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Answering Questions Re:

Bosporus Currents
A Unique Double Decker River System Flowing In Opposite Directions


          Background:  For references start with common sense.   But that's a little unfair since hydrology has been more or less a curiosity for me ever since growing up on a large poultry farm in New England.   Filling water containers then flipping them upside down in small shallow pans so as myriad baby chicks drank, bubbles of air would pop into the jar and let more water out.   With open pans the water would soon be filthy, chicks would get wet and sick, and many would drown.   Yes, cows, horses, pigs, and thousands of chickens drink a lot of water and, as a kid, carrying it was no picnic.   Dowsing became a fun pastime when a well was put in.   The sources of waters in a nearby brook and ponds were always of interest.   Where did the spring water come from?   If the spring water came from the ground water, brooks, ponds, and swamps ... why did it not simply fill up the source?   As a kid I rode horseback through the forest in a 50 mile radius from home, swimming in ponds, lakes, rivers, etc.   Why were some always much colder that others?   Later, four years at the Naval Academy taught me that there's a whole lot that I didn't know.   Still later in the USAF I spent years flying in the old low and slow prop planes mainly from the Arctic to S. America on various R&D programs before the jets and turboprops came along and moved one above much of the weather.   The topography of the lands intrigued me.   Again, when one lives on or near the beaches the ocean's powers, storms, resulting currents, etc. also have been intriguing.   But the blue holes, especially in the relatively rainless Turks and Caicos Islands and in the Saudi deserts, spewing forth freshwaters provide considerable evidence of the existence of underground river systems.   Again, common sense explains that fresh waters also come from the oceans through undersea natural desalination systems that provide fresh waters and somehow separate the sea life to replenish crude oil supplies.

          Evidence:  Again, the Black Sea provides a perfect laboratory situation wherein the abundance of waters flowing in must go out through drain holes deep below ... and there are very strong currents associated with these holes as great rivers of waters must flow through them.

          Note, although the Black Sea provides an obvious example, common sense also identifies where to start looking for other holes or outlets in the world's oceans.

          References:  O.K., for references on the Bosporus flows.   A Turkish Navy Officer, Captain Hüseyin Yüce, spent years studying the Bosporus and has written several papers on the subject.   But according to W. Pitman and W. Ryan of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory - no one seemed to be able to figure out the cause of the historic double decker river system in the Bosporus.   So, we explained matters on our web site.   If I recall correctly, Pitman and Ryan's book re:  "Noah's Flood" published 1998 (Simon & Schuster) has chapters dealing with both Bosporus history and making measurements in the Bosporus and in the immediate vicinity inside the Black Sea from onboard the US Research Ship "Chain."   Also, the notes or bibliography in the Pitman-Ryan book has several references to papers by Capt. Yüce and others.

          This past summer (99) Bob Ballard, Pitman, Ryan and others were investigating Petko Dimitrov's (Bulgarian Academy Of Sciences) hopes of finding ancient preflood submerged habitations off-shore from Varna.

          Considerations:  I, of course, understand that if the Biblical Chronology were correct and that The Flood occurred (2350 BC) as described:

    1. The preflood world was flat (i.e. like an orange) without high mountains and deep ocean depths except for holes which provided for distillation of fresh water for underground rivers that fed lakes, springs, surface rivers, etc. (Note Genesis 2:6).   See:  Chanoch's Water Supply.

    2. That in the preflood years Europe, Asia, The Americas, China, much of Africa, Australia, etc. were all beneath the then shallow oceans.

    3. That the Edenic Valley (now beneath the Red Sea) sank to fill the void created by preflood volcanic activity.

    4. That during the 377 day Flood period and in subsequent years the great land masses were elevated to initially produce The Flood and later the higher mountains.   Meanwhile, the subsequent sinking of the ocean bottoms swallowed The Flood waters.

    5. The preflood land mass was essentially limited to the four river regions from the Nile to the Indus Rivers.   Many years after The Flood, for example, Alexander's journey of conquest led him into India as Alexander's journey was made under Alexander's understanding of the preflood world, that India was the Eastern end (edge) of the world's land mass.   But when Alexander got to India he learned otherwise (i.e. events of The Flood and in subsequent years had brought forth the high mountains and extended the world's land mass to China and beyond as we see it today).

    6. Thus, the area of Turkey, for example, had no high mountains until during and after The Flood.   That the region of Bulgaria Northward didn't even exist as dry land until The Flood.   The sandy bottom or "beaches" along the shelf within the Black Sea has been deposited throughout the 4,350 years since The Flood by the waters of the myriad rivers and cleansed by the continual washing action by submerged currents of the Black Sea.   Thus, the depth of the submerged "beach" sand is deeper along the North side of the drop off and gets progressively shallower as one follows Southward along the West side (i.e. opposite Varna and Southward).

    7. That currents in the Black Sea produce four major vectors:

      1. The fresher (lighter) surface waters tend to roll as a cylinder due to the push by the major rivers entering the Black Sea from the North.

