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Henry Stephen's Book of The Farm says there are over 160 varieties of hops. That was in 1908. Today we have many new ones and many old ones have dropped off the brewing map. Some are long extinct. The beginning of beer knowledge starts with an understanding of the hop varieties. That need for knowledge never ends. Wine lovers must understand grape species and cultivated varieties to an intimate degree. Beer lovers need to know the hop like it was their best friend. There are so many new hop varieties appearing on labels and brewery websites today, it has become difficult to understand what each recipe means and why it was chosen.

We could not find a hop varieties directory that met our needs so we decided to write one, covering everything from the oldest 1700's varieties to some released a few years ago. The hop varieties are called cultivars here, the proper term for cultivated varieties (CULTIvated  + VARiety) of plants, as opposed to wild botanical varieties. The cultivar should be written in a pair of single quotation marks (never doubles or any other symbol) such as 'Golding' or  'Columbus'. The full Latin name of a Cascade hop is therefore written Humulus lupulus 'Cascade'. The genus name Humulus should start with an uppercase H and the specific epithet or species part the name, lupulus, begins with a lowercase l.

Before we get too far, lets consider the botanical varieties of hops which are wild variants, rather than man-made hybrids or selections.

var. lupulus - this is the orignal European and western Asia wild type.
Because the European variety has been raised in North America for centuries on thousands of acres, it has escaped into the wild and naturalized (reproducing on it's own as a stable population) in many states and Canadian regions. Therefore when trying to find genuinely wild US or Canadian hops, be very careful that you do not have an escaped European! Most university botanists can count the hairs and such with a microscope and tell us what we have.

var. cordifolius - comes from eastern Asia, having a more heart-shaped leaf

var. lupuloides - this is the eastern North American form of the species, in part, called lupuloides, meaning "like lupulus" or like the European type. All the European var. lupulus tend to have few or no hairs on the stems while the various North American varieties have hairs from sparse to medium-dense.

var. neomexicanus - this is the Western North American variation on the species, going down the name implies to New Mexico or near Mexico.This variety has large leaves, often over 10cm long and a greater tendency to have 5 lobes - versus 3 in many other varieties.

var. pubescens - the Midwest US variety from the wild, named for it tending to be more hairy or pubescent on the stems. It intergrades into the other North American varieties going east and west. Despite the midwest association, this variety is found as east as western New York, as west as Nebraska, and as south as North Carolina.

Our modern hops tend to crosses of var. lupulus (classic European cultivars) bred to the best US forms from var. lupuloides.

A few varieties are trademarks or marketing names and not the true agricultural or horticultural name. For example, the cultivar 'Columbus' is sold as TOMAHAWK®. SUMMIT™ too is trademarked and should not be written as 'Summit'. The ® refers to a registered trademark that is recorded with the US Patent and Trademark Office, which can be enforced by legal action. The unregistered trademark is denoted by a simple superscript of
™ and can be designated by any originator at any time without paying a government fee. However, unregistered trademarks are harder to enforce and are not always recognized in other countries.

By the way, most cultivars are not to be written as plurals. Mr. Golding's hop called "Golding's hop" is correctly written as 'Golding' not 'Goldings'. Possessive or plurals should be excluded in one-word names. The same is true of 'Fuggle' vs. 'Fuggles'. We also noticed some older names were incorrectly spelled and found old literature to support the original, true spelling. For instance, 'Brambling Cross' should be 'Bramling Cross' because it's based on the older 'Bramling' from a region of the same name. The popular 'Saaz' hop was originally called 'Saazer' and we have chosen that version here.

The term "bine" comes up in the study of hop cultivars. Many hop articles say that that the hop is a vine not a bine. Trues vines, it is said, hold on with roots (English ivy) or tendrils (grapes, morning glories) or other parts. Humulus just twines it's stems around stuff with no special attaching parts. However, "bine" is not an widely used term by botanists and taxonomists who often describe the genus as "twining herbs". The word "Bine" was actually an old common name for hops going centuries back. Horticulturally, there are mainly redbine, whitebine, and greenbine types, based on the color of the stem. Some are red mottled over green and these are often placed with the redbines. The popular 'Golding' hop was selected from 'Canterbury Whitebine' for example. One of the first named European hops was called 'Flemish Redbine' which red mottled or tinged stems.

The term "Japanese hops" is also worth mentioning. As a species reference, this refers to Humulus japonicus, an Asian species rarely used for brewing purposes. Japanese hops in most contexts refers to Japanese-bred varieties of Humulus lupulus bred there for their brewing industry.

Copyright 2012. Larry Hatch. All Rights Reserved.
No portion of this file may be extracted, copied, or otherwise reproduced by any method or technology.

'Admiral' - super high alpha acid (to 14.8%) variety for bittering. UK origin and used in bitter ales.

'Ahil' - high alpha (8-10%), dual purpose. From Slovenia.

'Ahtanum' - mid-level alpha acids (4.0-6.5%)  used for refined aroma (citrus, especially grapefruit, some floral, some pine, some earthy) and moderate bittering. US origin from Yakima Chief Ranches, compact, mildew resistant plants. Similar to 'Cascade' and 'Amarillo' in the application but giving a less strong, bitter result. Arrogant Bastard and Sierra Nevada Celebration use this one.

'Alsace' - heirloom Belgian sort.

'Alost' - old Belgian variety.

AMARILLO® 'VGXPo1' - Improved on 'Cascade', aroma type, alphas high (8-11%), low co-humulone (21-24%). From Virgil Gamache Farms. Valued also for downey mildew resistsance, tolerance to several strains of Verticillium wilt.

'American Golding' - a source name and not a true cultivar. The 'Golding' types in the US are traditionally related to the 'Canterbury Golding' side of the strain.

'Apollo' - high alpha acids. Grown in WA USA due to high powdery mildew resistance in orchards.

