colledges, and professing them in convenient houses of their owne, would undoutedly drawe as many into their private hostelles, as there be now studentes in publicke colledges. All this my wish offereth greater difficulty, in the maner, how to worke it: then dout of profit, in the thing, if we had it. Howbeit harder thinges have bene easily accomplished, but any more profitable was never compassed: neither doth it repent me to wish that, which I would rejoyce to see. If the hindring lie in cost, it is somwhat, and yet but small, considering what is ready: if in good will: that is all, and yet but ill, considering what it hindereth. For no learning is so well got, where her helping meanes be severed, as where all be united, which those colledges would cause: a thing neither of novelty, as of an old ground and elswhere practised: neither injuriouse, to any offering profit to all. I do finde my selfe so armed in the point, as if there were any hope in the thing to be effected, I could answeare any objection of difficultie, which might arise against it, either from without the universitie, or from within, either for any communitie, or for any private, that it would be best for all, neither any breach of good now well laied, nor any hindraunce to any, which findes himselfe at ease, as the present is now appointed. [257] But will ye have everie one rise through all these degrees of learning, ear he become a professour? yea surely I. But who moveth the question? either he that cannot judge, who is therefore to be pardoned: or he that would be doing, who is therefore to be blamed: or he that doth not way it, which would be desired to do: or he whom neede hasteneth, whose case is to be pitied. And yet of all these foure, only he, that desireth to shew him selfe ripe in his owne, though raw in other mens opinion, will contrarie the conclusion: for ignoraunce, will yeeld upon better instruction: just consideration, wil relent after waing: good wittes oppressed with want, and yet waing the truth, will wish for more wealth to tarie their full time, and the cariage of their cunning: but the hastie heades, to whom any delaie is present death, which will be doing, eare they can do well, but in their owne conceites they will stand against it, and scrape all defences, though while they do scrape, they descrie them selves to be extreme ignorant. For if sufficiencie be the onely meane to perfit the professour, and to profit the publike, insufficiencie overthrowes both. And as he that meaneth to turne before, may lymit his ascent: so he that will be perfit in the end and last profession ought at the least to have the contemplative knowledge of all that goeth before, though he practise but at pleasure. The generall gaine thereby is this that while the studentes youth is wedded to honest, and learned meditation, the heat of that stirring age is cooled which might harme in publicke, and set all on fire: ripe judgement is got, to stay, not to stirre: and all ambitiouse passions mervellously daunted through resolutenes of judgement. It is no reason, where see ye the like? but it is a great reason, the like is worth seeing, and who so comes neare, is still better liked, then he that dowteth of it. The want of triall, is some shift for a time, but the triall that hath bene, may lead us to the like, and procure good allowance. And sure till the yong professours be made to tarie longer, and studie sounder, neither shall learning have credit, nor our countrie be but sicke. It is not my complaint, though I joyne with the complainantes. If ye meane to take learning before you, you will never move the question. It is not he that hath, and knoweth, which moveth [258] the question, but he that knoweth not and should. What should a divine do with the mathematikes? why was Moises trained in all the Aegyptians learning? Nay in one reason for all, why will ye condemne in divinitie, or execute in law, the sciences which ye know not, but finde the name condemned? and I pray you with what warrant? what if that be not the name? or what if the thing be not such? a condemnation without evidence where the judge presumeth, and knoweth not the skill, which he saith is naught. The Physician should have all, and if he have not, he is most to be blamed, bycause the parents of his profession durst not professe without them, and make them under meanes. To be short I wish they had them, which mislike that they have not, and give ignorance the raigne. For if they had them, we should heare no speach, but praise and proufe, admiration and honour.

But to turne to my byace againe which was the mother, and matter to my wish, this colledge for teachers, might proove an excellent nurserie for good schoolemaisters, and upon good testimonie being knowne to so many before, which would upon their owne knowledge assure him, whom they would send abroad. In the meane time till this come to passe, the best that we can have, is best worthy the having, and if we provide well for good teachers, that provision will provide us good teachers.

There remaineth now one consideration in the admitting not of these, whom I admit without any exception, for all sufficiencie in religion, in learning, in discretion, in behaviour: but of such as we daily use, and must use, till circumstances be bettered which are in compasse of many exceptions. The admitter or chuser considering what the place requireth must exact that cunning, which the place calleth for: the partie himselfe must bring testimonie of his owne behaviour, if he be altogither unknowen: and the admission would be lymited to such a schoole in such a degree of learning, as he is found to be fit for. For many upon admission and licence to teach in generall, overreach to farre, and marre to much, being unsufficient at randon, though serving well for certaine by way of restraint. Thus much for the trainer, which I know will better my patterne [259] if preferment better him: with whom I shall have occasion to deale againe in my grammer schoole: where I will note unto him what my opinion is in the particularities of teaching.

Chapter 42.

How long the childe is to continue in the elementarie ear he passe to the toungues, and grammer. The incurable infirmities which posting hast worketh in the whole course of studie. How necessarie a thing sufficient time is for a scholer.

Hastie preasing onward is the greatest enemie, which any thing can have whose best is to ripe at leasure. For if ripenes be the vertue, before it is greene, after it is rotten: and yet the excesse is the lesse harme: bycause it may joyne, and be compounded with the vertue, and be called rotten ripe: and at the least be cast away, without any more losse, then of the thing it selfe, as it appeareth in frutes. The defect to plucke before ripenes, breedes ill in the partie which tasteth therof, and causeth the thing after a bite or two to be cast away to: unlesse it be in longing wymen, whose distemperate delite upon a cause not common, doth give us to judge, that too timely taking, is but for some disordered humours. This plucking before ripenes in my position tendeth to this ende. I have appointed in my elementarie traine reading, writing, drawing, singing, playing: now if either all these be unperfitly gotten, where all be attempted, or some, where some: when the childe is removed to the grammer schoole, what an error is committed? The thinges being not perfit, to serve the consequence, either die quite if they be not sevearly called on: or come forward with paine, where the furtherance is in feare. How many small infantes have we set to grammer, which can scarecely reade? how many to learne latin, which never wrate letter? And yet though some litle one could doe much better then all his fellowes, it were no harme for him to be captaine a good while in his elementarie schoole, rather then to be a meane souldier in a captaine schoole. The displeasoures be beyond all proportion pernicious, beyond all multitude many, which this posting pulles [260] after it. And if moning could amend them, I would not onely mone them, that they be so many, but also mourne for them, that they be so helpeles. It is a world to see the weakenes of children, and the fondnes of friendes in that behalfe. It is to much, that may be understood, where so much is said: the fault is generall, and the onely cause, which both makes children loth to learne, and the maisters seeme to be tormenters in their teaching. For the maister hasting on to the effect of his profession, and the scholer drawing backe, as not able to beare the burden: there riseth a conflict in the maister, with passion, if it conquere him: against passion if he conquere it. If the maister be verie sharp witted in delivering, and the boy slowheaded in receiving, then the passion will lightly conquer. Which it cannot doe, where wisedome and consideration in the maister be armed aforehand with pacience, or where experience and wearines of extremitie have wrought a calmenes. And as in the maister passion breedes heat, so in the childe infirmitie breedes feare, and so much the more, if he finde his maister somwhat to fierce. Whereupon neither the one nor the other can do much good at all, and all through this hastie imperfection being the matter of heat in the one, and of feare in the other. Whereof if the boy were not in daunger how peart would he be, and what a pleasure would the maister take in such a perfit perteling? but when the childe is so weake, as both he himselfe feeles it in his learning, and the maister findes it in his teaching, tell the parent so he will not beleeve it. So blynde is affection in the parent which cannot see: and in stoore of teachers, he shall finde some, which will undertake, and condemne the misliker. Whereby chaunge feedes his humor for the time, and repentance his follie long after, when the default proves uncurable, and the first maister is admitted among the prophetes. Such a thing it is to prevent illes in time, and when warning is given not to mocke the intelligence, nor to blame the watchman.

If the imperfections which come more of haste then of ignoraunce from the Elementary schoole would take up their Inne there, and raunge no further, the moane were not so much, bycause [261] there were some meane to redresse: but now as one billow driveth on an other: so hast beginning there makes the other successions in learning trowle on too too headlong. Be young children set to soone to their Grammer onely? be none sent to the Universitie, which when they come thence some yeares after, might well with good gaine returne to the Grammer schoole againe? I will not saye that they were not ready when they went, but peradventure they were ready, and forgat that they were so. Do not some good honest wittes in the middest of their studie finde the festering of haste, and wishe though in vaine that they had bene more advised in their passage? and if they recover that which they misse and wish for, do they not finde the learned conclusion trew: that such thinges be extreme painful to setled memories, which were very pleasaunt passages to the youngest boyes? He that beginnes his Grammer in any language, when he is a Graduate, may perhaps wish for some way without Grammer, and covet a Compendium. The Universities can best judge of the infirmities in our Grammer schooles, when they finde the want in those yonglinges, whom they have from us, but not sent by us: we our selves see them, but we cannot salve them. Private affection overrules all reason: straungenesse betwene the parent and maister cuttes of conference in the removing: and in some places multitude of schooles marres the whole market: where store is the sore, and oportunitie to alter an allurement to the worse. So that by degrees the Elementarie feebleth the Grammarian: and the Grammarian transporteth his weaknesse from his schoolemaister to his Universitie tutour. Such a matter it is to stay hast at the first, which distempereth till the last. I would not have the Universities, but to thinke freindly of me, bycause though I finde fault, I seeke it not: neither blase I it with discredit to them, but wish it healed with the profit of my countrey, as I well know the most, and best of them there do.

