Bill Hare gained his M.A. in philosophy from the University of Leicester in 1968, and his Ph.D. in philosophy of education from the University of Toronto in 1971. From 1970 until 1995, he taught at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, cross-appointed in the School of Education and the Department of Philosophy. He was promoted to Full Professor in Education and Philosophy in 1979. In 1995, following the closure of education programmes at Dalhousie University, he moved to Mount St. Vincent University in Halifax where he is Professor of Education. He was President of the Canadian Philosophy of Education Society from 1984-6, and was Editor of Paideusis: Journal of the Canadian Philosophy of Education Society from 1992 to 1996. In 1995 he received the Distinguished Service Award from the Canadian Association of Foundations of Education, and in 1999, the Mary Anne Raywid Award from the Society of Professors of Education. His main philosophical interests concern the aims of education, especially open-mindedness and critical thinking, the nature of good teaching, and the educational ideas of Bertrand Russell.
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Ph.D. thesis in Educational Theory, University of Toronto, 1971, entitled A Sense of Responsibility and Its Development. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 33, 9, 1973: 5035A. External examiner: Albrecht Wellmer.

M.A. thesis in Philosophy, University of Leicester, 1968, entitled Some Aspects of Trying, Judging and Caring. External examiner: Alan R. White.


"Why open-mindedness will not take care of itself", 12th Annual Conference of Atlantic Educators, Université de Moncton, November 2, 2002.

"Teaching and the attitude of open-mindedness", Keynote address to the B.Ed. class, Mount St. Vincent University, November 16, 2001.

"Ideas that have helped teachers: Reading Russell", paper presented at the Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, Laval University, Quebec City, May 2001.

"Reflections on the teacher's tasks", lecture delivered at the University of Cyprus, March 8, 2000. Also presented at the University of Cambridge, March 16, 2000, to the East Anglia branch of the philosophy of education society of Great Britain.

"Teaching and the critical spirit", 9th Annual Conference of Atlantic Educators, presented at the University of Prince Edward Island, November 19, 1999.

"The teachers our children need", Mary Anne Raywid Lecture, presented to the Society of Professors of Education, Montreal, April, 1999.

"Bertrand Russell on critical thinking", Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, August 1998.

"Teaching and courage: A response to Sandra Bruneau", paper presented at the Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Ottawa, 1998.

"Critical thinking as an aim of education", public lecture at the University of Cyprus, November 5th, 1996.

"Critical thinking", address to Education students at the University of Crete, October 1996.

"Teaching and the Socratic virtues", The Robert Jackson Memorial Lecture, 5th Annual Conference of Atlantic Educators, St. John's, Nfld. October 13, 1995.

"Good schools, good teachers", in-service to teachers at Cunard Junior High School, Halifax, February 28, 1994.

"Content and criticism: The aims of schooling", Noted Scholar Lecture, University of British Columbia, July 1993. Also presented at the Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain, Oxford University, April 1994.


Philosophy of Education: Introductory Readings 3rd. revised edition, Detselig Enterprises, 2001, pp. 1-409. [2nd. revised edition, Detselig Enterprises, 1996, pp. xvi, 1-381. 1st edition, Detselig Enterprises, 1988, pp. xiv, 1-386.] (Co-edited with John P. Portelli.)

What To Do: Case Studies For Teachers 2nd. revised edition, Edphil Books, 1998, pp. vi, 1-124. [1st. edition, Fairmount Books, 1993, pp. vi, 1-94.] (Co-authored with John P. Portelli.)

Teaching and the Socratic Virtues Memorial University, 1995, pp. 1-37.

Attitudes in Teaching and Education Detselig Enterprises, 1993, pp. 1-136.

What Makes A Good Teacher Althouse Press, 1993, pp. vii, 1-203.

Reason in Teaching and Education, Dalhousie University School of Education, 1989, pp. iii, 1- 63. Editor and contributor.