'Amos's Early Bird' ('Early Bird') - said to be like a denser, early 'Bramling' type, good flavor. The long version of this name appears in the oldest literature so it must be considered valid publication.Alfred Amos, Wye, Kent, England 1887 from a field of 'Bramling' hops.

'Apple Puddings' - mentioned but not described in Marshall's 1798 review of hop varieties, listed among "inferior sorts". It was grown for a time in Weald, England.

'Aquila' - both alpha acid and aroma, similar to 'Cluster'. Idaho Experiment Station 1987.

'Aureus' - very showy bright golden foliage, an ornamental but one can brew from it with various results.

'Aurora' - low alpha acid (3-5%), aroma quality is refined. US origin and favored there for Pils.

'Backa' - good for aroma. High-yielding variety from Yugoslavia.

'Banner' - 9-11% alpha, dual purpose, moderate aromas, mostly used for bittering. American origin.

'Bates Brewer' - old British classic with firm, dense cones, high lupulin, dark green bine. From Mr. Bates, Brenchley, England c. 1879. One early report noted it's mostly seedless quality. Ripens after the 'Fuggle'. The flavor was not good despite a name that might imply brewing potential. Other writers say it did indeed have refined flavor amd it's weakness then was mainly a low yield.

'Bavarian Spalt' - low alpha acid, 'Saaz' style aroma and good spices. German raised and appropriate for European style brews.

'Bennett's Early Seedling' - medium-sized oval cone, high lupulin, moderate flavors. From the Whitebine Garden, Canterbury, England said to be "suited for growth on stiff land".

'Bianca' ('Bianco', 'Bianca Gold') - mid alpha strength (7-8%), aroma value but released as a foliage ornamental. Sister of 'Sunbeam' and with a similar golden leaf.

'Blue Northern Brewer' - much as 'Northern Brewer' but has dark purplish to bluish foliage, hence more ornamental in displays, otherwise not much different.

'Boadicea' - high alpha (8-11%), broadly in the Hedge family of hops, aroma type used for adding light floral, refined spice (added late), and mellow citrus notes. Makes a good bitter ale like Adnams as well as the Ridgeway Bitter, the later also including 'Challenger'.

'Bobek' - low-mid alphas (3.5-7.0%), pleasant aroma but can be dosed to be intense, bitterness moderate in scale. Slovenia origin using 'Northern Brewer'.

'Bor' - mid-high alphas (7.5-11.0%), aroma a moderate spice theme. Czech Republic from 'Northern Brewer' open pollinated with local material in the Saaz provenence (not 'Saazer' per se), released 1994.

'Bramling' ('Hilton's Early Bramling') - old redbine from which today's 'Bramling Cross' was based, early season, full cone, reddish bine, good flavor. Found by a farm worker named Mr. Smith on Musgrave Hilton's farm in Bramling, England. The date of origin is not clear but it received steady planting as early as 1865. From a botanical view, the occasional monoecious nature of this variety, that is having both male and female flowers on the same vine (bine) is notable.

'Bramling Cross' ('Brambling Cross' is wrong) - mid alphas (4.5-8%), very aromatic, black currant, some lemon too. Bred in UK from 'Bramling' x male from Manitoba. UK bred for verticillium resistance. Prof. Ernest Salmon, Wye College, Kent, England 1927. Popular for British style ESB and pale ales. Even our British cousins say this cultivar has an "American aroma" but everyone says it is versatile and useful in many contexts from bittering, finishing, and dry-hopping. Ruddles County is made from this stuff. It has a bit of a rich profile in caryophyllene and humulene which add to the earthy, herbal, and raw spice flavors. These oils tend to keep the bright fruit noites from being bold. says this variety contributes to "a sweet creamy drinkability...excellent for spiced beers, Christmas beer, and fruit beers".

'Bravo' - ulta-high alpha acid (14-17%) , bittering type, nice fruit AND floral traits, also adding a hint of floral and spice. From Hopsteiner, released 2006. Proven mildew resistant.

'Brewer's Gold' - high alpha acids, resiny, rich spicy aroma, somer black currant. UK c. 1919.

'British Columbia Golding' ('BC Golding') - Canadian version of 'Golding', not grown today. This own strain is confused with 'Brambling' and that strain is related.

'Bullion' - one of first high alpha acid (6.5-10%) varieties though we have mainy stronger ones today. Proven for bittering dark ales and stout, providing fine earthy and resiny notes, though some of them a bit harsh. Mildew problems occur. It has limited production today but devotees are keeping it alive. Bred by hops pioneer Ernest Salmon at Wye College, England in 1919 from open-pollinated wild American material crossed with Manitoba stock, though not released until 1938. It was widely used for bittering in the UK and US but after 1985 or so the higher alpha acid varieties with longer storage potential replaced it. Alpha levels vary alot and values from just over 5% to near 10% are common.

'Burgundy' - old European variety, dating to before 1832 from the Burgundy region of France.. It won a Gold Medal at the 1889 Paris Exposition

'Buss Golding' - a later, smaller cone 'Golding' type, red bine, strong cold hardiness. From B. Buss, Elphicks, England who got it from Lyminge, Kent about 1869.

'Calicross' - dual purpose, mid alpha (5.8-7./9%), much in the Cluster style of flavor and aroma. Proven New Zealand variety bred from 'Late Cluster' and 'Fuggle', the former having severe black root root issues down there. Since 1960 this cross has saved the NZ hops and beer industries though a few years ago other varieties became more popular. Notable too for very low caryophyllene levels.

'Calypso' - bitter and aroma high alpha variety, imparting apple, pear, and pleasant earthly notes.

'Canadian Red Vine' - mid alpha (5-6%). Canada origin, late yielding, note for extreme vigor, rhizomes numerous too.