Doth not want of sufficient time (I meane not for taking degrees, bycause that time may be complete from the proceeders first arivall into the Universitie) but for want of age and yeares: and therwithall for the want of that, which yeares do bring, oftimes send abroad youthes, whose degrees deserve place, [262] but their depth deserves none? That prentice is to hastely out of his yeares, which being at one and twentie free from his maister, is eare foure and twentie free from his thrift both reft of goodnesse, and left goodlesse. If men abroad had not a sensible judgement in yeares, that young ware cannot be but greene, how sprooting faire so ever it doth shew: youth might deceive them with titles, as it deceives it selfe with opinions. Yeares without stuffe maye beguile before triall: yeares with stuffe will abide the stampe: Stuffe without yeares is wounderous for a while, but it is subjecte to quicke withering, and to fade of wonder. Neither stuffe nor yeares, is extreme pitifull, and the very ground of my complaint, bycause neither few yeares can provide great stuffe, yea to the best witte: nor many yeares to any witte, without great studie, which is a death there, where the defecte is great. How fortuneth it then, that either freindes be so foolish, or studentes so unstayed, to haste so with so much waste? The causes be: impacience, which can abide no tarying, where a restlesse conceit is full frawght: libertie, to live as he listeth, bycause he listeth not to live as he should: braverie, to seeme to be some body, and to cary a countenaunce: hope of preferment, to desire dignities before abilitie to discharge. In the meane while: the common weale becomes private: the generall weapeth, while the particular winneth: and yet the winning is no soundnesse, but shew. What notable men have dealt with, and against the forestaulling of sound time in professions? Among many if onely Vives the learned Spaniard, were called to be witnesse, he would crave pardon for his owne person, as not able to come for the goute, but he would substitute for his deputie his whole twentie bookes of disciplines, wherin he entreateth, how they come to spoile, and how they may be recovered. Lacke of time not onely in his opinion, but also in whose not? bringes lacke of learning, which is a sore lacke, where it ought not to be lacking. The cankar that consumeth all, and causeth all this evill is haste, an unadvised, rashe, hedlong counsellour, and then most pernicious when it hath either some apparence in reason that the child is ripe: or the hartning of some maister, which either is disposed to follow where he seeth replying past cure: or that cannot discern colours, bycause [263] he is that in his degree, which the childe is in his: both unripe: the one to teach, the other to remove.

But what if hope of exhibition make an Universitie man straine? and either perswade abilitie, or promise to supplie, where abilitie wantes? Nay what if exhibitours of some litle, seeke recompence to soone, and halfe force some poore scholer to toile with imperfection?

When the unripe boye findeth any such meane to go to the Universitie, the maister shall never know, till he be booted, if he do know then: for feare of stopping his journey by contrarie counsell: that is by reason to stay him, which runnes to his owne harme.

Time of it selfe, as it is the noblest circunstance wherwith we have to deale: so it hath a bredth in it selfe capeable of to much, to litle, and enough.

To much time is seldome found fault with justly, though some time pretended, bycause it is seldome taryed for in this kinde wherwith I deale.

To litle time is that wheron I complaine, and so much the more harmefull, bycause hast to attaine unto the desired ende makes it seeme no fault till the blow be given.

Time enough is that meane which perfiteth all, the Elementarie in his kinde, the Grammarian in his, the Graduate in his, and so profiteth the common weale by perfiting all: the prerogative to thought: the mother to truth: the tuchestone to ripenesse: the enemy to errour: mans only stay, and helpe to advice.

For the Grammarians time, though it be not within this argument, as many other thinges which the affinitie drew in, yet thus much may I say. That his perfitnesse hath a pitche, and his yeares yeilde his good, as it shall appeare in his owne place, whose time must needes be limited, bycause he is so placed after the Elementarie, and before the Universitie, as the well appointing of his time shall disapoint neither of them. For the times, and yeares of studie before degrees in the Universitie, Plato himselfe in his exquisite republike cannot, nor doth not appoint them better then they be there already, if the Grammar, and Elementarie haste marred not, and made them that come to soone seeke also to proceede to soone, yet even so fulfilling [264] statutes, which appoint the continuing yeares, though smallie for their benefit, which are not appointed in yeares, and lesse then not appointed in substaunce. The distances betwene degrees orderly employed, and the midle learninges being caryed before them, as it is imported by their stiles: might worke in the most very reasonable knowledge, for methode and ground in habite, though not for particulars, which be alwayes endlesse, still without art, though most within experience, for their most needfull number. Now if that helpe of readers, which I wished for, were put in execution, me thinke, the world should see, a marveilous number of excellent professours in every degree. I am to long in talking of to litle: but the times hanging one upon another have led me thus onward: wherfore it is now time for me to determine that time, which I do take to be enough for the Elementarie. When the child can read so readily, and roundly, as the lenght of his lesson shal nothing trouble him for his reading: when he can write so faire and so fast, as no kinde of exercise shalbe tedious unto him for the writing: when his penne or pencill shall delite him with bragge: when his Musicke both for voice, and hand is so farre forward, as a litle voluntarie will both maintaine, and encrease it: all which thinges the second maister must have an eye unto: then hath the Elementarie had time enough. If the parent account not of all, yet perfitnesse in his choice must be his cheife account. The childes ordinarie exercises, will continue his writing, and reading, himselfe will alwaye be drawing, bycause it deliteth his eye, and busieth not his braine. But for Musicke, the maister and the parentes delite must further it. For that in those yeares, children be Musicall rather for other then for them selves. Once in, this is a certaine ground, and most infallible, that in tarying long, and perfiting well, there is no losse of time, specially seeing those qualities even alone, be a pretie furniture of houshold if they be well gotten. The hasting on to fast to see the frute too soone, when circunstances perswade tarying, is to winne an houre in the morning, and to lease the daye after. Thus much concerning the Elementarie time, determinable not by yeares, but by sufficiencie. If yeares could be limittes to knowledge, as they be very good leaders, [265] the rule were more certaine: but where witte goeth not by yeares, nor learning without, sufficiencie is the surest bounder, to set out, wherin enough is. Howbeit in the Elementarie, and so forth I will limit the time somwhat nearer, with all the considerations, both for varietie of the matters which are to be learned, and the men which are to teach, and such thinges as seeme not so proper to be set downe here.

Chapter 43.

How to cut of most inconveniences wherwith schooles and scholers, maisters and parentes be in our schooling now most troubled. Wherof there be two meanes, uniformitie in teaching and publishing of schoole orders. That uniformitie in teaching hath for companions dispatch in learning, and sparing of expenses. Of the abbridging of the number of bookes. Of curtesie and correction. Of schoole faultes. Of friendlinesse betwene parentes and maisters.

A great learned man in our dayes thought so much of the troublesome and toilsome life, which we teachers lead, as he wrate a pretie booke of the miseries of maisters. We are to thanke him for his good will: but when any kinde of life be it high, be it low, is not troubled with his proportion to our portion, we will yeild to misery. Our life is very painfull in deede, and what if beyond comparison painfull? Much a do we have, and what if none more? Yet sure many as much, though they deale not with so many, and moe more miserable, bycause they better not so many. But I will neither rip up those thinges, which seeme most restlesse in us, though the argument offer spreding: neither will I medle with any other trade, no lesse troublesome then teaching, by comparing to seeme to lessen: bycause comparisons in miseries be uncomfortable to both, though some ease to either. To what purpose should I shew, why the maister blames this, the parent that, the child nothing more then the rod, though he will not but deserve it? Such a disease we have to repine at the paine, and not to waye the offence, which deserveth the paine. Why beat ye him sayeth one? Why offended he sayeth none? so hard a thing it is to finde [266] defense for right, so easie a thing it is to finde qualifying for wrong. Therefore to omit these unpleasaunt rippinges, I will deale with the remedies how to cut of the most of those, which he calles miseries, I terme inconveniences, wherwith the trade of teaching at this day seemeth to have a great conflict. Which counsell though it be first laid for the youngest scholers, yet may it well be translated further, and beseeme both the biggest, and best, in any learned course.

These remedies I take to be two: The one uniformitie in teaching, which draweth after it, dispatch in learning, and sparing of expenses about to great a number of bookes.

The other is publike schoole lawes, set downe, and seen, which bring with them for companions agreement of parents and teachers, continuance of scholers, conference to amend, comfort to freindes, and commoditie to the common countrey.

For uniformitie in teaching how many gaules that will heale, wherwith schooles be now greived, it will then best appeare, when it shalbe shewed, what good it will worke, and how necessarie a thing it is, to have all schooles reduced unto it. That there is to much variety in teaching, and therfore to much ill teaching (bycause in the midst of many bypathes, there is but one right waye) he were senseles, that sees not: if he either have taught, or have bene taught himselfe. Which whence it springeth, diversities of judgement bewraie, that men have gotten by better or worse training up in youth: by lesse or more travell in studie: by longer or shorter continuance at their booke: by liking or misliking some trade in teaching: by accommodating themselves to the parentes choice: and many wayes moe, which either brede varietie, or else be bred by varietie. But of all varieties there is none vayner, then when ignoraunce sweares that that is an aphorisme, the contrarie wherof sound knowledge hath set downe for a sure oracle. Now in this confusion of varieties what hinderance hath youth? what discredite receive schooles? what inequalities be the Universities molested with? what toile is it to Tutours? how small riddaunce to readers? when diversities of groundworke do hinder their building, and the scholers weakenesse discrieth his maister? And yet oftimes the weake maister bringes up a strong scholer, by [267] some accident not ordinarie, and the cunninger man by some ordinarie let makes small shew of his great labour. Do not the learners also themselves commonly when they come to yeares and misse that commoditie, which ther maisters could not give them, being very weake themselves, then blame their fortune and feele the want of foresight? For if varietie had bene wipte awaye by uniformitie, even the weakest maister might have done very well if he had had but a meane head to follow direction being set downe to his hand.

This pointe is so plaine as many of the best learned, and of the best teachers also oftimes complaine of it, and wish the redresse, though they still draw backe, and spare their owne paines for any thing they publish: perhaps not having the oportunitie and leasure which so great an enterprise craveth: perhaps being induced by hope that some other will start up, and publish the amendment. Whereby all the youth of this whole Realme shall seeme to have bene brought up in one schoole, and under one maister, both for the matter and manner of traine, though they differ in their owne invention which is private and severall to every one by nature, though generall and one to every one by art. Which thing must needes turne to the profit of the learner, whose straying shalbe straited, that he cannot go amisse: to the ease of the teacher whose labour shalbe lightened, by the easinesse of his curraunt: to the honour of the countrey, which thereby shall have great store of sufficient stuffe: and the immortall renown of that carefull Prince which procured such a good. Which benefit say I must proceede from some uniforme kinde of teaching set downe by authoritie, that one waye to supplie all wantes, and no one to disdaine, where obedience is enjoyned. And wheras difference in judgement worketh varietie: consent in knowledge will plant uniformitie. Which consent, as it must be enforced by authoritie, so must it proceede from some likenesse of abilitie in teachers, namely in that thing wherof they are teachers: though both in executing the same, and for some other qualities they may differ much.