In Defence of Open-mindedness, McGill-Queens University Press, 1985, pp. 1-136.

Controversies in Teaching, Althouse Press, (Canada) 1985, and Wheatsheaf Books (United Kingdom) 1985, pp. viii, 1-139.

Open-mindedness and Education, McGill-Queens University Press, 1979, pp. xii, 1-166. Reprinted in paperback, January 1983.


Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 20, 2, 2001. Guest editor of a special issue devoted to Bertrand Russell and critical thinking. I selected the contributors and contributed an introduction. Table of contents.

Paideusis 10, 2, 1997. Guest editor of a special issue devoted to the ideas of John Dewey and Bertrand Russell.

Journal of Education, (Nova Scotia), 7, 2, 1981. A special issue of the journal devoted to Philosophy of Education. I initiated the project, selected the contributors, edited the collection, and contributed an introductory essay.

1. Twentieth Century Philosophy of Education - a 60 minute audio cassette, dealing with the ideas of John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, Israel Scheffler and R. S. Peters. Editor and commentator. Issued December 1990. I initiated the project, determined the topics, and identified the other contributors (Jonas Soltis, Robin Barrow and Harvey Siegel).

"R. M. Hare, 1919-2002", Paideusis 14, 2, 2001: 72-76. (Issued 2002.)

"Ideas for teachers: Russell's legacy", (abstract) Oxford Review of Education 28, 4, 2002: 491-507.

"Teaching and the attitude of open-mindedness", Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations 16, 2, 2002: 103-24.

"The liberal teacher in the new millennium", The Teaching Professor 15, 8, 2001: 2, 4.

"Bertrand Russell and critical thinking", Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 20, 2, 2001: 4-5.

"Bertrand Russell and the ideal of critical receptiveness", Skeptical Inquirer 25, 3, 2001: 40-44. Swedish translation (abridged), "Bertrand Russell och kritisk oppenhet" in Sokaren No. 4, 2001: 35-6.

"Bertrand Russell on critical thinking", Journal of Thought 36, 1, 2001: 7-16. Also published in
Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1999.

"Reflections on the teacher's tasks: Contributions from philosophy of education in the twentieth century", Education Research and Perspectives 27, 2, 2000: 1-23.

"Teaching and the barricades to inquiry", Journal of General Education 49, 2, 2000: 88-109.

"Portraying science accurately in classrooms: Emphasizing open-mindedness rather than relativism", Journal of Research in Science
37, 3, 2000: 225-36. Co-authored with Patricia Harding.

"Critical thinking as an aim of education", in Roger Marples (ed.), The Aims of Education London: Routledge, 1999: 85-99. Also published in Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 18, 2, 1998: 38-51.

"Four anxieties about open-mindedness: Reassuring Peter Gardner", Journal of Philosophy of Education 32, 2, 1998: 283-92. Co-authored with T. H. McLaughlin.

"Dewey and Russell: In search of common ground", Paideusis 10, 2, 1997: 25-31.

"Facing values in the classroom", Canadian Journal of Education 22, 2, 1997: 207-11.

"The Socratic virtues in teaching", Wesleyan Graduate Review 1, 1, 1997: 15-28. (A shorter version of my 1995 Robert Jackson Memorial Lecture.)

"Reason in teaching: Scheffler's philosophy of education", Studies in Philosophy and Education 16, 1-2, 1997: 89-101. Also published in Harvey Siegel (ed.), Reason and Education: Essays in Honour of Israel Scheffler Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997: 89-101.

"Making good teachers: A response to Jim Mackenzie", Educational Philosophy and Theory 28, 2, 1996: 69-72.

"Content and criticism: The aims of schooling", Journal of Philosophy of Education 29, 1, 1995: 47-60. Reprinted in Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 14, 3, 1995: 13-27.

"Commentary: Plastic power and plastic rods", in Eric W. Ricker and B. Anne Wood (eds.), Historical Perspectives on Educational Policy in Canada: Issues Debates and Case Studies Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 1995: 131-35.