'Canterbury Golding' ('Canterbury') - High flavor, high lupulin. These are very old and I fouind a report from the House of Commons in 1857 mentioning them at least as commodity, perhaps not yet a defined cultivar. The 1901 Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society listed "Canterbury' among other named varieties. It is thought to have come from Mr. Golding of Malling, Kent about 1790 and was likely the first of the hops broadly listed as 'Golding'. It is thought that William Marshall's reference to this cultivar in Rural Economy of the Southern Counties" in 1798 to be the first publication of this variety. Some early authors listed Canterbury hops apart from Golding but doubtless they had both the Canterbury-raised 'Golding' aka 'Canterbury Golding' here and 'Canterbury Whitebine' in mind. This Canterbury creation differs from 'Canterbury Woodbine' in shorter statue, larger cones, bine more speckled or mottled in red, and hops borne more in smaller groups, often as singles. It seems likely from the accounts of Marshall and others that Mr. Golding developed his material from the 'Canterbury Whitenbine' and it is in fact a clonal or rhizome selection of a particularly fine plant. But has everyone since cloned it and not raised it from variable seed? The answer would be no and that introduces variation of both good and bad sorts.

'Canterbury Jacks' - a late variety, probably the same as 'Buss Golding'.

'Canterbury Whitebine' - not the same as 'Canterbury Golding' and very likely it's parent variety.

'Cascade' - middle in alpha acids (5-8% but some report higher), citrus and mostly grapefruit flavors. Developed at Oregon State University with the USDA, in 1956 using 'Fuggles' and Russian 'Serebrianker'. It is popular for American Pale Ales (APA) and American IPA styles, good in the bittering applications. The cones tends to be dark green and elongated.

'Celeia' - low alpha (3-6%), aroma balanced in pleasant bitter notes. Good storage quality. Trploid bred from autotetraploid 'Styrian Golding' and a cross between between 'Aurora' and a Sloven wild hop. Late bearing. Medium resistsance to powdery and downey mildrews, good wilt resistance.

'Centennial' - popular American variety, often a part of American ales (APA and IPA), mainly an aroma role. Sometimes called a Super Cacade type due to the high citrus notes.

'Challenger' - dual-purpose (bittering and aroma) variety, gioving your stronger ales a nice citrus, marmalade, and toffee flavor. Popular in UK Bitter Ales. England 1972.

'Chelan' - both high alpha and beta acids. From John Haas 1994.

'Chinook' - high alpha acid (to 13.0%) bittering variety, very strong, heavy flavors, giving spices from ale to porters. Notes of rich spine and intense pine are typical. USDA 1985 from 'Petham Goldings'

'Citra' - 10-12% alpha acids, potent citrus flavors and aromas plus some tropical fruit notes. Some describe the fruits as musky and complex. A hybrid of many strains and cultivsars from Hop Breeding Inc. in 2007.

'Cluster' ('Golden Cluster') - very old American variety which developed from mass selection of Dutch and Engllish imports, known for both early and later strains, called here 'Early Cluster' and 'Late Cluster'. Aromas include black currantr fruit. The 'Late Cluster' according to the USDA came from the older 'Pacific Cluster' and that is allied and perhaps identical to the name 'California Cluster' used for old CA stock.

'Cobb' - mid-sized cone, thin light yellow petals, god flavor, weak in lupulin, a tall growing plant of the Whitebine sort. One of the strains that surfaces under the 'Golding' name. John Cobb, England 1881.

'Colgate' ('Colegate') - old British variety valued for very late crops and strong cold hardiness - but having a "rank objectionable aroma" and smal, long narrow cones. Leaves have a deeper cut too. From David Colgate, Chevening, Kent about 1805. An article by his son confirms the correct spelling of their name. There is mention in old literature of the variety being mixed up with a variety of "a ranker flavor" so perhaps the true material is not clear to us now.

'Columbus' (TOMAHAWK®) - very high alpha acid (14.5-16.5%), givng citrus and slight woody aromas, intense resin is dosed heavily. Very high yielding when happy. The registered trademark is TOMAHAWK. As I write this in early 2012, about 25% of the US hop acreage is of this cultivar.It matures late to very late.

'Comet' - high alpha (9.5%) bittering variety. US origin but crude by modern terms, too harsh for some tastes.

'Cooper's White' - similar to and thought to have come from the 'Mathon' types, Grape-clustered, early season, high lupulin, good flavor. From Worcestershire, England. It looks a bit like 'White's Early' but not being as cold hardy as 'Mathon', it had little long term use.

'Crystal' - spicy with notes of pepper, nutmeg, and cinnamon. A triploid from the US bred form European varieties and 'Cascade' c. 1993

'Czech Saaz' = a name reflecting origin of the material not a taxonomic name, see 'Saazer'.

'Early Bird' = 'Amos's Early Bird'

'Early Cluster' - as 'Cluster' but in it's early-bearing strain

'Early Zug' - Japanese variety.

Copyright 2012. Larry Hatch. All Rights Reserved.
No portion of this file may be extracted, copied, or otherwise reproduced by any method or technology.

'East Kent Golding' aka 'EKG' - basically 'Golding' grown in East Kent so not a true cultivar name. In modern times it is often one of several 'Golding' cultivars or hybrids favored in that region. This lack of true cultivar (cultivated variety) status does not mean some growers and suppliers have their own "superior" or "unique" strain or formula from that region.Those who claim EKG as true variety or strain say it came from the region about 1700.

'Eastwell Golding' - low-mid alpha acid (5.0-6.8%) and not widely used today. England 1889. The USDA reports they have a clonal version of this from Kent received in 1992 and dating to the original stock it seems.

'El Dorado' - pale green pine, high (10-13%) alpha acid, said to give a strong "catty" flavor. Substitutes with and for 'Galena'. Used for wheat beers in the US.

'Elsasser' - old French variety with low yields and thus not widely seen today.

'Eroica' - very high alpha acid (to 13.0%) bittering variety, 4.8% Beta acid.