Now the onely waye to worke this likenesse or rather samenesse in abilitie, where otherwise the oddes is so odde, were to set downe in some certain plat, the best that may seeme to be, [268] if that which is best in deede may not be had, as why not? both what and how to teach, with all the particular circunstances, so farre forth as they ordinarily do fall within common compasse, and may best beseeme the best ordered schooles, which both the meane teacher may wel attaine unto, and the cunning maister may rest content with, and so they both in that pointe prove equall, while the meaner mounting upword with fethers made for him, and the cunninger comming downward at the shew of the lure, they both meete in the midde waye, and flying forward like freindes, pay their price with their pastime, and mend their faire with their praye, no dishonour offered him, whom mo qualities do commend: and a great helpe to him that cannot swimme without. In whom diligence borne up, will worke no lesse wonder, nay may fortune more, then greater learning in the other, whom either over weyning may make insolent, or loytring negligent. And sure as I may be deceived herein, so have I some reason very favorable to my seeming, that it were more fitting for the common profit, to provide a certaine direction to helpe the meane teacher, which will continue in the trade without either any or very late changing of his course, and so a long time do much good, then to leave it at randon to the libertie of the more learned, who commonly use teaching, but to shift with for a time, and be but pilgrimes in the profession, still minding to remove to some other kinde of life, either of more ease, which allureth soone, or of more gaine which enforceth sore. So that in the meane time the scholers cannot profit much, while the maisters deale like straungers, which entending one day to returne to their countrey, as nature calleth homeward, though profit bid tary, cannot have that zealous care, which the naturall countrieman, and continuall travellour of nature hath, and of duetie sheweth. And though conscience cause some odde honest man to worke well, and discharge his duetie in that rowling residence: yet neither be priviledges generall, nor lawes levelled after some few, and that foolish fellow, was fretished for cold, which followed the fond swallow, that flew out to timely, and to farre before her fellowes. An order must be generall to the liking of the better, who should alwaye wishe it, and the leading of the [269] weaker, who shall alway neede it.

If when this order for matter and manner of teaching shalbe set downe, the executor prove negligent, and prolong the effect, or else quite defeat it, by ill handling of that, which was well ment, the surveiors and patrones of schooles must overlooke such teachers, of themselves if they can, if not, they may call for the assistaunce of learning, which for cunning can, and of curtesie will seeke to further such a thing. Our preceptes be generall, the particular must perfourme, and amend his owne accident. I have but sleightly noted the surface of uniformitie in teaching, and the disjoynting of skill by misordered varietie, and yet who is so blinde as he may not thereby discerne, that the one strips away the evilles which the other bringes in, and thereby cuttes of many encombraunces from schooles?

Now uniformitie in teaching once obtained, doth not dispatch in learning incontinently follow? which consisteth in choice of the best and fittest authours at the first, and continuaunce in the same: in the best exercises and most proper to the childes ascent in learning: and generally in the maisters orderly proceeding, and methode in teaching: whereby the child shall not learne any thing, which he must or ought to forget, upon his maisters better advise: nor leave any needefull thing unlearned till his maister grow to better advise. The maister himselfe shall not neede to chaunge his course, as he chaungeth his skill, now coursing on to fast by to much rashnes: now retiring to late by to louse repentaunce: finally neither the maister nor the scholer shall busie themselves to long about a litle, and never the better, nor hast to fast on, and never a whit the further. The best course being hit on at the first, as appointment may procure it, one thing helpeth an other forward naturally, without forcing: that which is first taught maketh way for that which must follow next, and continuall use will let nothing be forgot, which is once well got, and the rising up by degrees in learning will succede in proportion, without losse of time or let of labour, either by lingring to long, or by posting to fast, which cannot now possibly be brought about, while thinges be left to the teachers discretion, whereof, [270] as the most be not alway the best, so even the verie best cannot alway hit those thinges, which in deede are best, while the customarie education is helde for a sanctuarie: alteration to the better is esteemed an heresie: allowance is measured by private liking: unthankefulnes is made harbour to desert: and the very bookes which we use be not appropriate to our use. I touch no mo stoppes then may easily be removed, if authoritie take the matter in hand. Private lettes must have private lessons, and personall circumstance shall have rowme to pleade in, at an other time.

These enormities then shew them selves, when children do chaunge both schooles and maisters: where alteration hindereth beyond all crie, the new maister either thinking it some discredit to himselfe to beginne where the old left, or misliking the choice which the former hath made, or in deede by dispraysing him to seeke to grace himselfe: or the order of his schoole not admitting the succession, as in deede they be all diverse. Sometimes the boy being ungrounded, by his maisters ignorance if he could not, by his negligence if he did not the thing which he could, will not bende to be bettered, but must keepe the same countenaunce which he himselfe conceiveth of himselfe. And this commonly falles out so, when the parentes be pevish, and thinke their child disgraced if he be once set backward (for so the tearme is) whereas in verie deede he is bidde but to looke backe, to see that which he never saw, and ought to have seene verie substantially. Which disorder proceeding from the parentes overruleth us all, causing great weakenes, and much mismatching in the fourmes of our schooles: so that we either cannot, or may not finde fault even to amend it, whereas the order being one, and planted by authoritie, though the childe use to chaunge often, yet his profiting is soone perceived: and the parentes also wilbe well contented, when they suspect no partialitie by private passion, and see indifferencie in publicke provision. Such be the frutes which varietie bringes foorth, perillous in great affaires, still gathering strength by traine in those petie principles: wheras to the contrarie uniformitie is full of contentment. Nothing continueth one in our schooles but the common grammer set furth by authoritie, [271] which confirmeth mine opinion both by pollicie in the first setting out, and by profit in the long continuing, wherein we all agree perforce as in a case of higher countenaunce, and already ruled. Which booke whether it may stand still with some amendement, or of necessitie must be cast some other way, for better method, it shall then be seene when comparisons come in season, that the alteration may shew, whether there were cause to chaunge, or some injurie offered to chaunge without cause. For both that booke, and all the like, which serve for direction and method must be fashioned to the matter which they seeme to direct by rule and precept, being not of themselves, but made to serve others. This we have by it, that uniformitie out of al controversie is best, but whether it selfe be best, that is yet in controversie.

For sparing of expenses, the second commoditie which uniformitie bringes with her, this is my opinion: while it is left to the teachers libertie to make his owne choice, both for the booke which he will teach and the order how, betweene the varietie of judgementes, and inequalitie of learning in teachers, which by order must be made one, by consent never will, the parentes purses are pretily pulled, and poore men verie sore pinched both with chaunge of bookes, the maister oft repealing his former choice: and also with number, while every booke is commended to the buyer, which either maketh a faire shew to be profitable: or otherwise is sollicited to the sale, as in our dayes necessitie must sell, where such an overflush of bookes growes chargeable to the printer. For the old periode is returned, that Juvenall found in his time, learned and unlearned must needes write, he is marde that comes lag. Nay ordinarily some few leaves be occupied in the best chosen, and biggest booke, besides the oft leasing and much spoiling of them sachels and all, to their gaines it may be said that sell them, though to the parentes losse that buy them, and those of the meaner sort, whose children maintaine schooles most, and swarme thickest in all places and professions, which thing might be farre better used, if the best onely were bought, and with the losse of his bookes the childe lost no more. All which inconveniences may easily be remeadied, and with small adoe. [272] For whatsoever is needefull to be used in schooles, may be verie well comprised in a small compasse, and have all his helpes with him being gathered into some one pretie volume compounded of the marrow of many: neither will the charge be great, the ware being small, and our profession is not to perfit, but to enter. Neither yet hereby is any injurie done to good writers, whose bookes may verie well tarie for the ripenes of the reader, and that place which is dew to them, in the ordinarie ascent of learning and studie, being no intruders into rowmes to meane for them, and content to take that place whereunto they are marshalled by their value, and degree: to their praise which made them, when the student can judge: to the studentes profit, when he can understand: and the fast retaining of them, when order maintanes memorie.

In our grammer schooles we professe the toungues nay rather the entraunce of toungues. Everie profession that is penned in any toungue ministreth to her student those wordes that be proper to her owne subject. Which wordes be then best gotten when they follow the matter, as they will do most willingly in the peculiar studie of the same profession. If a grammarian therefore be entred to write, speake, and understande pretily in some well chosen argument best to follow for aptnes ech way, though he neither know all, nor most wordes in any toungue, which is reserved to further studie: yet our schooles be discharged of their dewtie, in doing but so much. They that assigne grammer maisters wherein to travell, appoint them histories, and poetes, though they make some choice of men, and some distinction of matter in regard of vertuous maners and purenes of stile. In our schooles what time will serve us to runne over all these? nay to deale but with some few of them throughly? how then? Is not some litle well pickt, and printed alone the praise of our profession and the parentes ease? And be not the maine bookes to be consigned over to the right place in their owne calling? Some vaines be rapt, and will needes prove poetes, leave them the art of poetrie, and the whole bookes and argumentes of poetes. Some will commend to memorie, and posteritie such actes and monumentes, as be worthy the remembrance: Let them have the rules, whereby [273] the penning of histories is directed to write thereby with order: and the matter of histories to furnish out their stile. If men of more studie and greater learning have leysure and list to reade, they may use histories for pleasure, as being but an after meates studie: neither tyring the braine, nor tediouse any way: as they be not generally to build on for judgement: bycause ignorance of their circumstances make some difficultie in applying, and great daunger in proving. They may also runne over poetes, when they are disposed to laugh, and to behold what bravery enthousiasme inspireth. For when the poetes write sadly and soberly, without counterfeating though they write in verse, yet they be no poetes in that kinde of their writing: but where they cover a truth with a fabulous veele, and resemble with alteration. We are therefore to cull out some of the best, and fittest for our introductorie, and to send away the rest to their owne place, in the peculiar professions, and that not in poetes and histories alone, but also in all other bookes whatsoever, which be at this day admitted into our schooles. The poetes wordes be verie good, and most significant, as it appeareth by Platoes whole penning, whose eloquence is thought fit for sainctes, if any heavenly creature had a longing to speake greeke. And in the latin they have the same grace, in his judgement, which best understoode what wordes were best, as being himselfe the best, and eloquentest oratour, speaking of them in that booke, wherein he both sheweth his eloquence most, and useth the personages of the most eloquent oratours, to deliver his minde. The quantitie of syllabes is to be learned of them, to avoid mistiming, as the wise writer Horace pointeth the poet therfore first to frame the tender mouth of the yong learner.