      2. Those same rivers also would induce a counterclockwise horizontal surface current or flow.

      3. The strong inflow into the Black Sea of the saltier (heavier) waters from the Bosporus would produce a clockwise flow in the lower deeper layers in the western portion of the Black Sea.

      4. The outflow or discharge from the Black Sea via deep holes in the bottom of the Black Sea induces a counterclockwise flow in the deeper layers toward the center of the Black Sea.   This counterclockwise flow may be seen when one pulls the plug to drain a sink or bathtub (Northern Hemisphere).   And when one considers the vast inflow of waters into the Black Sea, the outflow or discharge currents via the natural distillation system would appear to be very strong and a danger to submersibles and their occupants.

      5. Combining ‘C’ and ‘D’ produces a serpentine flow in the lower saltier layers.   That is, the NNE flow from the Bosporus initially flows Northward, curls clockwise, and flows diagonally SE to the South side of the center of the Black Sea where it joins the counterclockwise flow around the pear shaped central deep hole (See diagram below).   After departing the Bosporus, this submarine current should be most violent near the North central bulge in the Turkish coast and anywhere close to the known deep hole in the midst of the Black Sea.

The Black Sea
Current Around The Black Sea Deep Hole

Main Course Of Deeper Torrent Of Saltier Waters
From Bosporus To Drain Hole

          The Double Decker Rivers:  Now the heavier saltier water entering the Black Sea via the Bosporus operates much like a siphon.   That is, as the saltier waters flow in they are pulled by the outflow or discharge at the bottom of the Black Sea.   Whereas, the lighter fresher waters from the profuse rivers are being pushed Southward in the Black Sea and tend to heap up and return much like a cylindrical flow.   The bottom of this cylindrical flow in the Black Sea also tends to pull the top of the deeper saltier flow with it as both flow together in the same general direction.   However, a portion of the top of this cylindrical flow provides the surface river flowing Southward through the Bosporus into the Sea of Marmara.   There it mixes with the saltier water to return Northward into the Black Sea via the Bosporus.   Now it becomes part of the great deep swift flowing subsurface river of salt water flowing into the Black Sea.   Thus, there's a unique double decker two way flowing pair of rivers in the Bosporus.   Both are flowing in opposite directions, one atop the other.

          Understanding The Dynamics:  Unbelievable, yes, until one understands the dynamics involved then it's simple.   Water always flows from high pressure to low pressure and that's exactly what exists.   Except you have two distinct systems in the Bosporus:  a fresher (lighter) water system and a heavier (saltier) water system.   Both flow from their own higher pressure to lower pressure on either end of the Bosporus.   Both flow "down hill."

          The lighter fresher waters are pushed up due to the cylindrical circulation in the Black Sea.   Thus, the fresher waters are raised up creating a higher pressure and a portion flows Southward (down hill) into the Sea of Marmara via the Bosporus.   Whereas, the saltier heavier waters in the Sea of Marmara flow Northward through the Bosporus to a lower pressure caused by the holes in the bottom of the Black Sea through which the Black Sea discharges into an underwater desalination system.

          Without that natural desalination system the Black Sea would be like putting a stopper in the bathtub.   The bathtub would simply fill up with the heavier saltier water and flow out the overflow if the salt water faucets were left on.   And the many great rivers discharging into the Black Sea are like leaving the freshwater faucets running.   But, the Black Sea has that drain hole(s) so the heavier saltier water can only try to fill up the Black Sea with saltier water to at least level with the Sea of Marmara.   So, there's a torrent flowing into the Black Sea via the Bosporus and a torrent flowing down the drain.   Now, add the fresh waters flowing in via the myriad rivers and there has to be a vast subsurface drain system.

          Now you know one reason why the Middle East, the Caucasus, and certain other places are blessed with an abundance of oil.


          Post Script: Shortly after writing this material (1999) a visitor related that a friend was a crew member on a large and powerful US nuclear submarine.   The crew member had explained that on one sojourn his sub had entered the Bosporus while submerged and suddenly everything went haywire as the great sub went berserk.   That is, the crew member related that the powerful undersea vessel suddenly began raging violently out of control as a furious torrent carried them wildly along and eventually cast them into the depths of the Black Sea.   The visitor explained the terrifying experience as being far worse than a roller coaster ride.   The roller coaster rider knows when and where their brief ride ends; but, the sub's helpless crew members were being violently carried along on an extended journey into the murky depths at phenomenal speeds by a mysterious undersea tempest ... not knowing if they ever would see daylight again.

          This experience emphasizes the vast flow, the volume, and velocity of salt water flowing 24 hours a day into the Black Sea via the Bosporus.   It also emphasizes the quantity of sea life being carried into the depths of the Black Sea to help replenish world oil supplies.   Both, of course, emphasize the vast outflow beneath the Black Sea especially when inflowing freshwater rivers are considered.

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