FALCONER'S FLIGHT™ - this is a hops pellet blend and not a true cultrivar

'Farnham Whitebine' ('William's Whitebine', 'Golden Grape') - old heirloom variety compared to the 'Canterbury Whitebine', both having very pale green stems. This one comes from Farnham in Surrey (before 1729) and were considered very similar and doubtless mixed up in the trade. Differences are proclaimed in old literature but they are not measurements and very hard to pin down. Downy mildew took a very bad toll on remaining fields of this variety from 1925 to 1929. 'Fuggle' replaced it for the most part and virtually no production is known after 1976.

'First Gold' ('Prima Donna') - 7.5% alpha and 3.5% beta for bittering and aroma. UK origin, bred as a dwarf plant with 'English Golding' qualities, mainly in England for ales and ESB labels.

'Flemish Redbine' - very old variety, early, redbined, large of cone, and noted for disease resistrance and increased cold hardiness. Farmers like it for ability to handle poorer lands. Marshall (1798) who was first to call Mr. Golding's variety a subvariety of the famous 'Canterbury Whitebine' mentioned this variety too, saying of it "early ripening...of a large size...but is deficient in "condition" ". It is probably a parent of red-bined varieties in early England. For all it's durable nature, this variety failed for lack of good brewing flavors.

'Fuggle' (incorrectly as plural 'Fuggles') - low (3-4.5%) alpha and 2.0% better, mainly for aroma, sometimes for light bittering, tends to be grassy-floral, vegetal,. mild, and soft in the Brit ale style. A popular general purpose UK variety used in Samuel Smiths Pale Ale and the famous Thomas Hardy recipes. Named for Richard Fuggle who offered it about 1875. It was one of the first varieties with some downy mildew resistance. It is thought to be the first aroma hop used in the US. It is a top choice for authentic British ales from mild to bitter and porters as well as the occasional IPA. It is famous for large, conical flowering heads. Around 1950 this one variety dominated about three-quarters of the entire British hop industy. While called "Fuggle's hop", the variety name is singular or 'Fuggle'. You will not find the spelling 'Fuggles' on the best European and American websites because they know the originator's name had no -s.

'Galena' - full alpha acids (12-14%), superb for bittering both US and UK styles, noted overall for general fruit, slight citrus, and good spice. Bred in 1968 from 'Brewers Gold with open pollination, released to trade 1978. Moderate tolerance of downy mildew but fairly susceptible to powdery mildew.

'Galaxy' - very high alpha (13.5-14.8%), giving clean citrus and passionfruit traits. Australian origin, late maturing.

'Gill' - high alpha (9-10%) Hedge type, impartringf robust spices and pine.

'Glacier' - Fuggles-style with low-cohumulone content.

'Golden Grape' = 'Farnham Whitebine'

'Golden Tassels' - as 'Aureus' with showy, ornamental bright green foliage butr on a dwarfer, small plant. Not a brewing variety but a nice way to show off the species in gardens.

'Golden Tips' - an old English variety apparently with showy gold-tipped cones.

'Golding' (incorrectly as 'Goldings') - famous British cultivar for aroma, giving smooth sweet flavors of strong complexity. Popularly termed 'East Kent Goldings' but that is source name and not a true variety. The basic cultivar-strain is open-pollinated so genetics of seedlings will vary region to region. Some of these variants are true cultivars, stable and definable by chemical and DNA analysis, while others are merely place or source names.The 'Canterbury Golding' of about 1790 may be earliest plant tied to Mr. Golding.

'Gouldings' = an old typo for 'Golldings'

'Grape' - this name was applied to more than one variety, all having clustered flowers like bunches of grapes. Some were known of his a "sap green" bine and ripen late. Flavor was good.

'Greenbine' - a cultivar for any plant with green stems as opposed to pale, whitish or red ones. This is a not a define brewer's variety.

'Green Bullet' - high alpha acid (to 13.5%) bitter hops, known for raisin, floral, bitter notes. NZ origin 1972.

'Hallertau' - noted for classic German lager flavors. From Hallertau, Bavaria, Germany. Due to disease problems it is replaced by newer strains, some named below. In the 1930's a great plague of Verticilliumwilt came to England and later the Hallertauer district of Germany. This major crop variety came under big risk and had loses. There was no chemical spray or cultural avoidance to be tried. An avid interest in wilt resistant varieties, some already familiar names,came into focus. The old German name was 'Hallertauer' and perhaps we should insist that be used instead.

'Hallertau Aroma' - mid-level alpha acids (7.5-9.0%), based on the 'Hallertau Mittelfruh' crosses, a bit less spice than the classic but very clean. DSIR Res. Station, released 1998, triploid.

'Hallertau Gold' -  Replacing 'Halltertau Mittelfruh' in recent years as easier to grow. Notable for wilt resistance too.

'Hallertau Herkules' - high alpha and powdery mildew resistance. Germany 2005 so fairly new.

'Hallertau Magnum' - dual purpose but aromas are superb here as is the smooth bitterness. Bred in part from American 'Galena', offered by the German Hop Res. Institute in 1980

'Hallertau Mittelfruh' - the original German lager hops and thus very old. It has disease issues (both wild and mildew) so has been largely replaced by it's hybrids. Much recent material under this name is improved strains such as 'Halltertau Gold'

'Hallertau Taurus' - late-bearing 'Hallertau' variant with high alphas (12-16%) but wilt resistance unlike old strains. Powdery mildrew is still a weakness for it. Xanthohumol is very high at 0.91% and that means it has potential therapeutic value (cancer protection, cancer cell inhibitor, and general antioxidant value) since this chemical is sold as a supplement. The darn stuff can help with liver cancer and that would be one cool, sweet ironic take on real, hoppy beer being healthy! One study I read said you need to down 120 gallon of beer a day to get the xanthohumol benefit but that would probably refer to crap beer instead of craft beer loaded with hops.