Moreover some verie excellent places most eloquently, and forcibly penned for the polishing of good manners, and inducement unto vertue may be pickt out of some of them, and none more then Horace. We may therefore either use them, with that choice: or helpe the point our selves if we thinke it good, and can pen a verse that may deserve remembraunce. Such an helpe did Apollinarius offer unto his time, as Sozomenus, and Socrates the scholer, report in their ecclesiasticall histories. [274] For Julian the renegate spiting at the great learning of Basill, Gregorie, Apollinarie, and many moe, which lived in that time, which time was such a breeder of learned men, as in Christian matters and religion we reade none like, by decree excluded the christian mens children from the use of prophane learning wherin the christian divines were so cunning as they stopt both his, and his favorites mouthes with their owne learning, they passed them all so farre. Then Apollinarius conveighed into verses of all sortes, after the imitation of all the best prophane poetes divine and holy argumentes gathered out of scripture whereby he met with Julianes edict, and furnished out his owne profession, with matter and argument of their owne. Now in misliking of profane arguments some such helpe may be had and appropriate to our youth. But there must be heede taken, that we plant not any poeticall furie in the childes habit. For that rapt inclination is to ranging of it selfe, though it be not helpt forward, where it is, and would not in any case be forced where it is not. For other writers, number and choice of wordes, smoothnes and proprietie of composition with the honestie of the argument must be most regarded. Quintilianes rule is very true and the verie best, and alway to be observed, in chusing of writers for children to learne, to picke out such as will feede the wit with fairest stuffe, and fine the toungue with nearest speach. So that neither slight, and unproper matters, though eloquentlie set foorth, neither weightie and wise being rudely delivered be to be offered to children, but where the honestie and familiaritie of the argument is honored and apparelled with the finesse and fitnes of speach. Which thing if it be lookt unto in planting uniformitie, and pointing out fit bookes, besides many and infinite commodities which will grow thereby to the whole realme, assuredly the multitude of many needelesse volumes, will be diminished and cut of. So that uniformitie in schooling may seeme very profitable seeing it will supplant so great defectes, as the likelyhood gives, and plant the redresse, which in nature it importeth: besides that which the common weale doth gaine by acquainting yong wittes even from their cradeles, both to embrace and apply orderly uniformnes, which in thinges subject to sense is delitefull [275] to behold: in comprehensions of the minde is comfortable to thinke on: in executions and effects is the staie whereon we stand, and the steddiest recourse to correct errors by. I am led by these reasons and many the like, to thinke that either nothing in deede, or very litle in shew, can justly be alleaged to the contrary but that such an order must needes be verie profitable, to give schooles a purgation to voide them of some great inconveniences: as I take the thing also to be verie compassable, if authoritie shall like of it, without which an opinion is but shewed, and dieth without effect.

I entend my selfe by the grace of God to bestow some paines therein, if I may perceive any hope to encourage my travell. If any other will deale I am ready to staie, and behold his successe: if none other will, then must I be borne with, which in so necessarie a case do offer to my countrie all my duetifull service. Wherein if any upon some repining humor shall seeme to stomake me, bycause being one perhaps meaner then he is himselfe, I do thus boldly avaunce my doinges to the stage, and view of my countrie: yet till he step foorth and shew us his cunning he hath no wrong offred him, if another do speake while he wilbe silent. And whosoever shall deale in generall argumentes, must be content to put up those generall pinches, which repining people do use them most, when they are best used, and esteeme it some benefit, when doing well he heareth ill: and thinke that he hath gotten a great victorie if he please the best, and profit the most, as he may profit all and yet displease many: either through ignorance bycause they cannot discerne: or through willfulnes being wedded to prejudice: or ells through disdaine bycause it spiteth some, to see other above spite. A disease proper to basest dispositions, and of meanest desert, to pinch the heele where they pricke at the head.

But such as meane to do well, howsoever their power perfourme, so the height of their argument overtop not their power to farre, and discover great want of discretion in medling with a matter to much surmounting their abilitie, they may comfort and encourage themselves with that meaning, if their doing do answere it in any resonable proportion, and [276] thinke it a thing, (as it is in deede) naturally, and daily accompanying all potentates either in person, or propertie, and therefore no disgrace to any meaner creature to wrastle with repyning and sowre spirites even verie then, when they worke them most good, which are readyest to repine. If the doinges be massive they will beare a knocke: if they be but slender, and will streight way bruse, beware the warranting. As in this my labour I dare warrant nothing, but the warines of good will, which even ill wil shall see: if it have any sight to see that is right, as commonly that way it is starke blinde, and somuch the more incurablely, bycause the blindnes comes either of unwillingnes to see, or of an infected sight, that will misconsture and deprave the object. I crave the gentle and friendly construction of such as be learned, or that love learning, and yet I neede not crave it, bycause learning that is sound in deede and needes no bolstering, and all her lovers and favorers, be verie liberall of friendly construction, and nothing partiall to speake the best, even where it is not craved. I must pray, if prayer will procure it, the gentle and curteouse toleration of such, as shall mislike. For as I will not willingly do that, which may deserve misliking: so if I once know wherein, I will satisfie throughly. And therefore in one word, I must pray my loving countriemen, and friendly readers, this to thinke of me, that either I shall hit, as my hope is, and then they shall enjoy it: or if I misse, I will amend, and my selfe shall not repent it.

The second remedie to helpe schoole inconveniences was to set downe the schoole ordinaunces betwene the maister, and his scholers in a publicke place, where they may easily be seene and red: and to leave as litle uncertaine or untoucht, which the parent ought to know, and whereupon misliking may arise, as is possible. For if at the first entry the parent condiscend, to those orders, which he seeth, so that he cannot afterward plead eitheir ignorance, or disallowing, he is not to take offence, if his childe be forced unto them, when he will not follow, according to that fourme, which he himselfe did confirme by his owne consent. And yet when all is done the glosse will wring the text. Wherefore the maner of teaching, the ascent in fourmes, the times of admission, the prevention to have fourmes equall, [277] the bookes for learning, and all those thinges, which be incident unto that uniformitie, wherof I spake, being already knowen to be ratified by authoritie, as I trust it shalbe: or if not, yet the same order in the same degrees being set downe, which the maister privately according to his owne skill entendes to kepe: it shalbe very good to take away matter of jarre betwene the parentes and the maister, in the same table publickly to be seene, and shewed to the parentes, when they bring their child first to schoole, besides all that, which I have generally touched to set downe also in plaine and flat termes, what houres he will kepe, bycause there is great consideration in that, what to have fixed and perpetuall, and wherein to give place to particular occasions, as there be very many, why all children cannot kepe all houres, though the schoole houres must still be certaine: and discretion must be the determiner. Againe what occasions he will use to let them go to play, which be now very many, and very needefull, while ordinary exercises be not as ordinarily admitted, as ordinarie schooling, is ordinarily allowed: and such other thinges as the schoole shall seeme necessarily to require. For a certaintie resolveth, and preventes douting.

But he must cheifly touch what punishment he will use, and how much, for every kinde of fault, that shall seeme punishable by the rod. For the rod may no more be spared in schooles, then the sworde may in the Princes hand. By the rod I mean correction, and awe: if that sceptre be thought to fearfull for boyes, which our time devised not, but received it from auncientie, I will not strive with any man for it, so he leave us some meane which in a multitude maye worke obedience. For the private, what soever parentes say, my ladie birchely will be a gest at home, or else parentes shall not have their willes. And if in men great misses deserve and receive great punishment, sure children may not escape in some qualitie of punishment, which in quantitie of unhappinesse will match some men. And if parentes were as carefull to examine the causes of beating, as they are nothing curious to be offended without cause for beating, themselves might gaine a great deale more to their childrens good: and their children lease nothing, by their parentes assurance. But commonly in such cases rashnesse hath [278] her recompence, the errour being then spied, when the harme is incurable, and repentance without redresse. Terme it as ye list, beate not you saye for learning but for lewdnesse. Sure to beate him for learning which is willing enough to learne, when his witte will not serve, were more then frantike: and under the name of not learning to hide and shrowd all faultes and offenses, were more then foolish: and what would that childe be without beating, which with it can hardly be reclaimed? in whom onely lewdnesse is the let, and capacitie is at will? The ende of our schooles is learning: if it faile by negligence, punish negligence: if by other voluntarie default, punish the default. Spare learning: so that still the refuge must be to the maisters discretion: both for manners, and for learning, whom I would wish to set downe as much in certaintie as he can, at the beginning, and to leave as litle as he may to the childes report, who will alway leane and sway to much to his owne side, and beare away the bell, even against the best maister, cheifly if his mother be either his counsellour, or his attourney: or the father unconstant, and without judgement.

The maister therfore must have in his table a catalogue of schoole faultes, beginning at the commandementes, for swearing, for disobedience, for lying, for false witnesse, for picking, and so thorough out: then to the meaner heresies, trewantry, absence, tardies, and so forth. Such a thing Xenophon seemes to meane in rekening up the faultes, which the Persian used to punish, though he limit not the penaltie, what, nor how much. Which in all these I wish our maister to set downe with the number of stripes also, immutable though not many. Wherin the maister is to take good heed, that the fault may be confessed, if it may be, without force, and the boye convicted by verdit of his fellowes, and that very evidently. For otherwise children will wrangle amaine, and affection at home hath credulitie beyond crye, which makes the boye dare, what reason dare not. If any of their fellowes be appointed monitours, (as such helpes of Lieutenauncie must be had, where the maister cannot alwaye be present himselfe) and take them napping, they wil pretend spite, or some private displeasure in most manifest knaverie. And if ye correcte, as your Lieutenant must [279] have credit, if you meane to keepe state, that must go home to prove beating without cause. If the maister differre execution, that delaie will enstruct them to devise some starting hole, and that also if it be not heard in schoole wilbe heard at home.

To tell tales out of schoole, is now as commonly used to the worst, as in the old world it was high treason to do it at all. There be as many prety stratagemes and devises, which boyes will use to save themselves, and as pleasaunt to heare as any apopthegme in either Plutarch, Aelianus, or Erasmus. The maister therefore must be very circumspecte, and leave no shew, or countenaunce of impunitie deserved, where desert biddes pay. It were some losse of time in learning, to spend any in beating, if it did not seeme a gaine that soundeth towardes good, and seekes amendement of manners. It is passing hard, to reclaime a boye, in whom long impunitie hath graffed a carelesse securitie, or rather some deepe insolencie: and yet freindes will have it so, and beating may not be for discouraging the boye, though repentaunce be in rearward. It is also not good after any correction to let children grate somwhat to long of their late greife, for feare of to great stomaking, onlesse the parentes be wise and stedfast, with whom if a cunning, and a discrete maister joyne, that childe is most fortunate which hath such parentes, and that scholer most happie which hath light on such a maister. But certainly it is most true, let plausibilitie in speach use all her excusing and blanching colours that she can, that the round maister, which can use the rod discretely, though he displease some, which thinke all punishment undiscrete, if it tuch their owne, doth perfourme his duetie best, and still shall bring up the best scholers: As no maister of any stuffe shall do but well, where the parentes like that at home, which the maister doth at schoole: and if they do mislike any thing, will rather impart their greife and displeasure with the maister privately, to amend it, then moane their child openly, to marre that way more then they shall make any way. The same faultes must be faultes at home, which be faultes at schoole, and receive the like reward in both the places, to worke the childes good by both meanes, correction as the cause shall offer, commendacion as neede shall require. [280]

They that write most for gentlenesse in traine reserve place for the rod, and we that use the terme of severitie recommend curtesie to the maisters discretion. Here is the oddes: they will seeme to be curteous in termes, and yet the force of the matter makes them confesse the neede of the rod: we use sharp termes, and yet yeilde to curtesie more, then even the verie patrones of curtesie do, for all their curifavour.