"Open-mindedness, commitment and Peter Gardner", Journal of Philosophy of Education 28, 2, 1994: 239-44. Co-authored with T. H. McLaughlin.

"Continuity and controversy in philosophy of education", in Sharon Bailin and John P. Portelli (eds.), Reason and Values: New Essays in Philosophy of Education Calgary: Detselig, 1993: 1-7.

"Humility as a virtue in teaching", Journal of Philosophy of Education 26, 2, 1992: 227-36

"Philosophy of education in Canada", Eidos 10, 1, 1991: 69-90.

"Limiting the freedom of expression: The Keegstra case", Canadian Journal of Education 15, 4, 1990: 375-89.

"Teaching: nature, norm, and numbers", in Evelina Miranda and Romulo Magsino (eds.), Teaching, Schools and Society London: Falmer, 1990: 195-213.

"What can philosophy say to teachers?", in Hare (ed.), Reason In Teaching And Education 1989: 41-62.

"Open-mindedness revisited: A response to Cornel Hamm", Paideusis 1, 2, 1988: 23-26.

"Open-mindedness in the education of young children", Ethics in Education 7, 3, 1988: 2-3.

"Russell's contribution to the philosophy of education", Russell: The Journal of the Bertrand Russell Archives 7, 1, 1987: 25-41. Reprinted in A. D. Irvine (ed.), Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments Vol. 4 London: Routledge, 1998: 133-48.

"Open-mindedness in moral education: Three contemporary approaches" Journal of Moral Education 16, 2, 1987: 99-107.

"Elucidating Ellett", Canadian Journal of Education 12, 1, 1987: 265-9.

"Looking for leadership: Some false leads", Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations 1, 2, 1986: 52-55.

"Reading the Apology in school", The Classical World 80, 1, 1986: 25-29.

"Fostering open-mindedness in education", High School Journal 69, 3, 1986: 183-189.

"Reflections on some contemporary educational slogans", International Review of Education 36, 1, 1986: 71-83.

"Open-mindedness in the classroom", Journal of Philosophy of Education 19, 2, 1985: 251-259.

"Bias in stories for children", Journal of Applied Philosophy 2, 1, 1985: 99-108.

"Open-mindedness, liberalism and truth", Educational Philosophy and Theory 15, 1, 1983: 31-42.

"Open-mindedness in elementary education", Elementary School Journal 83, 3, 1983: 212-219. Reprinted in a condensed version entitled "Open-mindedness in elementary school", in Education Digest 48, 9, 1983: 28-30.

"Standards as a threat to open-mindedness", European Journal of Teacher Education 5, 3, 1982: 133-145.

"Open-mindedness in the teaching of philosophy", Metaphilosophy 13, 2, 1982: 165-180.

"Philosophical discernment and teaching: A response to Knape and Rosewell", Educational Studies 12, 3, 1981: 281-861.

"The attack on open-mindedness", Oxford Review of Education 7, 2, 1981: 119-129.

"Socrates", Ethics in Education 1, 4, 1981.

"Philosophy and practical advice", Journal of Education 7, 2, 1981: 3-5.

"Education and citizenship", Contact 48, February 1981.

"The role of art in the preparation of the classroom teacher", Annual Journal '80 Canadian Society for Education through Art: 8-9 and 46.

"Open education and open marriage: Response to Goldstone", Philosophy of Education: Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Meeting (ed.) Jerrold Coombs, 1979: 99-104.

"Open-mindedness as a feature of the educated outlook", Journal of Educational Thought 13, 1, 1979: 16-25.

"Education and cultural disadvantage", Educational Philosophy and Theory 11, 1, 1979: 17-21.

"Purpose and process: A comment on Ellis", Teacher Education 13, 1978: 35-39.

"The concept of study", Saskatchewan Journal of Educational Research and Development 8, 2, 1978: 40-46.