'Hallertau Tradition' - this is not the classic 'Hallertau' as the name might imply but a fairly recent product derived from 'Hallertau Gold' with less faults. Alpha is 4-7% and beta acids 3-6%.

'Hedge' - not a variety but a name applied to wild collected plants, mainly in Europe, a near synonym of 'Wildings'.

'Henham's Jones' - a development from older 'Jones' stock, mid-sized cones, thin petals, red bine (some say pale), ripening to a "pretty gold". Lupulin was low but flavor as classed as good to fair. From Iden Henham, East Peckham, Kent, England.

'Herald' - bitter aroma and flavor. UK origin..

'Hersbrucker' - major aroma variety in Germany, replacing 'Hallertau Mittelfrau' decades ago. It too has flaws like weak climbing traits and mildew problems in some climates.

'Hilary' - mid-high alpha (9-10.5%), spice. Hedge type.

'Hill Golding' - an old 'Golding' variant listed apart from the East Kent sort but probably just a source name refering to "The Hill" in Kent.

'Hilton's Early Bramling' = 'Bramling'

'Hobb's Early' - long, narrow, pointed hop with a green bine, compared to 'Proflic'. Chemistry is not reported in those old times! Early season favorite.

'Hollertau' = 'Hallertau'. The first name was an alternate spelling in old English literature.

'Horizon' - high alpha (to 12.0%) and beta (7.5%), bittering style, used for hoppy, rich US ales and hoppy lagers. US origin c. 1970 dervied from Oregon 'Nugget' strains, a diploid crossed in 1970, released 1998. Has high mildew susceptability so use in limited in some climates.

'Huller' - low-mid alphas (4-6%), well-rounded and dual purpose.

'Jeanette' - mid 6% alpha acid, clean with slight floral.

'Jenny' - high alpha acid (9.8%), Hedge type, balanced to giving nice anise and licorice flavors.

'Joan' - high alphas (9.8%), very rich, emphasizing citrus with a bit of licorice.

'Jones' ('Old Jones'?) - old heirloom variety.

'Junga' - high alpha (10-13%), strong aroma compared to 'Hallertau Magnum'. Breed by IUNG Pulaway from 'Northern Brewer' and 'Marynka'. Cones are large, heavy, long, dark green.

'Irene' - very high alpha (10-13%), citrus with woody notes.

'Kate' - high alpha (10-13%), resiny, often sharp, light citrus but very bitter overall.

'Keyworth's Early' - old UK aroma variety noted for early ripening and mid alpha acids (8/6%). Bred by a Mr. Keyworth in England in the 1800's. It has mildew issues and is low-yielding by today's standards.

'Kirin II' - mid alpha strength (6-8%, occasionally to 10%), aroma hop used by the Japanese brewer Kirin prior to 1981. Resistant to downy mildew.

'Kohatu' - mid alpha power (6.8%), large aroma in pine, florals, and tropical fruit, good bitterness and well-rounded fruit. New Zealand origin.

'Late Cluster' - as 'Cluster' but in it's late-bearing strain. It came from the earlier 'Pacific Coast Cluster' while may have come from native NW US populations. 

'Late Ripe Redbine' - large, red bine, but "weak...a mere wild hop" according to Marshall (1798). It is proably the same or very close to 'Buss Golding' and 'Canterbury Jacks'.

'Liberty' - known for early-ripening and the resiny, cinnamon spice, and faintly sweet notes it creates. Bred from 'Hallertau Mittlefruh' and a mildrew-resistant make, it has good genetics. It lacks farnesene in the oil so it's free of those flavor taints.

'Lorraine' - heirloom Belgian variety.

'Lublin' - see 'Polish Lublin'

'Magnum' - mid alpha acid (10-12%). mainly used for bittering but some aroma value too. German Hop Res. Inst. bred from US 'Galena' and an numbered German male. Mixed mildew resistance

'Mayfield Grape' ('Ruffler') - clustered or grape-type with low density, large size, and fair flavor. It was said to have connections to 'Fuggle' in terms of petal form. The 'Fuggle' sorts replaced it.

'Marynka' - high alpha (9-12%), providing a rich, intense aroma when bittering but it has been used as a dual purpose (bittering and aromas). It is any early to mid-season variety. From Poland where it is released as an all-purpose hop, suitable for Pils, ale, and wheats, alternative to 'Golding'

'Mathon' ('Mathona', 'Mathon White') - white bine and similar overall to 'Canterbury Whitebine'. Originated at the Parish at Mathon, Worcestershire, England so not of Canterbury origin.,

'Meopham' - heirloom variety, red bine, early season and often of a red bine, considered of the "prolific" type. Large but little lupulin value, ultimately rejected for weak flavors. It probably descended from the 'Flemish Redbine'.

'Mercer' = 'Rodmersham'

'Merkur' - bittering variety known for citrus and earthy notes.

'Millenium' - very high alphas (13-16%), clean bittering,, pleasantly herbal, favored for secondary hopping to make ales super hoppy. It is a higher alpha acid version of 'Nugget'

'Motueka' - mid alpha power (6.9%), recommended for traditional lagers including the Bohemian Pils type.  New Zealand origin.

'Mount Hood' ('Mt. Hood') - 6.0% alpha acid variety used for aroma effects, mild, clean, often used in European style lagters. US origin. The International Code for Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants states that garden varieties should not contain abbreviations such as Mt. and be spelled out such as Mount.

'Mount Rainier'm ('Rainier')  - high alpha sort, imparting notes of licorice, floral-spice and some citrus. Licorice-citrus aroma is standard here. It's genetics include Galena, Fuggles, and
Hallertau lines.

'Nelson Sauvin' - very high alpha (12-14%), said to have unique aromas among them grape-like notes which can give brewers new opportunities. From HortResearch, NZ, released 2000. The name reflects the Vitus-like profile they claim.

'Newport' - high alpha (13-17%) which strong pungent qualities, 'Nugget' and 'Galena' are it's equals or less.