Wherin we have more reason to harp on the harder stringe for the trueth of the matter, then they to touch but the softer, so to please the person: seeing they conspire with us in the last conclusion, that both correction and curtesie be referred to discretion. Curtesie goeth before, and ought to guide the discourse, when reason is obeyed which is very seldome: but the corruptnesse in nature, the penalties in lawe, courage to enflame, desire to entice, and so many evilles assailing one good do enforce me to build my discourse upon feare, and leave curtesie to consideration: as the bare one reason of reason obeyed, a thing still wished, but seldome wel willed, doth cause some curteous conceit, not much acquainted with the kinde of government, upon some plausible liking, to make curtesie the outside, and keepe canvase for the lyning: but ever still for the last staffe to make discretion the refuge. Wherin we agree, though I privately chide him, and saye why dissemble ye? Under hand he aunswereth me, I lend the world some wordes, but I will witnesse with you, I do not speake against discrete correction, but against hastinesse, and crueltie. Sir I know none, that will either set correction or curtesie at to much libertie, but with distinction, upon whom they be both to be exercised: neither yet any, that will praise cruelty: and all those, that write of this argument, whether Philosophers or others allow of punishment, though they differ in the kinde.

And it is said in the best common weale, not that no punishment is to be used, but that such an excellent naturall witte, as is made out of the finest mould would not be enforced, bycause in deede it needes not: neither will I offer feare, where I finde such a one: neither but in such a common weale shall I finde such a one. And yet in our corrupt states we light sometime upon one, that were worthy to be a dweller in a farre better. [281] And I will rather venture upon the note of a sharp maister to make a boye learne that, which may afterward do him service, yea though he be unwilling for the time, and very negligent: then that he shall lacke the thing, which maye do him service, when age commeth on, bycause I would not make him learne, for the vaine shadow of a curteous maister. It is slavish sayeth Socrates to be bet. It is slavish then to deserve beating sayeth the same Socrates. If Socrates his free nature be not found, sure Socrates his slavish courage must be cudgelled, even by Socrates his owne confession. For neither is punishment denied for slaves, neither curtesie for free natures. This by the waye, neither Socrates nor Plato be so directly carefull in that place, for a good maister in this kinde, as the place required, though they point the learner. And in deed where they had Censores to oversee the generall traine, both for one age and other, there needed no great precept this waye. If parentes might not do this, neither children attempt that, then were maisters disburdened: If all thinges were set in stay by publike provision, private care were then mightily discharged. But Socrates findes a good scholer which in naturall relation inferreth a good maister. And yet Philippe of Macedonie, had a thousand considerations in his person, moe then that he was Alexanders father, and it is not enough to name the man, onelesse ye do note the cause why with all, and in what respect ye name him. A wise maister, which must be a speciall caveat in provision, wil helpe all, either by preventing that faultes be not committed, or by well using, when soever they fall out, and without exception must have both correction and curtesie, committed unto him beyond any appeal. Xenophon maketh Cyrus be beaten of his maister, even where he makes him the paterne of the best Prince, as Tullie sayeth, and mindes not the trueth of the storie, but the perfitnesse of his devise, being him selfe very milde as it appeareth still in his journey from Assyria after the death of Cyrus the younger. For a soule there could not be one less servile then he, which was pictured out beyond exception: for impunitie, there could not be more hope, then in a Prince enheritour, and that is more, set forth for a paterne to Princes. And yet this Princes child in the absolutenesse [282] of devise, was beaten by his devise, which could not devise any good traine exempt from beating beinge yet the second ornament of Socrates his schoole.

The case was thus, and a matter of the Persian learning. A long boye had a short coate, and a short boye had a long one: The long boye tooke away the short boyes coate, and gave him his: both were fit: But yet there arose a question about it. Cyrus was made judge, as justice was the Persian grammer. He gave sentence, that either should have that which fitted him. His maister bette him for his sentence: bycause the question was not of fitnesse, but of right, wherein eche should have his owne. His not learning, and errour by ignorance, was the fault, wherfore he was punished. And who soever shall marke the thing well, shall finde, that not learning, where there is witte to learne, buildeth upon idlenesse, unwilling to take paines, upon presumption that he shall carie it awaye free, and in the ende, upon contempt of them, from whom he learned to contemne, where he should have reverenced. Slight considerations make no artificiall anatomies, and therfore will smart, bycause they spie not the subtilities of creeping diseases. It is easie for negligence in scholers, to pretend crueltie in maisters, where favour beyond rime, lendes credit beyond reason. But in such choice of maisters where crueltie maye easily be avoided, nay in such helpe by Magistrate, where it may be suppressed: and in such wealth of parentes which may change where they like not, if I should here a young gentleman say he was driven from schoole, he should not drive me from mine opinion, but that there was follie in the parentes, and he had his will to much followed, if his parentes had the training of him, or that his gardian gave to much to his owne gaine, and to litle to his wardes good, if he were not himselfe some hard head besides, and set light by learning, as a bootie but for beggers. For gentlenesse and curtesie towarde children, I do thinke it more needefull then beating, and ever to be wished, bycause it implyeth a good nature in the child, which is any parentes comfort, any maisters delite. And is the nurse to liberall wittes, the maisters encouragement, the childes ease, the parentes contentment, the bannishment of bondage, the triumph over torture, [283] and an allurement to many good attemptes in all kinde of schooles.

But where be these wittes, which will not deserve, and that very much? and where much deserving is, who is so shamles as to deny correction, which by example doth good, and helpes not the partie offender alone. Give me meane dispositions to deserve, they shall never complaine of much beating: but of none I dare not say, bycause insolent rechelessenes will grow on in the very best, and best given natures, where impunitie profers pardon, eare the fault be committed. My selfe have had thousandes under my hand, whom I never bet, neither they ever much needed: but if the rod had not bene in sight, and assured them of punishment if they had swarved to much, they would have deserved: And yet I found that I had done better in the next to the best, to have used more correction, and lesse curtesie, after carelessenesse had goten head. Wherfore I must needes say, that in any multitude the rod must needes rule: and in the least paucitie it must be seene, how soever it sound. Neither needeth a good boye to be afraid, seeing his fellow offender beaten, any more then an honest man, though he stand by the gallowes, at the execution of a fellon. This point for punishment must the maister set downe roundly, and so as he meaneth in deede to deale, bycause the pretence is generally, not so much for beating, as for to sore beating, which being in sight, the conclusion is soone made, and he that will prevent that sore, may see that set downe, which is thought sufficient. Wherunto if the parent submit himselfe in consent, and his childe in obedience the bargain is thorough, if not there is no harme done.

If the schoole rest upon the maister alone, thus must he do if he meane to do well, and to continue freindship where he meanes to do good. If it be some free foundacion, the founders must joyne with the maister, if they meane that the frute of their cost shalbe commodious to their cuntrey. Leave nothing to had I wist where ye may aunswere ye wist it. When any extraordinary fault breaketh out, as Solon said of parricide, that he thought there was none such in nature, conference with the parent, and evident proofe before punishment, will satisfie all [284] parties. And ever the maister must have a fatherly affection, even to the unhappyest boye, and thinke the schoole to be a place of amendment, and therfore subject to misses.

For the maisters yeares, I leave that to the admitters, as I do his alonenesse. Sufficiency of living wil make mariage most fit, where affection to their owne, worketh fatherlynesse to others: and insufficiencie of living will make a sole man remove sooner, bycause his cariage is small. Most yeares should be most fit to governe, both for constantnesse to be an ancker for levitie to ride at, which is naturally in youth: and for discretion and learning, which yeares should bring with them. But bycause there be errours I leave this to discretion. The admitters to schooles have a great charge, and ought to prove as curious as the very best Godfathers, whose charge yet is farre greater, then the account of it is made, among common persons. These thinges do I take to be very necessarie meanes, to helpe many displeasures wherwith schooling is anoyed, and to plant pleasure in their place. And yet when all is done the poore teacher must be subject to as much, as the sunne is, to shine over all, and yet see much more then he can amend: as the divine is, which for all his preaching, cannot have his auditorie perfit: as the Prince is, who neither for reward nor penalty can have generall obedience. The teachers life is painfull, and therfore would be pityed: it is evidently profitable, and therfore would be cherished: it wrastles with unthankfullnesse above all measure, and therefore would be comforted, with all encouragement. One displeased parent will do more harme upon a head, if he take a pyrre at some toy, never conferring with any, but with his owne cholere: then a thousand of the thankfullest will ever do good, though it be never so well deserved. Such small recompence hath so great paines, the very acquaintance dying when the child departes, though with confessed deserte, and manifest profit: Such extreme dealing will furie enforce, where there is no fault, but that conceit surmiseth, unwilling to examine the truth of the cause, and lother to reclame, as unwilling to be seene so overshot by affection. This very point wherby parentes hurte themselves in deede, and hinder their owne, though they discourage teachers, would be looked unto by [285] some publike ordinaunce, that both the maisters might be driven to do well, if the fault rest in them: and the parentes to deale well, if the blame rest there: considering the publike is harmed, where the private is uncharmed, to ende it in meter as my president is.

But in the beginning of this argument I did protest against Philip Melanchthons miseries, and therefore I will go no further, seeing what calling is it, which hath not his cumbat against such discurtesies? The proverbe were untrue, if a man should not be as well a wolfe to man, as he is tearmed a God, and did not more harme, in unkyndenesse, then good in curtesie: so marvelosly fraught with ill and good both, as Plinie, cannot judge whether nature be to a man, a better mother, or a bitterer stepdame. But patience must comfort where extremitie discourageth: and a resolute minde is a rempare to it selfe, upon whom as Horace saith, though the whole world should fall, it might well crush him perforce, but not quash him for feare.

Chapter 44.

That Conference betwene those which have interest in children: Certainetie of direction in places where children use most: and Constancie in well keeping that, which is certainely appointed, be the most profitable circumstances both for vertuous manering and cunning schooling.