"The concept of innovation in education", Educational Theory 28, 1, 1978: 68-74. Reprinted in an education portfolio distributed by the International Communication Agency.

"The reading guide: A discussion note", New Horizons in Education 54, 1976: 11-12.

"Teaching: Preparation and certification", American Secondary Education 6, 3, 1976: 38-43.

"Calling a halt", Educational Studies, 7, 1, 1976: 62-72.

"The criterion of relevance", Saskatchewan Journal of Educational Research and Development 6, 2, 1976: 39-43.

"The open-minded teacher", Teaching Politics 5, 1, 1976: 25-32.

"Philosophy as a vocational handicap", Journal of Education 3, 2, 1975-76: 22-24.

"Considering", Journal of Educational Thought 9, 2, 1975: 107-114.

"Has listening had a fair hearing?", Agora 3, 1/2, 1975: 3-13.

"The disappearing teacher", in Michael Jackson (ed.) Schools, Freedom and Authority St. John's: Memorial University Press, 1975: 3-12.

"Controversy as a curriculum focus", History and Social Science Teacher 10, 4, 1975: 5-11. [Senior author; co-written with Karen Duerden and Bruce Roald.]

"Teacher education and the Graham Report", Journal of Education 2, 3, 1975: 5-6. Also published in C.S.S.E. News 11, 3, 1975: 4-6.

"Openness in education", Philosophy of Education 1974 Proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual Meeting, ed. M.J. Parsons: 218-226.

"Models of field experience", The Teacher Educator 10, 1, 1974: 14-21.

"The concept of discussion in educational theory", Kansas Studies in Education 23, 1, 1974: 6-12. Reprinted in a condensed version entitled "The concept of discussion", in Education Digest 40, 5. 1975: 28-31.

"Appreciation as a goal of aesthetic education", Journal of Aesthetic Education 8, 2, 1974: 5-12.

"Controversial issues and the teacher", High School Journal 57, 2, 1973: 51-60. Reprinted in Donald B. Cochrane and Martin Schiralli (eds.), Philosophy of Education: Canadian Perspectives Don Mills: Collier-MacMillan, 1982: 242-249.

"Analytical philosophy of education", Teacher Education 6, 1973: 66-74.

"The concept of reading: A philosophical analysis", Journal of Reading Behavior 5, 2, 1973: 152-155.

"Human rights, rhetoric and idle uses", Journal of Thought 8, 2, 1973: 138-146.

"Learning: Experience and enjoyment", Educational Forum 37, 3, 1973: 319-322.

"Education and character development", Journal of Moral Education 2, 2, 1973: 115-121.

"Education amid cultural diversity", International Education 2, 1, 1972: 36-44.

"Responsibility and rights in contemporary educational theory", Educational Theory 22, 3, 1972: 303-8.

"The teaching of judgment", British Journal of Educational Studies 19, 3, 1971: 243-9.

"A mixed form of the summary theory of character traits defended", The Personalist 52, 4, 1971: 750-54.

"Teaching, intention and care", Focus on Learning 1, 1, 1971: 19-26.

"The Mackay Report on religious education", Teacher Education 4, 1971: 16-23.

"Trying", Kinesis 3, 1, 1970: 43-58.

"The roles of teacher and critic", Journal of General Education 22, 1, 1970: 41-49.

"A sense of responsibility", Teacher Education 3, 1970: 52-59.

"Unsuccessful teaching", Educational Philosophy and Theory 1, 2, 1969: 53-59.

"On teaching moral procedures. A reply", British Journal of Educational Studies 16, 2, 1968: 200-202.


Review of Victor Quinn, Critical Thinking in Young Minds in Canadian Journal of Education 23, 4, 1998: 468-70.

Review of Richard Smith and Paul Standish (eds.), Teaching Right and Wrong: Moral Education in the Balance in Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations 13, 1, 1998: 77-83.