'Never Black' - from the Red Bine Group. The 1809 General Vuiew of the Agriculture of the County of Surrey says "lately introduced...getting into repute and favour with the many hop-growers; it is a hardy coarse hiop, with rather an unpleasant bitter..said to have got it's name of  "never black" not because the bine is never attacked by the black blight...but because , although the outside of the hop is black with the blight, the inside it said to not be affected by it". That is hardly praise or is it?

'Northdown' - dual purpose with good resiny notes, a stronger sort in the 'Golding' family. England 1970's.

'Northern Brewer' - dual purpose sort but often used for bittering only, imparting fruit, earthy, and woody notes. Can replace 'Hallertau'. England 1934

'Nugget' - bittering variety that gives floral and resinous flowers with hints of candy. It gives smooth bitterness and is a favorite for medium to dark ales and lagers.

'Omega' - high alpha bittering variety. UK.

'Opal' - mid alpha acids, giving aroma of sweet spice and some pepper, flavors of light, refined, clean citrus.

'Orion' - mid alpha (6.0-7.5%), dual purpose. Germany.

'Osvald' - aroma variety. Czech Republic.

'Outeniqua' - high alpha (12-13.5%), aromas leading to mild pleasant hops with slight spice. South African choice, day neutral, a diploid.

'Pacific Gem' - very high alpha acid (14-16%), rich but easy blackberry aroma and woody flavors, similar to cask-oak aging, said to be very distinctive.DSIR Research Station, NZ, triploid, released 1987.

'Pacific Hallertau' - low alphas (3-6%), a take on 'Hallertau Mittelfruh' but a triploid, more durable plant. From Hopsteiner breeding, released 1994. It is early, disease-free in NZ with mid-sized clusters. It is being used to give cinnamon spice, "mild buttery", and clean floral notes to an lagers of a German theme.

'Pacific Jade' - potent alpha acids (12.8-14.4%), citrus in aroma and flavor, a good finishing hops, overall a bittering sort with low co-humulone levels. It can be used to balance malt sweetness says one report.

'Pacifica' - this name is said tro be a synonym of  'Pacific Hallertau', which of course may have legal implications for commercial use.

PALISADE® 'YCR 4'- mid strength alpha acids (5.5-9.5%), aroma purposed. Best used for floral, earthy, and fruity aromas but it can bitter up an ale too. From Yakima Chief Ranches, bred from Tettnanger stock.Fairly tolerant of downy mildew.

'Perle' - high alpha acid (6.5-9.0%), aroma much as 'Hallertau' but also serving as dual purpose, notes bering most fruit, floral, and spice, thus diverse. Germany.

'Petham Golding' - mid alphas (6.9%), has mildew resistance but poor storage stabilty, big mosaic virus susceptability. For all this it is a parent of USDA's 'Chinook'

'Phoenix' - dual purpose with mild flavors including some spice. Despite the name it is from England. It is early-flowering as well. It comes from 'Yeoman' genetics.

'Pilgrim' - mid-high alpha acid (8.0%) and beta (4.6%). UK origin, used mostly for ales there and can replace 'Goldings'. Lemon flavors are fine here.

'Pilot' - high alphas (9-10%), mainly for fine aromas (lemon, new grass) and high yields, this cultivar is also resistant to wilt.

'Polish Lublin' - low alpha (3.0-4.5%), mild on the Noble theme much as 'Saaz', more aroma than anything else, more herbal and spicy is highly dosed. Valued in Poland for Pils

'Poperinghe' - very old Belgian variety.

'Premiant' - mid-high alpha acid (8.0-12.5%), aroma spicy. Resisttant to powdery and downy mildew, good resistsance to aphids and red mites. Czech Republic orign, rel. 1996.

'Pretty Wills' - very old British variety.

'Prima Donna' = 'First Gold'

'Progress' - alpha acids vary with reports (usually 5-7.5%), providing sweet fruit, lots of lime, good earthiness, and Noble-style note. Can replace 'Fuggle' and 'Golding'. UK origin. In a pale-colored, low malt ale the lime flavors can come to the forefront and be superb.It known in the UK as a being sweeter than a 'Fuggle' and with a softer, more refined bitterness.

'Pride of Ringwood' - mid alpha (7-10%) giving eathy, herbal, and and woody notes. Mostly Australia in origin.

'Prolific' - popular old English sort, one of the largest cones yet seen but often of poor flavor and shipment quality, hence quantity over quality. It was tinged orange when ripe, dating to 1852 by Thomas Guest based on on the Old Jones hop. It has a red bine and purple seeds.

'Rainier' = 'Mount Rainier'

Red Bine Group - cultivar group for any material with reddish or red stems.

'Red Newcombes' - old Brit variety with red bine.

'Riwaka' - aroma variety imparting notes of grapefruit, florality, and passion-fruit, giving new tastes to classic ales and Pilseners. New Zealand origin.

'Rodmersham' ('Mercer') - older British variety valued for being a mid-season "good cropper" with hardiness too. It probably came from 'Canterbury Whitebine' with which is shares fruit traits.

'Rufflers' or 'Ruffler' in part= 'Mayfield Grape; - mentioned but not described in Marshall's 1798 review of hop varieties, listed among "inferior sorts". Thomas Bridgeman's 1840 The Kitchen Gardener's Instructor puts these names in synonomy.

'Ruth' - high alpha acid (10%), favoring 'Whitbread Golding' but hints of lavender.

'Saazer' (popularly 'Saaz')  - low alpha acids (2.8-3.3%), known as the classic Pilsner lager flavor, ujsually mild, faintly spiced, but can be made stronger to give cinnamon, earthy lager flavors, and some others spices. Named for Saaz, Czech Republic and dating to at least 1850. It is good for wheats as well as the classic, Old World Pilsener. This variety has persisted due to it's natural powdery mildew resistant and good wilt resistance. In old brewing literature this is called a Bohemian variety.

'San Juan Ruby Red' - flavor of semi-sweet fruit and Noble-type flavors abound. Found in the wild ikn Colorado's San Juan Mts.

'Santium' - mid-strength alpha acid giving good American-style floral notes. Has 'Tettnang', 'Hallertau', and 'Cascade' in it's lineage.

SATUS® 'YCR 7'- high alpha (12.5-14.0%), bittering and aroma, similar purposes as 'Galena'. From Yakima Chief Ranches. Moderate tolerance of powdery mildew.

'Seale's Early Golding' - older British variety which never caught on much. Mr. Seale, Horsmonden, England.

'Shinsu Wase' - low-mid alpha (4.5-6%), aroma type. Japan.

SIMCOE® 'YCR 14' - high alpha acid (12-14%), bittering and aroma with a very rich "funky" pine flavor, a favorite for strong American IPA recipes. The "power pine" aroma is quite unique and not everyone loves it or hates it. Double IPA and other strong ales can come from it. From Yakima Chief Ranches.

'Sladek' - mid-power alphas (4.5-8.5%), moderately spicy aroma. Czech Republic, released 1994.

'Sorachi Ace' - high alpha (13-16%), rich bittering qualities. Japan origin.

'Southern Brewer' - high alphas (9-10.5%), mild bittering sort, based on 'Fuggle' genetics. South African cross, a short day variety as needed there, diploid.

'Southern Cross' - high alpha acid (to 13.0%) and beta (6.2%), giving both bittering and aroma. NZ origin in 1994, giving a rich spicy, lemony European flavor with pine and wood too.

'Southern Halltertau' - low-mid alphas (4.9-6.3%), similar notes to the famous 'Hallertau Mittelfrau' but adapted to Australian culture.

'Southern Promise' - mid-high alphas (9.5-11.5%), providing a mild, pleasant aroma, dual purpose.  Bred in South Africa for their low chill, day neutral requirements.

'Southern Saaz' - Australian seedless 'Saaz' hybrid with a similar flavor profile, alphas at 4.6-7.0%. spicy and herbal notes occur.

'Southern Star' - high alpha (12-15%), providing mild spiced hops. South African day neutral variety, diploid, and well adapted there.

'Spalt Select' - alpha low (3-6%), favored for German style lagers, mid-strength lager hops and refined always.

'Spalter' ('Spalt', 'Spalt Spalter') - low alpha acid (2-6%), quality aroma, giving mild spice in most cases.  Issues include disease problems and low to moderate yields.

'Steirer' - see 'Styrian Golding'

'Stella' - super high alpha acid (14-16%), giving a nice mix of classic hops and floral notes, some anise, some citrus, tropical hints, and overall a balance. Plants are vigorous, robust, bearing large, dense cones in the mid-late time frame.

'Sterling' - mid alpha strength (6-7.5%. occasionally to 9%), both bitter and aroma value, balanced overall with herbal, spicy, fainter citrus and floral. Diverse uses in ales, Pils, and other Lagers. US variety from a cross of 'Saaz' and 'Mount Hood'. Results in American wheats and Euro-lagers have been good.

'Sticklebract' - high alphas (13-14.2%, some reported 9%), pine aroma common with hints of citrus. Most known for Australia and NZ production, favored for both ales and lagers. It is rich in selinene so has an English hops taste. DSIR Research Station, NZ, triploid, released 1972.

'Strisselspalt' - low alpha acids (3-5%) but giving a pleasant, mid aroma. It's the main hiops in the Alsace region of France and so it is good for French and Belgian ales.

'Styrian Golding' ('Steirer')  - low alpha (4-5%) and despite the name it's not a 'Goldings' type but in the 'Fuggle' family. Slovenia origin.

'Summer' - mid alpha power (4.0-7.0%), providing light apricot and some fine melon notes. Australian origin.

SUMMIT™ - super high alpha acids (17-19%) for strong orange, grapefruit, and tangerine notes, lovely in a pale ale or IPA of American style. Co-humulone can each 26-33%. This is a dwarf variety so hand-picking and growing on a small or home farm is easy. It is stable in storage too and vines have high powdery mildew resistance. Bred by the American Dwarf Association for low-trellis orchards. It is a super-low farnesene oil variety too.

'Sunbeam' - 'Saazer' type aroma (7-8% alpha acids), but releasred as an gold-leaved ornamental. Bred at Oregon State's USDA hop farm in Corvallis, 1990, including 'Saazer'. Downy mildew and wilt show moderate resistance. Noted for it's lemon yellow leaves with reddish stems for an ornamental look. It will burn in strong sunlight so semi-shade is best.

'Super Alpha' - high alpha acid (12.5-13.5%), giving pleasant, resiny aromas in a broadly European style. Flavors tend to be clean, crisp, and delightfully resin-filled. DSIR Research Station, released 1976.

'Super Cascade' - a group name for improved 'Cascade' sorts. See 'Centennial'

'Super Galena' - based on the classic 'Galena' and similar in chemistry (alphas being 13-15%). It for bittering with a pleasant aroma. Plants however are much higher yielding than old 'Galena' and have a wide spectrum of resistance to major US strains of powdery mildrew.

'Super Pride' - high alpha (10-12%), favored for making aromatic ales and lagers. Australian introduction 1987  from Hop Products using 'Pride of Ringwood' (which gives lower alphas), feating low co-humulone levels.

'Super Styrian' or 'Super Steirer' - some if not all are referrable to 'Aurora'.

'Susan' - high alpha (9%), spice, clean lemon, and "fresh flowers", lots of good aromas.

'Sybilla' - mid level alphas (6-8%), bitter and intense. From IUNG Pulawy bred from 'Lublin' and 'Syrian Golding'.

'Symphony' - high alpha (15%) bittering variety. US origin. The internet is curious silent on this one

'Tardif de Bourgogne' - late-ripening, low alpha (3.1-5.5%), low co-humulone (20%), no farnesene, valued for mild aromas. Selected from a French land race and still raised in Alsace, France.

'Target' - mid-high alpha acids (8%) improving on 'Goldings', aromas include green apple, wood, and some "solvent"

'Tettnanger' ('Tettnang') - 4.5% alpha and 3.5% beta acids, best for aroma, classic Noble valkues, mild and only slightly spicy if intensely used. German origin and used for ales, lager, and wheats worldwide. Often combined with 'Halltertau Mittelfruh' for a balance. Mildew tolerant under many Hallertau' lines of old.

'Tillicum' - ulta-high alpha acid, used much as 'Galena'.

'Tolhurst' - very low alpha (2.2%), old British type favored for vigor and heavy cropping even on clay soils. James Tolhurst, Horsmonden, England early 1880's. Beside the low alphas, it is very high in faresene, and stores very poorly according to USDA tests.

TOMAHAWK = see 'Columbus'

'Topaz' - ultra high alpha (15.5-18.0%) giving a potent earthy-hops profile broadly in a British style. Australian origin.

'Toyomidori' - bittering type. Japan.

'Tutsham' - old UK variety roughly like a 'Golding, good flavor and shape.. From Gerald Warde, Tutsham Farm, West Farleigh, England.

'Ultra' - low alpha acid (3.0-5.0%) and low beta (3.8%), provides mild 'Saazer' aroma qualities and can replace 'Hallertau' as well. US origin1983 (released 1995) from a triploid seedling of an induced tetraploid of 'Hallertau Mittelfrau' and a diploid male based on 'Saazer', hence a cross of two very popular and successful lines.

'Vanguard' - mid-level alphas (5.5-6%) and bred from 'Hallertau' to impart classs German flavcors of a Hefeweizen, Kolsch, or similar style. The notes a mild herbal and citrus, serious but not potent nor austere. The flavor profile is balanced and it can even make an American wheat authentic in taste

'Wai-iti' - low alpha (3.0%), nice mild aromas, some citrus of the lime, mandarinm, and lime types, ramp it up for more power. New Zealand origin.

'Waring's Imperial' - old Brit vaiety, once cultivated in Weald. Probaby the same as 'Waring's Imperial Green' from Mr. Waring, Shoreham, England.

WARRIOR® 'YCR 5'- ulta-high alpha acid (15-17%), low co-humulone (24%) mainly for bittering but with a clean flavor in most cases. Aroma tends to be mild. It is easy to grow and will make a Pale or IPA very deligfhtful.From Yakima Chief Ranches.

'Whitbread Golding' ('WGV') - mid alpha acid (5-7%), 'Golding' variant that is stronger overall, low yield at times, plants are not strong, and cones shatter by mechanical harvesting. It was valued from mild hoppy flavors, pleasant, never intense, and some sweet fruit. Whitbread Brewers, Kent, about 1911. For it's flaws it is a parent of 'First Gold' and 'Progress'. It can replaced the old 'Fuggle' type more so than  all the 'Golding' flavors.

Whitebine Group - a group name inclusive of all cultivars with whitish to very pale green stems.

'Whitebine Grape' - a variant on clustered-grape sorts grown in Kent, Hants, and Surrey (1890) that "loses much of the coarseness of ordinary Grapes".

'White's Early' - old British variety for early cropping,pale green bine, medium cones, loose petals, light gold color at maturity, and flavor described as excellent among the other earlies. It was an inconsistant variety with sometimes poor yields. George White, Hunton, England 1852.

'White Newcombes' - old Brit variety of white-bine colors.

'Wildings' - early British variety, somewhat hard to pin down for the diversity of comments, "not far removed from wild hops" and so perhaps a simple name for diverse wild material.

'Willamette' - just 5.5% alpha and 3.5% beta acids, mainly a aroma role, midl grass, slight spice, faint floral notes. US origin 1970's., a triploid, seedling of 'Fuggle', from the valley of this same name. Can replace both 'Fuggle' and 'Golding' and is famous for it's inclusion in the iconic Sierra Nevada Porter. Downy mildew resistsant so durable.

'William's Whitebine' = 'Farnham's Whitebine'

'Whitebine Goldings' - this is very likely a synonym of the original 'Golding' which here and in some old literature is called 'Canterbury Golding'. Since we think Mr. Golding's wonderful find came from 'Canterbury Whitebine', the base known of the Whitebines, the name 'Whitebine Golding' is quite a logical error.

'Wurtemburg' - old Belgian variety. In 1887 the region of Wurtemburg has 21,000 acres in hops. Were they or this variety and others? We have no evidence.

'Yakima Cluster' - mid-power alpha acid (5.5-8.5%), mainly for bittering. It is used for American ales and also stronger barleywines. Bred from 'Late Cluster' it gives similar traits. From C.B. Skotland from 'Late Cluster' grown in the Yakima Valley c. 1958. It has powdery mildew issues in regions where that is a concern such as Idaho and Oregon. Washington production is the largest reported.

'Yeoman' - high alphas (12-16%),. good bittering hop much like 'Challenger', it is more mellow than 'Target' and thus good in a subtle lager. Wye College, England 1970's. Downy and powdery mildew resistant and also tolerant to wilt.

'Zeus' - similar in used to TOMAHAWK aka 'Columbus' hops this has a different genetic profile and origin. It has citrus (but not as powerful as 'Cascade'), giving earthy, spciy, pungent, and moderate citrus notes. It balances the sharp and the herbal aspect very well, valuable for bittering American style ales and stouts. While 'Columbus' and TOMAHAWK are one entity (the later being a trademark name only), 'Zeus' is a distinct cultivar, making the so-called CTZ strain a mixture of things or just an error.

If your hops passion runs into DNA profiling that will actually group related varieties then this paper will impress:

Even more varieties of hops can be found here:

Copyright 2012. Larry Hatch. All Rights Reserved.
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