Of all the meanes which pollicie and consideration have devised to further the good training up of children, either to have them well learned, or vertueously manered, I see none comparable to these three pointes: conference betwene those persons, which have interest in children, to see them well brought up: certainetie in those thinges, wherein children are to travell, for their good bringing up: constancie in perfourming that, which by conference betweene the persons is set certaine in the thinges: that there be either no change at all after a sound limitation: or at least verie litle, save where discretion in execution, is to yeald unto circumstaunce. Therfore I entend to utter some part of mine opinion concerning these three things: [286] conference to breede the best: certainetie to plant the best: constancie to continue the best: and first of conference. Which I find to be of foure cooplementes: parentes and neighbours: teachers and neighbours: parentes and teachers: teachers and teachers: whereof everie one offereth much matter for the furthering of both learning and good maners in children. Under the name of neighbours I comprehend all forraine persons, whom either commendable dewtie by countrie law: or honest care of common curtesie doth give charge unto, to helpe the bettering of children, and to fraie them from evill.

Now if parentes in pointes of counsell use to conferre with such, they may learne by some others experience: how to deale in their owne. And as this point is naturally provided to assist infirmitie, which craves helpe of others, where it standes in dout: so there is a naturall injunction wherby all men are charged to bestow their good and faithfull counsell, where it is required, doing thereby great good to the parties, and no harme to themselves, unlesse it be to be rekened a harme, to gaine the opinion of wisedom, the estimation of honestie, and the note of humanitie, and a well given disposition. This consideration resteth most in the partie mover, which is to receive advise, when himselfe shall require it. The next is an evident signe of an excellent inclination, which of it selfe will doe good, even bycause the thing is good, though he be not conferred with. For if such persons will conferre with parentes, when they spy any thing that is not well in their children is it not honorable in them to deale so honestly? is it not wisdome in parentes to constrew it most friendly? is it not happie for those children which have such carefull forraine helpers abroad, such considerate naturall hearers at home? A simple meaning in both the parties, the neighbour to tell friendly, the parent to take kindely, and to execute wisely will do marvelous much good. And what is this else but to love thy neighbour as thy selfe, when thou mindest his childe good, as thou doest thine owne? And what is it else but to thinke of thy neighbour, as thou wouldest be thought on thy selfe, when thou beleevest him in thine, as thou wouldest be beleeved in his? A true president of naturall humanitie, a religious patterne of honest neighbourhoode, [287] which in no other thing can declare more good will, in no other thing can do one more good, then in respect to his children, whether ye consider the childrens person, or the thing which is wished them. For in deede what be children in respect of their persons? be they not the effects of Gods perfourmaunce in blessing? of his commaundement in encrease? be they not the assurance of a state which shall continew by succession, and not dy in one brood? be they not the parentes naturall purtracte? their comfort in hope, their care in provision? for whom they get all, for whom they feare nought? And can he which desireth the good of this so great a blessing from heaven, so great a staie for the countrie, so great a comfort to parentes, devise how to pleasure them more in any other thing? for to wish children to be honest, vertuous, and well learned, is to wish that to prove perfitly good, which standeth in a mammering, to prove good or bad. And can this so great a good wish but proceede from a passing honest disposition, and most worthy the embrasing? Nay most happy is that state, where youth hath such a staie, in such libertie, as it is, not to helpe unlesse one list. Hereupon I conclude that conference betwene parentes and others, whether by way of asking counsell, or by advertisemente to check faultes, is very profitable for the weale of the litle ones.

This conference may fall betwene the neighbour and the teacher. Wherein the teacher must be verie warie bycause he hath to deale with the informer for credit: with his scholer for amendment: with the parent for liking. When the parent dealeth with his owne childe, either of his owne knowledge, or by credited report, his doome is death or life, the child hath no appeale, but either must amend, or feele the like smart. At the teachers dealing, upon any advertisement, there may and wilbe taken many pretie exceptions. Why did you beleeve? why should he medle? why dealt you in this sort? And whatsoever quarell miscontentment can devise, being incensed with furie: or some extreme heat, as angrie nature is an eager monster. And in deede some overthwart conceit may move the complainant, whatsoever the pretence be. Againe some wise man, may light upon so convenient a maister, as he may prove a better meane [288] to redresse, then the parent will be, in whom blinde nature will neither see the childes fault, nor the friendes faith. But how soever it be, the maister must be warie, where his commission is not absolute. But in the wise handling of this civill conference the childe shall gaine much towardes his well doing, when wheresoever he shall be, or whatsoever he shall do, he shall both finde it true, and feele it so, that either his parent or his maister, or both together see him, if any other bodie see him.

The next conference is betweene parentes and maisters, whereof though I have saide much, yet can I never say to much, the point is so needefull: bycause their friendly and faithfull communicating workes perpetuall obedience in the childe, contempt of evill, and desire to do well: seeing both they travell to make one good. There is nothing so great an enemie to this so great a good as credulitie is in parentes, not able to withstand the childes eloquence, when shed of teares, and some childish passion do plead against punishment for assured misdemeanour. But though for the time such parentes seeme to wynne, bycause they have their will: yet in the conclusion, they want their will, when they wish it were not so. Before change either of place, to proceede onward to further learning: or of maisters, when the old is misliked, and a new sought for, then this conference is a mervelous helpe. For in change of place, it growndes upon knowledge, and growes by advice: in change of maisters, it is mistresse to warines not to lease by the change. For can the new maister understand and judge of the childes fault in so small a time, as the old maister may amend it if he be conferred with? You are offended with the former maister, have ye conferred with him? have ye opened unto him your owne griefe, your childes defect, his owne default? are ye resolved that the fault is in the maister? may not your sonne forge? or may he not halt, to procure alteration upon some private pevishnes? Cyrus as Zenophon writeth surprised the king of Armenia being tributarie to the Median but minding to revolt, when the Assyrians armie should enter into Media. And yet though he found him in manifest blame, he left him his state, as the best steward for the Medians use, considering the partie pardoned is bound by defect, he that shall be chosen, will [289] thanke his owne merit, not the chusers munificence. Such consideration had Cyrus, and such conference with him, whom he knew to be a foe, before he surprised him, and yet found the frute of his considerate conference and his determination upon his conference, to be exceding good and gainefull for himselfe after, and his friendes for the time. A number of ills be avoided, and a number of goodes obtained by this same conference betwene parentes and maisters. If the maister be wise and advisedly chosen though he chaunce to misse, he knowes to amend: if he neither be such a one, nor so consideratly chosen, yet conference will discover him, and shew hope her listes, and what she may trust to. But not to dwel any longer in this point, wherein elsewhere I have not bene parciall, I must needes say thus much of it at once for all, that no one meane either publike or private makes so much for the good bringing up of children, as this conference doth.

The last conference I appoint to be betwene those of the same professions, whereby the generall traine is generally furthered. For whersoever any subject is to be dealt in by many, is not the dealers conference the meane to perfit dealing? and to have that subject absolutely well done, which it selfe is subject to so many doers? Is either the patient any worse if the Physitians conferre, or their facultie baser by their being togither? is not the case still clearer, where there is conference in law? is not the church the purer where conference is in proufe? and doth not the contrarie in all do much harme in all? And do ye thinke that conference among teachers would not do much good in the traine? or is the thing either for moment so meane, or for number so naked, as it may not seeme worthy to be considered upon? Or can there any one, or but some few, be he or they never so cunning, discerne so exactly, as a number can in common conference? do not common companies which professe no learning, both allow it, and prove it, and finde it to be profitable? where it is used among teachers for the common good, it profiteth generally by sending abroad some common direction. In places where many schooles be within small compasse, it is very needefull to worke present good, and to helpe one another, where all may have enough to bestow their [290] labour on.

But this conference, and that not in teachers alone must be builded upon the honest care of the publike good, without respect of private gaine: without sting of emulation: without gaule of disdaine: which be and have bene great enemies to conference: great hinderers to good schooling: nay extreame ruiners in cases above schooling, and yet for the footing of that, which must after prove fairest, good schooling is no small onset. I neede not to rip up the position to them, that be learned, which know what a mischeife the misse of conference is, where it ought to be of force, and is shouldered out by distempered fansie. He that can judge, knoweth the force of this argument, which followeth where many illes seeke to choke one good, which themselves were displaced, if that good tooke place: that good must needes be a great one, and worthy the wishing, that it may procure passage. Of conference I must needes say this, that it is the cognisance of humanitie, and that of the best humanitie, being used for the best causes that concerne humanitie, and all humaine societie. I dare enter no deeper in this so great a good: but certainely in matters of learning there would be more conference, even of verie conscience. And if that honest desire might bring downe great hart, the honorable effect would bring up great good, in all trades beyond crie, in our traine beyond credit. In matters of engrosing, and monopolies, in matters of forestauling and intercepting there is dealing by conference among the dealers, which we all crie out of, bycause it makes us crie, in our purses. And yet we are slow to trie that in the good, which proves so strong in the ill, and was first pointed for good. I use no authorities to prove in these cases, where reason her selfe is in place, and standeth not in neede of alleaging of names, bycause she may well spare her owne retinew, where her hoste himselfe doth tender his owne service.

The next point after conference is the chiefe and best ofspring of all wise conferences, certainetie in direction, which in al thinges commendes it selfe, but in bringing up of children it doth surpasse commendation both for their manners and their learning. This same so much praised certainetie concerneth the [291] limiting of thinges, what to do and what to learne, how to do and how to learne, where, when, and so forth to do that, which fineth the behaviour, and to learne that which advaunceth knowledge. For children being of themselves meere ignorant must have certainetie to direct them: and trainers being not dailie to devise, are at once to set downe certaine, both what themselves will require at the childrens hand for the generall order: and what the children must looke for at their handes for generall perfourmance. This certainetie must specially be set sure, and no lesse soundly kept, in schooles for learning, in private houses for behaviour, in churches for religion, bycause those three places, be the greatest aboades, that children have.

Concerning certainetie in schoole pointes, and the benefit thereof, I have delt verie largely in the last title: so that I shall not neede to use any more spreading in that point, saving onely that I do continue in the same opinion: as the thing it selfe continueth in it selfe most assuraunce of best successe, when the childe knoweth his certainetie in all limitable circumstances, whether he be at schoole himselfe to provide that must be done: or if he be not there, yet to know in abscence, what is done there of course. So that where ignorance of orders cannot be pretended, there good orders must needes be observed, which ordenarily bringe foorth a well ordered effect. The best and most heavenly thinges be both most certaine, and most constantly certaine, and the wisest men the certainest to builde on, in the middest of our uncertaineties. So that certainetie must needes be a great levell, which procureth such liking in those thinges where it lighteth. In schooling it assureth the parentes, what is promised there, and how like to be perfourmed, by sight of the method and orders set downe: it directeth the children as by a troden path, how to come thither, as their journey lieth: it disburdeneth the maisters heade, when that is in writing, which he was in waying, and when experience by oft trying hath made the habit able to march on of it selfe without any renewing: whereunto mutabilitie is everie day endaungered.

The second point of certainetie entereth into families and private houses, which in part I then touched, when I wished the parentes so to deale at home, as there might be a conformitie betwene [292] schoole and home. This point will prevent two great inconveniences even at the first, besides the generale sequele of good discipline at home. For neither shall schooles have cause to complaine of private corruption from home, that it infecteth them, when nothing is at home done or seene, but that which is seemely: neither shall the schooles lightly send any misdemeanour home, when the childe is assured to be sharpely chekt, for his ill doing, if it appeare within doares. This is that point which all writers that deale with the oeconomie of householdes, and pollicie of states do so much respect, bycause the fine blossomes of well trained families, do assure us of the swetest flowres in training up of states, for that the buddes of private discipline be the beauties of pollicie. I shall not neede to say, what a good state that familie is in, where all thinges be most certainely set, and most constantly kept, which do belong to the good example of the heades, the good following of the feete, the good discipline of the whole house. Though some not so resolute wittes, or gredier humours will neither harken to this rule, nether keepe it in their owne, bycause the distemperature is both blinde, and deafe, where the minde is distempered, and violently given over either to extreame desire of gaine, or to some other infirmitie which cannot stoup to staid order: yet those families which keepe it, finde the profitablenesse of it. There children so well ordered by certaineties at home: when to rise: when to go to bed: when and how to pray evening and morning: when and how to visit their parentes ear they goe to bed, after they rise, ear they goe abroad, when they returne home, at tables about meat, at meeting in dutie with officious and decent speches of course, well framed, and deulie called for, cannot but prove verie orderly and good. He that in his infancie is thus brought up, will make his owne proufe his fairest president, and what housholde knoweth not this is extreame farre of from any good president. Obedience towardes the prince and lawes is assuredly grounded, when private houses be so well ordered: small preaching will serve there, where private training settes thinges so forward. Being therefore so great a good, it is much to be thought on, and more to be called for. [293]

Now can certaintie being so great a bewtifier both to publik schooles, and private houses, be but very necessary to enter the Church with children upon holydaies? to have all the young ones of the Parish, by order of the Parish set in some one place of the Church? with some good over looking, that they be all there, and none suffred to raunge abroad about the streates, upon any pretence? that they may be in eye of parentes and parishioners? that they may be attentive to the Divine service, and betime learne to reverence that, wherby they must after live? I do but set downe the consideration, which they will execute, who shall allow of it, and devise it best, upon sight of the circunstance. How other men will thinke herof I know not, but sure me thinkes, both publikly and privately, that certaintie in direction where it may be well compassed, is a merveilous profitable kinde of regiment, and best beseeming children, about whose bettering my travell is employed. In the very executing it sheweth present pleasure, and afterward many singular profites: and is in very deede the right meane to direct in uncertainties, as a stayed yearde to measure flexible stuffe. Bladders and bullrushes helpe swimming: the nurses hand the infantes going: the teachers line the scholers writing, the Musicians tune, his learners timing: what to do? by following certaintie at first to direct libertie at last. And he that is acquainted with certaintie of discipline in his young yeares will thinke himselfe in exile, if he finde it not in age, and by plaine comparisons, will reclaime misorders, which he likes not, to such orders as he sees not. Who so markes and moanes the varietie in schooling, the disorder in families, the dissolutenesse in Church, will thinke I saye somwhat.

The third part of my division was constancie. For what availeth it to conferre about the best, and to set it in certaine, where mutabilitie of mindes upon every infirmitie either of judgement, or other circunstance, is seeking to retire, and to leave that rouling, which was so well rewled. In this point of constancie there be but two considerations to be had, the one of knowledge in the thing, the other of discretion in the use. For he that is resolved in the goodnesse and pith of the thing, will never revolt, but like a valiant general building upon his owne knowledge, [294] is certaine to conquere, what difficultie so ever would seeme to dasle his eyes, or to dash his conceit. It is weake ignorance that yeildes still, as being never well setled: it is pusillanimitie that faintes still, not believing where he sees not. Assured knowledge will resemble the great Emperour of all, which is still the same and never changeth, which set a lawe, that yet remaines in force even from the first, among all his best and most obedient thinges. The sunnes course is certaine, and constantly kept. The moone hath her moving without alteration, and that so certaine, as how many yeares be their eclypses foretold? A good thing such as wise conference is most like to bring forth, would be certainly knowen, and being so knowen would be constantly kept. The fairest bud will bring forth no frute, if it fall in the prime, but being well fostered by seasonable weather, it will surely prove well. The greatest thinges have a feeble footing, though their perfitnesse be strong, but if their meane be not constant, that first feeblenesse will never recover that last strength. I medle not with change of states, nor yet with any braunches, whose particular change, quite altereth the surface, of any best setled state, but with the training of children, and the change therin: which being once certaine would in no case be altered before the state it selfe upon some generall change do command alteration, wherunto all our schooling must be still applyed, to plant that in young ones, which must please in old ones. As now our teaching consisteth in toungues, if some other thing one daye seeme fitter for the state, that fitter must be fitted, and fetcht in with procession. But yet in changes this rule would be kept, to alter by degrees, and not to rush downe at once. Howbeit the nature of men is such, as they will sooner gather a number of illes at once to corrupt: then pare any one ill by litle and litle with minde to amend.

Concerning discretion: there is a circunstance to be observed in thinges, which is committed alwaye to the executours person, and hath respect to his judgement, which I call no change, bycause in the first setting downe that was also setled, as a most certaine point to rule accidentarie uncertainties, which be no changes, bycause they were foreseene. Such a supplie hath justice in positive lawes by equitie in consideration, as a [295] good chauncellour to soften to hard constructions. That is one reason why the monarchie is helde for the best kinde of government, bycause the rigour and severitie of lawe, is qualified by the princesse mercie, without breche of lawe, which left that prerogative to the princesse person. The conspiracie which Brutus his owne children made against their father for the returne of Tarquinius even that cruell Prince, leanes upon this ground, as Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Livie, and others do note. So that discretion to alter upon cause in some uncertaine circunstance, nay to alter circunstance upon some certaine cause, is no enemie to certaintie. When thinges are growen to extremities then change proves needefull to reduce againe to the principle. For at the first planting, every thing is either perfitest, as in the matter of creation: or the best ground for perfitnesse to build on, as in truth of religion: though posteritie for a time upon cause maye encrease, but to much putting to burdeneth to much, and in the ende procures most violent shaking of, both in religious and politike usurpations.

But this argument is to high for a schoole position, wherefore I will knit up in few wordes: that as conference is most needefull, so certaintie is most sure, and constancie the best keeper: that it is no change, which discretion useth in doing but her duetie: but that altereth the maine. Which in matters engraffed in generall conceites would worke alteration by slow degrees, if foresight might rule: but in extremities of palpable abuse it hurleth downe headlong, yea though he smart for the time whom the change doth most helpe. But in our schoole pointes the case falleth lighter, where whatsoever matter shalbe offered to the first education, conference will helpe it, certaintie will staye it, constancie will assure it. Thus much concerning the generall positions wherin if I have either not handled, or not sufficiently handled any particular point, it is reserved to the particular treatise hereafter, where it will be bestowed a great deale better, considering the present execution must follow the particular.

Chapter 45.

The peroration, wherin the summe of the whole booke is recapitulated and proofes used, that this enterprise was first to be [296] begon by Positions, and these be the most proper to this purpose. A request concerning the well taking of that which is so well ment.

Thus bold have I bene, with you (my good and curteous countriemen) and troubled your time with a number of wordes of what force I know not, to what ende I know. For my ende is, to shew mine opinion how the great varietie in teaching, which is now generally used, maye be reduced to some uniformnesse, and the cause why I have used so long a preface, as this whole booke, is, for that such as deale in the like arguments do likewise determine before, what they thinke concerning such generall accidentes, which are to be rid out of the waye at once, and not alwaye to be left running about to trouble the house, when more important matters shall come to handling. Wherin I have uttered my conceit, liking well of that which we have, though oftimes I wishe for that which we have not, as much better in mine opinion, then that which we have, and so much the rather to be wished, bycause the way to winne it is of it selfe so plaine and ready. I have uttered my sentence for these pointes thus, wherin if my cunning have deceived me, my good will must warrant me: and I have uttered it in plaine wordes, which kinde of utterance in this teaching kinde, as it is best to be understood, so it letteth every one see, that if I have missed, they may wel moane me, which meaning all so much good have unhappily missed in so good a purpose. Upon the stearnesse of resolute and reasonable perswasions, I might have set downe my Positions aphorismelike, and left both the commenting, and the commending of them to triall and time: but neither deserve I so much credit, as that my bare word may stand for a warrant: neither thought I it good with precisenesse to aliene, where I might winne with discourse. Wherupon I have writen in every one of these argumentes enough I thinke for any reader, whom reason will content: to much I feare for so evident a matter, as these Positions be, not assailable, I suppose, by any substantiall contradiction. For I have grounded them upon reading, and some reasonable experience: I have applied them to the use, and custome of my [297] countrey, no where enforcing her to any forreine, or straunge devise. Moreover I have conferred them with common sense wherin long teaching hath not left me quite senselesse. And besides these, some reason doth lead me very probable to my selfe, in mine owne collection, what to others I know not, to whom I have delivered it, but I must rest upon their judgement. Hereof I am certaine that my countrey is already very well acquain-ted with them, bycause I did but marke where upon particular neede, she her selfe hath made her owne choice, and by embrasing much to satisfie her owne use, hath recommended the residue unto my care, to be brought by direction under some fourme of statarie discipline. Now then can I but thinke that my countreymen will joyne with me in consent, with whom my countrey doth communicate such favour? Seeing her favour is for their furtheraunce, and my labour is to bring them to that, which she doth most allow.

And what conclusion have I set downe wherin they maye not very well agree with me, either for the first impression which set me on worke, or for the proofe, which confirmeth the impression? My first meaning was to procure a generall good, so farre as my abilitie would reach, I do not saye that such a conceit, deserveth no discourtesie for the very motion, how soever the effect do aunswere in rate: but this I may well thinke, that my countrymen ought of common courtesie to countenaunce an affection so well quallified, till the event either shrine it with praise, or shoulder it with repulse. I do not herein take upon me dictatorlike to pronounce peremptorily, but in waye of counsell, as one of that robe, to shew that, which long teaching hath taught me to saye, by reading somwhat, and observing more. And I must pray my good countreymen so to construe my meaning, for being these many yeares by some my freindes provoked to publish something, and never hitherto daring to venture upon the print, I might seeme to have let the raine of all modesty runne to lowse, if at my first onset I should seeme like a Caesar to offerre to make lawes. Howbeit in very deede my yeares growing downward, and some mine observations seeming to some folkes to crave some utteraunce, upon shew to do some good: I thought rather to hasard my [298] selfe in hope of some mens favour, then to burie my conceit with most mens wonder. But before I do passe to mine Elementarie, which I meane to publish next after this booke, I must for mine owne contentation examine what I have done in this, to see whether I have hit right, or writen any thing that may call repentaunce. Was I not to cut this course, and to begin at Positions? And are not these the cheife and onely groundes in this argument? And in speking of these have I in any point passed beyond my best beseeming? For the first. Whether I ought to begin at Positions, or no, that is not in doubte now I hope, bycause I made that pointe very plaine in the beginning of my booke: but whether I have done well to dwell so long in them, that may seeme to deserve some excuse, if I mislike it myselfe: or else some cause, to satisfie other.

If I had had to do with either Romain, or Grecian, in their owne language, where these thinges be familiarly knowen, I would not have taryed in them any long while, but dealing with my countrymen in my countrey toungue, in an argument not so familiar to my countrey, and yet desiring to become familiar unto her: I thought it good rather to saye more then enough, to leave some chippinges: then by saying to litle, to cause a new cruste, where none should be: and to referre the rest of my suppressed meaning to my learneddest reader, to whose use as I needed not to write, so in deede I do not, though I wish him well, and pray the like againe. They that frame happy men, absolute oratours, perfit wisedome, paragonne Princes, faulteless states, as they have their subject at commaundement, which they breede in the commentarie of their owne braines: so their circunstances being without errour, where their maine is without match, neede very few wordes, as being in daunger of very few faultes. But I deale with a subject, which is subject to all uncertainties: with circunstances, which are checkt with many objections, lying open, to much disturbance, cavilled at by every occasion: where one sillie errour, is of strength enough, to overthrow a mans whole labour. I thought it good therefore to declare at large, what my meaning was, to satisfie therby even the meanest understandinges, that waye to procure mine opinion the freer passage, when it should passe [299] by none, which understood it not. I could not but begin with them, bycause herafter I shall have so many occasions to make mention of them, to directe the traine by them, to referre my selfe unto them, which if they had not bene handled here, they might and would have troubled me there. Besides this, I would gladly (if I could obtaine so much at their handes) that all my countrymen did thinke, as I do in these same pointes, that by their consent my good speede might go on, with the readier and rounder currant, so that I cannot conceive, but that I was both to begin my treatise at Positions, as the primitive in such discourses, and to dwell long in them, to satisfie my most readers.

Now whether these be the cheife groundes in preparative to that, which I entend to deale in, I thinke there is none, but may very easily judge. For what is it wherunto my travell to come hath promised her endevour? to helpe children to be well taught for learning: to tell their maisters, how to exercise them for health: to aide the common course of studie in what I can for the common good. And what accidentes belong unto such an argument, if these which I have quoated out do not? Must there not be a time to begin, to continue, to ende the course of schoole learning? Then time must needes come in consideration. Must there not be somthing, wherin this time must be bestowed, both to have the minde learned, and the body healthfull? Then the matter of traine, and the kinde of exercises could not have bene passed over. Must there not be some upon whom these things are to be imployed in these times, of both the sexes, and of all degrees? Then the generall schooling of all young ones, and the particular training of young maidens, and bringing up of young gentlemen must needes have their handling. Could these thinges be done with out convenient place? cunning teachers? and good schoole orders? I thinke no. And therefore I picked these out, as the onely circunstances, that were proper to mine argument, and that were to be handled eare I entred my argument, if I had never seene any writer before use the same choice.

But how have I delt in them. For the time to begin I have measured it by strength of body and minde that may well awaye with the travell in learning without emparing of the [300] good of either parte. For the continuing time in every degree of studie, I have limited it by sufficiencie and perfitnesse of habit, before the student remove. For the ending time, the bounder of it is abilitie to serve the common countrey, and the private student in every particular calling. In this distinction and sorting of time, I thinke I have so dealt, as no reason will gainsaye me. For pointing so many thinges to be learned in the Elementarie schoole, as I do it upon good warrant, so is no man injuried by it, and every man may be helpt by it. For though neither all men deale with all, nor all men can obtaine all, it is no reason but that those which will and may, shall know what is best to get: and that those which neither will nor can, yet maye see, what they maye and ought to get, if circunstances serve. For the traine is to be framed after the height, which freedome in circunstance maye well attaine unto. A poore mans purse will not stretch so farre: must abilitie therfore be to much restrained? Some mans time will not dispense with all: must therfore the libertie of leasure be forced to the fetter? Some parente makes light of that, which some other esteemeth greatly: must he therefore be disapointed of his liking, which alloweth, to serve his humour, which misliketh? Some maime in some circunstance may be some particular let: must therefore parciality in not pointing the best prove the generall losse?

The best being set downe, without evident dispaire to come by it, or manifest noveltie to disgrace it, why should it not be sought for by them, which are willing to have it, and know the meanes how? It is no noveltie for some to towre above the clowdes though other in the same flight do but flutter about the ground, and yet with commendation. For where the whole is good, and partible by degrees, everie ascent hath his praise, though the prerogative be his that mounteth highest. And therefore my plat is to satisfie those which will medle with the most, and yet so left at libertie, as it may serve even them, which seeke but for the least. For the choice of wittes and restraint of number, not to pesture learning with to great a multitude, no wisedome will blame me. For the helpe and health of body, that the doinges of the soule may be both strong and long, to joine ordinarie exercise in forme of traine, [301] who so shall mislike, I will match him with melancholie, with fleame, with reumes, with catarres, and all needelesse residences, to see how they will musle him. The limitation of certaineties in maisters for their securitie, and parentes for their assurance, if it be well wayed is worth the wishing. For the places and personall circumstances, who so will cavill, neither deserves such a place to be trained in, nor such a maister to be trained by, nor such parentes to provide him such a traine. For the good bringing up of yong gentlemen, he that taketh no care, is more than a foole considering their place and service in our countrie: and so of all the rest. But did any man thinke that I would not mention my dealing in trayning up of yong maidens, whether that be to be admitted in such sort as I have appointed it? That is such a bulwarke for me, as who so shall seeme to pinch me for dealing liberally with them, had neede to arme himselfe against them. For they will translate the crime, and becomming parties themselves discharge me from daunger for using them so curteously. Is that point in suspition of any noveltie or fantasticallnes to have wymen learned? Then is nature fantasticall for giving them abilitie to learne: custome for putting them to it: pollicie for placing them where to use it: in all ages in all degrees, in all countries, both at home and abroad. Innovation it is not, for I reade it, I see it, I finde it, it is not my devise. I put the case, that it were one of my wishes, that wymen might learne, if they did not. Assuredly the proufe that we see, the profit that we feele, the comfort that we have, the care that we have not, the happines we enjoy, the mishap we avoide, the religion we live by and like, the superstition we fly from and hate, the clemencie we finde, the cruelitie we feare, by the meere benefit of our learned princesse, whom God hath so rarely endewed and endowed, give me leave to wish that sexe most successe in learning, and her majesties person all successe in living: all the residew, all the best, and her highnes alone all above the best: as wish can aspire, where nothing else can come. In generall I do not remember any thing, that I have dealt in, but it may be very well digested by any stomake, if it be not to farre distempered.

My wishes perhaps may seeme sometimes to be novelties. [302] Novelties perhappes, as all amendementes be to the thing that needeth redresse, but not fantasticall, as having their seat in the cloudes. If no man did ever wish, then were I alone. If my wish were unpossible though it made shew of very great profit, impossibilitie in deede, would desire profit in wish to be content with repulse: but where the thing is both profitable, and possible to, why should not profitable possibilitie have rowme, if wishing may procure it? I wish commodious situation and rowme in places for learning and exercise. Our countrie hath it not echwhere, nay scant any where as yet. Even by wishing that it had, I graunt that it hath not but I would not have wished it, if the meane had bene hard: and the motion naturally goeth before the effect. I wish that the colledges in the universities were devided by professions: I wish grave and learned readers: I wish repetition to the same readers, yea even for the best graduate, that is yet an hearer. I wish neither heresie nor harme, ne yet any thing, but that may very well be wrought, and deserves endlesse wishing till it be brought to an ende. I wish restraint to stop overflush, and such other things whereto I dare stand, and assuredly beleeve, that I wish my countrie very great good, as I hope many wilbe partakers with me in wish, to be partakers of the good. But some wil say what neede you to medle with so much, or so high matters your selfe creeping so low? Syr, I did professe in the beginning under ech title to deale in the generall argument, for all my professing the elementarie example. And by the way I do thinke, that I may deserve some more equitie in construction, bycause I do entend to my great paines to helpe my wish forward, and to travell for the helping, and healthing of all studentes. Wherfore I conclude thus, that seeing my dealing in those positions was occasioned of so good a ground, and hath so passed through them, as I hope it may abide the tuch, I must crave of my good and curteouse countriemen to laie up allouance in hope, and misliking in pardon, till the event dischardge both, and make me bound to all, and some benefited by me.



To the curteous reader.

It is no new thing, to heare of errours in printing, be the print never so good. Wherefore for distinctions either misplaced, or quite left out, and such other faultes, as will not clearelie lame the sense, I must desire my good reader to helpe me and the print either with his pen, or with acknowledging the sense without the pen. But bycause these few oversightes do seeme to alter my meaning and to maime the argument, I have therefore noted them my selfe to have them the better observed.

Facie 9. force her to it. for to that.

51. suppected in some copies. for supported.

94. brought foorth by word. for that byword.

101. and lear- countrieman. for learned.

127. where one stirres all. for steares all.

162. chiefly to the colledge. for that colledge.

192. what vertue is primate. for private.

221. in marg. Ad 1. Necocleon. for Ad Nicoclem.

222. whether not in digesting. for in not.

227. the parents heavenly eye. for homely in some copies.

229. some great number. for some good.

230. the fifthe title of the first booke. for fifth booke.

236. to strike the stocke. for the stroke.

256. helpe of the wealthie patrones. the out.

258. and gave ignorance the raigne. for give.

275. without which any opinion. for an.

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