Review of Karl D. Hostetler (ed.), Ethical Judgment in Teaching in Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations 12, 2, 1997: 61-66.

Review of Robin Barrow and Patricia White (eds.), Beyond Liberal Education in Canadian Journal of Education 20, 2, 1995: 246-9.

Review of Max van Manen, The Tact of Teaching in Canadian Journal of Education 17, 4, 1992: 454-6.

Review of David Solway, Education Lost in Paideusis 5, 2, 1992: 44-5.

Review of "Battle over the Blackboard" - a video cassette - in Canadian Social Studies 26, 1, 1991: 31-2.

Review of Clive Beck, Better Schools in Canadian Journal of Education 15, 3, 1990: 314-16.

Review of David E. Cooper (ed.), Education, Values and Mind: Essays for R. S. Peters in Paideusis 2, 1, 1988: 29-31.

Review of Brian Hendley, Dewey, Russell, Whitehead: Philosophers as Educators in Journal of Educational Thought 22, 2, 1988: 149-151.

Review of George Kneller, Movements of Thought in Modern Education in Journal of Educational Thought 18, 3, 1984: 181-82.

Review of T.W. Moore, Philosophy of Education: An Introduction and Stephen Arons, Compelling Belief: The Culture of American Schooling in Ethics 94, 2, 1984: 379.

Review of Geoffrey Partington, The Idea of an Historical Education in History and Social Science Teacher, 18, 3, 1983: 185.

Review of John McPeck, Critical Thinking and Education in Canadian Journal of Education 7, 4, 1982: 107-110.

Review of Anthony O'Hear, Education, Society and Human Nature in Journal of Educational Thought 16, 2, 1982: 129-131.

Review of M. Piatelli-Palmarini (ed.) Language and Learning in Ethics 92, 3, 1982: 574-76.

Short notice of Alison L. Prentice and Susan E. Houston (eds.), Family, School and Society in Nineteenth Century Canada in History and Social Science Teacher 15, 2, 1980.

Review of D.I. Lloyd (ed.), Philosophy and the Teacher and Robin Barrow, Plato and Education in Educational Studies 9, 2, 1978: 223-6.

Review of E.V. Sullivan, Kohlberg's Structuralism: A Critical Appraisal in C.S.S.E. News March 1978: 11-12.

Review of Aaron Wolfgang (ed.), Education of Immigrant Students in History and Social Science Teacher 12, 1, 1976: 60.

Review of Stephen Tonsor, Tradition and Reform in Education, and Glenn Langford and D.J. O'Connor (eds.), New Essays in the Philosophy of Education, in CAUT Bulletin 24, 4, 1976: 21.

Review of J.P. White, Towards a Compulsory Curriculum in Educational Studies 5, 4, 1974-75: 293-294.

Review of Robert F. Madgic, Relevance and the Social Studies in History and Social Science Teacher 10, 4, 1975: 64-65.

Review of Israel Scheffler, Reason and Teaching in Journal of Thought 9, 4, 1974: 280-281.

Review of R.S. Peters (ed.), The Philosophy of Education in Journal of Thought 9, 8, 1974: 207-208.

Review of John Eisenberg and Gailand MacQueen, Don't Teach That and Malcolm Leven and Christine Sylvester, Rights of Youth in Canadian Journal of History and Social Science 9, 3, 1974: 45-46.

Review of Mary Alice White and Jan Duker, Education: A Conceptual and Empirical Approach in Educational Forum 37, 3, 1974: 380.

Review of I. A. Snook, Indoctrination and Education in Educational Forum 37, 3, 1973: 378-79.

Review of C.M. Beck, B.S. Crittenden, E.V. Sullivan (eds.), Moral Education: Interdisciplinary Approaches in Educational Studies 3, 4, 1972: 227.

Review of P.S.Wilson, Interest and Discipline in Education in Educational Studies, 3, 1, 1972: 36-37.


Copyright 2003 William Hare. Email: