Roman army bibliography

by Sander van Dorst.

This bibliography is based on my collection of books and articles on the Roman army and its enemies. The material is very much dependent on my personal interest in subjects. Some subjects like the Roman navy are therefore poorly represented.

Last update: 4th of February 2007.

Alphabetical index
The Roman army bibliography

Reading Suggestions

As a good introduction to the Roman army for the generally interested reader I recommend A. Goldsworthy's Roman warfare from the Cassell history of warfare series and J. Hackett's Warfare in the ancient world. For students I would suggest reading Y. LeBohec's L'armée Romaine, available in an English translation as The imperial Roman army, A.K. Goldsworthy's The Roman army at war 100BC-AD200, L. Keppie's The making of the Roman army and B. Campbell's War and society in imperial Rome 31 BC - 284AD as well as his The emperor and the Roman army 27BC-AD235. For study of Roman armour and weaponry M.C. Bishop and J.C. Coulston's Roman military equipment and M. Fuegère's Les armes des Romains provide an excellent overview. The books by Peter Connolly, though aimed at the youth, are deserving of an adult public as well and highly recommendable for their well researched texts and superior artwork.

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  • Glossary of Roman army terms

  • Arrian's Array Against the Alans

  • Abbreviations

    AJAH = American Journal of Ancient History.
    AJPh = American Journal of Philology.
    ANRW = Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt.
    AW = Armeen und Waffen.
    BARi = British Archaeological Reports International Series.
    BJ = Bonner Jahrbücher.
    BROB = Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek.
    E = Elite.
    GRBS = Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies.
    JHS = Journal of Hellenic Studies.
    JRMES= Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies.
    JRS= Journal of Roman Studies.
    MAA= Men-At-Arms.
    MilIll= Military Illustrated.
    ShA= Shire Archaeology.
    TAPhA= Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.
    W= Warrior.
    ZPE= Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik.


    A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z


    Abramenko, A., 'Othonianus. Zur Genese von cognomina aus militärischer Terminologie' in: ZPE 95 (1993), 226-228.
    Abranson, E., Roman legionaries at the time of Julius Caesar (London 1979).
    Absil, M. and Y. Le Bohec, 'La liberation des soldats romains sous le Haut-Empire' in: Latomus 44 (1985), 855-870.
    Adams, C.E.P., 'Supplying the Roman Army: O.Petr. 245' in: ZPE 109 (1995), 119-124.
    Adams, J.N., 'The language of the Vindolanda writing tablets: an interim report' in: JRS 85 (1995), 86- 134.
    Adams, J.N., 'The poets of Bu Njem: language, culture and the centurionate' in: JRS 89 (1999), 109-134.
    Adams, J.N., 'Romanitas and the Latin language' in: CQ 53 (2003), 184-205.
    Adcock, F.E., The Roman art of war under the republic (Harvard 1940) 140p.
    Alföldi, A., 'Hasta-summa imperii' in: American Journal of Archaeology 59 (1963), 1-27.
    Alföldy, G., Die Legionslegaten der römischen Rheinarmeen. Epigraphische Studien Bd. 3 (Köln 1967) 139p.
    Alföldy, G., Die Hilfstruppen in der römischen Provinz Germania Inferior. Epigrafische Studien Bd. 6 (Düsseldorf 1968) 238p.
    Alföldy, G. et al., Sammelband. Epigraphische Studien Bd. 8 (Köln 1969) 133p.
    Alföldi, G., 'Epigraphica Hispanica XII: eine neue Inschrift aus Tarraco: Dispensator Census Sarmatici oder Discens Armaturae?' in: ZPE 87 (1991), 163-167.
    Alföldi, G., B. Dobson and W. Eck (eds.), Kaiser, Heer und Gesellschaft in der Römischen Kaiserzeit (Stuttgart 2000), 509p.
    Allen, S., Celtic warrior 300BC-100AD (London 2001) 64p.
    Alston, R., 'Roman military pay from Caesar to Diocletian' in: JRS 84 (1994), 113-123.
    Alston, R., Soldier and society in Roman Egypt (London 1995) 263p. Review
    Amato, R. D', Roman military clothing (3) AD400-640 MAA 425 (London 2005) 48p.
    Anderson, A.S., Roman military tombstones ShA 19 (Princes Risborough 1981) 64p.
    Anglim, S., P.G. Jestice, R.S. Rice, S.M. Rusch and J. Serrati, Fighting techniques of the ancient world 3000 BC - AD 500 (London 2002) 256p.
    Antonaras, A.and P.M.Nigdelis, 'Ein neues Militärdiplom im Museum byzantinischer Kultur von Thessaloniki' in: ZPE 121 (1998), 283-286.
    Arrigoni Bertini, M.G., 'Un vexillarius della IIII legio Macedonica a Parma' in: Epigraphica 50 (1988), 179-189.
    Ausbüttel, F.M., 'Zur rechtlichen Lage der römischen Militärvereine' in: Hermes 113 (1985), 500-505.
    Austin, N.J.E., 'In support of Ammianus' veracity' in: Historia 22 (1973), 331-335.
    Austin, N.J.E. and N.B. Rankov, Exploratio. Military intelligence in the Roman world from the second Punic war to the battle of Adrianople (London 1995) 292p. Review

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    Baatz, D., Der römische Limes. Archäologische Ausflüge zwischen Rhein und Donau (Berlin 1975) 308p.
    Baatz, D., Die Wachttürme am Limes (Stuttgart 1976) 52p.
    Baatz, D., Limeskastell Saalburg (Saalburg 1991) 32p.
    Baatz, D. and R. Bockius, Vegetius und die römische Flotte (Mainz 1997) 64p.
    Babuin, A., 'Standards and insignia of Byzantium' in: Byzantion 71 (2001), 5-59.
    Bagnall, N., The Punic Wars (London 1990) 347p.
    Bagnall, N., The Punic wars (London 2002) 95p.
    Bagnall, R.S., The Florida ostraka. Documents from the Roman army in Upper Egypt (Durham 1976) 74p.
    Bailey, G.B. and J. Cannel, 'Excavations at Kinneil fortlet on the Antonine Wall, 1980-1' in: Proc Soc Antiq Scot 126 (1996), 303-346.
    Baillie Reynolds, P.K., 'The troops quartered in the castra peregrina' in: JRS 13 (1923), 168-187.
    Barker, P., The armies and enemies of Imperial Rome (Sussex 1981) 148p.
    Barlow, J. and P. Brennan, 'Tribuni scholarum palatinarum c. AD 353-364: Ammianus Marcellinus and the Notitia Dignitatum' in: Classical Quarterly 51 (2001), 237-254.
    Barnes, T.D., 'Imperial campaigns, AD 285-311' in: Phoenix 30 (1976), 174-193.
    Barnes, T.D., 'The date of Vegetius' in: Phoenix 33 (1979), 254-257.
    Baronowski, D.W., 'Roman military forces in 225 BC (Polybius 2,23-4)' in: Historia 42 (1993), 181-202.
    Bartusis, M.C., The Late Byzantine Army and society, 1204-1453 (Philadelphia 1997) 438p.
    Bauchhenss, G., Militärische Grabdenkmäler. CSIR Deutschland Band III, 1. Germania Inferior. Bonn und Umgebung (Bonn 1978) 80p.
    Bechert, T. and W.J.H. Willems, De Romeinse Rijksgrens (Stuttgart 1995) 120p.
    Bédoyère, G. de la, Hadrian's wall. History & guide (Stroud 1998) 160p.
    Bédoyère, G. de la, Eagles over Britannia. The Roman army in Britain (Stroud 2001) 256p.
    Beliën, P., Het Romeinse leger in Nederland (Delft 1996) 72p.
    Bell, M.J.V., 'Tactical reform in the Roman republican army' in: Historia 14 (1965), 404-422.
    Ben Abdallah, Z.B. and L. Ennabli, 'Listes militaires découvertes dans la basilique de Carthagena' in: Epigraphica 60 (1998), 135-164.
    Benario, H.W., ‘Arminius into Hermann: history into legend’ in: Greece and Rome 51 (2004), 83-94.
    Bennett, M. (ed.), The Hutchinson dictionary of ancient and medieval warfare (Oxford 1998) 365p.
    Benseddik, N., Les troupes auxiliaires de l'armée romaine en Maurétanie Césarienne sous le haut empire ((Algiers 1982) 285p.
    Bertrand, A.C., 'Stumbling through Gaul: maps, intelligence and Caesar's Bellum Gallicum' in: AHB 11.4 (1997), 107-122.
    Best, E.E., 'The literate Roman soldier' in: The Classical Journal 62 (1966), 122-127.
    Birley, A.R., 'VI Victrix in Britain' in: Butler, R.M. (ed.) Soldier and civilian in Roman Yorkshire (Leicester 1971), 81-96.
    Birly, A. and R. Birley, 'Four new writing-tablets from Vindolanda' in: ZPE 100 (1994), 431-445.
    Birley, A.R., Garrison life at Vindolanda. A band of brothers (Stroud 2002) 192p.
    Birley, E.B., 'The fate of the Ninth Legion' in: Butler, R.M. (ed.) Soldier and civilian in Roman Yorkshire (Leicester 1971), 71-80.
    Birley, E., 'Alae named after their commanders' in: Ancient Society 9 (1978), 257-273.
    Birley, E., 'Veterans of the Roman army in Britain and elsewhere' in: Ancient Society 13-14 (1982-1983), 265-276.
    Birley, E., The Roman army. Papers 1929-1986 (Amsterdam 1988) 457p.
    Bishop, M.C., and J.C. Coulston, Arma vol.4, n.1.
    Bishop, M.C., and J.C. Coulston, Arma vol.3, n.2.
    Bishop, M.C., and J.C. Couston, Roman military equipment ShA 59 (Princes Risborough 1989) 76p.
    Bishop, M.C., and J.C. Coulston, Roman military equipment (London 1993) 256p.
    Bishop, M.C., 'The early imperial apron' in: JRMES 3 (1992), 81-104.
    Bishop, M.C., 'Aketon, thoracomachus and lorica segmentata' in: Exercitus 3-1 (1996), 1-3.
    Bishop, M.C., Lorica segmentata vol. 1. A handbook of articulated Roman plate armour (Braemar 2002) 112p.
    Bitter, N., Kampfschilderungen bei Ammianus Marcellinus (Bonn 1976) 210p.
    Bleckmann, B., Die römische Nobilität im Ersten Punischen Krieg. Untersuchungen zur aristokratischen Konkurrenz in der Republik (Berlin 2002) 271p.
    Bleckmann, B., 'Der Bürgerkrieg zwischen Constantin II. und Constans (340 n. Chr.)' in: Historia 52 (2003), 225-250.
    Blockley, R.C., 'Ammianus Marcellinus on the battle of Strasburg: art and analysis in the History' in: Phoenix 31 (1977), 218-231.
    Blockley, R.C., 'Ammianus Marcellinus on the Persian invasion of AD 359' in: Phoenix 42 (1988), 244-260.
    Blois, L. de, 'Roman officers and politics. The manipulation of the military cadre in the period 44-36BC' in: Laverna 3 (1992), 104-128.
    Blois, L. de, 'Sueton, Aug.46 und die Manipulation des mitleren Militärkaders als politischen Instrument' in: Historia 43 (1994), 324-345.
    Blois, L. de, 'Volk und Soldaten bei Cassius Dio' in: ANRW II 34-3 (1997), 2650-2676.
    Bogaers, J.E. and C.B. Rueger, Der niedergermanische Limes. Materialien zu seiner Geschichte (Koeln 1974) 251p.
    Bohec, Y. Le, L'armée Romaine (Paris 1989) 287p.
    Bohec, Y Le, La troisième légion Auguste (Paris 1989) 632p.
    Bohec, Y. Le, 'Vive la légion!' in: Latomus 50 (1991), 858-860.
    Bohec, Y. Le, 'Les estampilles de l'armée Romaine sur briques et sur tuiles' in: Epigraphica 54 (1992), 43-62.
    Bohec, Y. Le, The imperial Roman army (London 1994) 304p.
    Bohec, Y. Le, Histoire militaire des guerres Puniques (Paris 1996) 343p.
    Bohec, Y. Le, César. Chef de guerre (Paris 2001) 511p.
    Bohec, Y. Le, 'La marine romaine et la premiére guerre punique' in: Klio 85 (2003), 57-69.
    Bohec, Y. Le (ed.), Revue des études militaires anciennes 1 (2004) 190p.
    Bohec, Y. Le and C. Wolff (eds.), L’armée Romaine de Dioclétien à Valentinien 1er (Lyon 2004) 542p.
    Bohec, Y. Le, L'armée romaine sous le Bas-Empire (Paris 2006) 256p.
    Boren, H.C., ‘Studies relating to the stipendium militum’ in: Historia 32 (1983), 427-460.
    Borhy, L., 'Praepositus legionis hinc burgum a fundamentis in diebus XXXXVIII fecit pervenire: Überlegungen zu CIL III 3653 aus Esztergom hinsichtlich der Dauer der Errichtung spätrömischer Militäranlagen' in: Arctos 33 (1999), 7-13.
    Born, H. and M. Junkelmann, Römische Kampf - und Turnierrüstungen (Mainz 1997) 222p.
    Bosworth, A.B., 'Vespasian's reorganization of the North-East frontier' in: Antichthon 10 (1976), 63-78.
    Bosworth, A.B., 'Arrian and the Alani' in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 81 (1977), 217-255.
    Bottini, A., Arma. Gli instrumenti della guerra in Lucania (Bari 1994) 242p.
    Bowman, A.K., 'The military occupation of Upper Egypt in the reign of Diocletian' in: Bulletin of the American society of papyrologists 15 (1978), 25-38.
    Bowman, A.K., Life and letters on the Roman frontier (London 1994) 159p.
    Bradley, K.R., Slavery and rebellion in the Roman world (London 1989) 186p.
    Brand, C.E., Roman military law (Austin 1968) 226p.
    Brandl, U., 'Bemerkungen zu einem Ziegelstempeltyp der Legio XIV Gemina aus der Germania Superior und Carnuntum' in: ZPE 112 (1996), 224-228.
    Braun, R., Frühe Forschungen am obergermanischen Limes in Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart 1991) 148p.
    Braund, D., 'New "Latin" inscriptions in central Asia: legio XV Apollinaris and Mithras?' in: ZPE 89 (1991), 188-190.
    Breeze, D., Hadrian's Wall: a souvenir guide to the Roman Wall (London 1987) 48p.
    Breeze, D., Roman forts in Britain ShA 37 (Princes Risborough 1983) 72p.
    Breeze, D.J., 'The organisation of the legion: the first cohort and the equites legionis' in: JRS 59 (1969), 50-55.
    Breeze, D.J., 'Paygrades and ranks below the centurionate' in: JRS 61 (1971) 130-135.
    Breeze, D.J., 'The career structure below the centurionate during the principate' in: ANRW II-1 (Berlin-New York 1974), 435-451.
    Breeze, D.J., 'The organisation of the career structure of the immunes and principales of the Roman army' in: BJ 174 (1974), 245-292.
    Breeze, D.J., 'The ownership of weapons' in: Britannia 7 (1976), 93-95.
    Breeze, D.J., 'A note on the use of the titles Optio and Magister below the centurionate during the principate' in: Britannia 7 (1976), 127-133.
    Breeze, D.J. and B. Dobson, Hadrian's wall (3rd edition) (London 1987) 326p.
    Brennan, P., 'Combined legionary detachments as artillery units in Late-Roman Danubian bridgehead dispositions' in: Chiron 10 (1980), 553-567.
    Brennan, P., 'The Notitia Dignitatum' in: Fondations Hardt 42 (1996), 147-178.
    Brennan, P., 'The user's guide to the Notitia Dignitatum: the case of the Dux Armeniae (ND Or. 38)' in: Antichthon 32 (1998), 34-49.
    Breukers, J., Het legioen (Heerlen 1992) 32p.
    Brewer, R.J. (ed.), Roman fortresses and their legions (London 2000) 187p.
    Brewer, R.J., The second Augustan legion and the Roman military machine (Cardiff 2002) 212p.
    Briquel, D., 'La tradition sur l'emprunt des armes samnites par Rome' in: A. Adam and R. Rouveret (ed.), Guerre et sociétés en Italië au Ve et IVe siècles avant J.-C. (Paris 1986), 65-86.
    Brisson, Problèmes de la guerre à Rome (Paris 1969) 195p.
    Brunt, P.A., 'The army and the land in the Roman revolution' in: JRS 52 (1962), 69-86.
    Brunt, P.A., 'Did Imperial Rome disarm her subjects ?' in: Phoenix 29 (1975), 260-270.
    Brunt, P.A., 'Conscription and volunteering in the Roman imperial army' in: Roman imperial themes (Oxford 1990), 188-214.
    Brunt, P.A., 'Tacitus on the Batavian revolt' in: Roman imperial themes (Oxford 1990), 33-52.
    Bruun, C., 'Caligatus, tubicen, optio carceris, and the centurions' positions; some remarks on an inscription in ZPE 71 (1988)*' in: Arctos 22 (1988), 23-40.
    Burns, T.S., 'The battle of Adrianople: a reconsideration' in: Historia 22 (1973), 336-345.
    Burns, T.S., Barbarians within the gates of Rome. A study of Roman military policy and the barbarians, ca 375-425 AD (Bloomington and Indianapolis 1994) 417p.
    Burns, T.S., Rome and the barbarians 100 BC-AD 400 (Baltimore 2003) 461p.
    Burrell, E., ‘A re-examination of why Stilicho abandoned his pursuit of Alaric in 397’ in: Historia 53 (2004), 250-256.

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    Campbell, B., 'Who were the 'viri militares' ?' in: JRS 65 (1975), 11-31.
    Campbell, B., 'The marriage of soldiers under the Empire' in: JRS 68 (1978), 153-166.
    Campbell, B., The emperor and the Roman army 31BC-AD235 (Oxford 1984) 468p.
    Campbell, B., 'Teach yourself how to be a general' in: JRS 77 (1987), 13-29.
    Campbell, B., The Roman army 31 BC-AD 337: a source book (London 1994) 272p.
    Campbell, B., War and society in imperial Rome (London 2002) 208p.
    Campbell, B., Greek and Roman military writers. Selected readings (London 2004) 231p. Review
    Campbell, D.B., 'The might of Rome' in: Cross, R. (ed.) Warfare: a chronological history (London 1991), 30-45.
    Campbell, D.B., 'Auxiliary artillery revisited' in: Bonner Jahrbücher 186 (1986), 117-132.
    Campbell, D.B., Greek and Roman siege machinery 399 BC - AD 363 (London 2003) 46p.
    Campbell, D.B., Greek and Roman artillery 399 BC - AD 363 (London 2003) 46p.
    Campbell, D.B., Roman legionary fortresses Fortress 43 (London 2006) 64p.
    Campbell, J., 'Legio' in: Der neue Pauly Band 7 (Stuttgart 1999), 7-22.
    Cavaignac, E., 'Les six ans de service et la guerre d'Espagne' in: Revue Philologique 25 (1951), 169-177.
    Caven, B., The Punic wars (London 1980) 308p.
    Champion, C.B. (ed.), Roman imperialism. Readings and sources (London 2004) 324p.
    Charles, M., ‘Vegetius on armour: the pedites nudati of the Epitoma rei militaris’ in: Ancient Society 33 (2003), 127-167.
    Cheesman, G.L., The auxilia of the Roman imperial army (Oxford 1914) 192p.
    Cherry, D., 'Soldiers' marriages and recruitment in Upper Germany and Numidia' in: AHB 3.6 (1989), 128-130.
    Chilver, G.E.F., 'The army in politics, AD 68-70' in: JRS 47 (1957), 29-35.
    Christol, M., 'Sur quelqes centurions de la légion IIIa Augusta" in: ZPE 103 (1994), 181-187.
    Christol, M., ‘Les gouverneurs de Numdie sous Valérien et Gallien et l’historie militaire de la province entre 253 et 260’ in: L’Antiquité Classique 72 (2003), 141-159.
    Clark, E.D., 'Roman legionary forces in Sicily during the Second Punic War: the number of legions stationed on the island from 214 to 210 BC' in: AHB 8.4 (1994), 133-140.
    Clarysse, W. and P.J. Sypesteyn, 'A military roster on a vase in Amsterdam' in: Ancient Society 19 (1988), 71-96.
    Clauss, M., 'Der canalicularius' in: Ancient Society 6 (1975), 251-256.
    Clauss, M., 'Probleme der Lebensalterstatistiken aufgrund römischer Grabinschriften' in: Chiron 3 (1973), 395-417.
    Clauss, M., 'Frumentarius Augusti' in: Epigraphica 42 (1980), 131-134.
    Clauss, M., Lexicon lateinischer militärische Fachausdrücke (Stuttgart 1999) 103p.
    Clunn, T., In quest of the lost legions. The Varusschlacht (London 1999) 337p.
    Coello, T., Unit sizes in the late Roman army (Oxford 1996) 71p.
    Colenbrander, B. (ed.), Limes Atlas (Rotterdam 2005) 208p.
    Connolly, P., Het Romeinse leger (Harderwijk 1976) 77p.
    Connolly, P., Hannibal und die Feinde Roms (Nürnberg 1978) 77p.
    Connolly, P., Greece and Rome at war (London 1981) 320p.
    Connolly, P., Living in the times of Jezus of Nazareth (Oxford 1983) 96p.
    Connolly, P., Tiberius Claudius Maximus. Ein römischer Legionär (Nürnberg 1990) 32p.
    Connolly, P., Tiberius Claudius Maximus. Ein römischer Reiter (Nürnberg 1990) 32p.
    Connolly, P., 'Greece and Rome' in: Coe, M.D., Swords and hilt weapons (London 1989), 20-29.
    Connolly, P., The Roman fort (Oxford 1991) 32p.
    Cormack, J.M.R., 'Epitaph of a legionary of the legio XVI Flavia from Macedonia' in: JRS 31 (1941), 24-25.
    Cornell, T., B. Rankov and P. Sabin (ed.), The second Punic war: a reappraisal (London 1996) 117p. Review
    Coulston, J.C.N., 'Roman Archery Equipment' in: M.C. Bishop (ed.), BARi 275. The production and distribution of Roman military equipment (Oxford 1985), 220-366.
    Coulston, J.C.N., 'Roman, Parthian and Sassanid tactical developments' in: P. Freeman and D.L. Kennedy (ed.) The defence of the Roman and Byzantine East (Oxford 1986), 59-75.
    Coulston, J.C.N., 'Three legionaries at Croy-Hill' in: J.C. Coulston (ed.), BARi 394: Military equipment and the identity of Roman soldiers (Oxford 1988), 1-29.
    Coulston, J.C.N., 'The value of Trajan's column as a source for military equipment' in: C. van Driel-Murray (ed.), BARi 479: The sources of evidence (Oxford 1989), 31-44.
    Coulston, J.C.N., 'Later Roman Armour' in: JRMES 1 (1990), 139-160.
    Cowan, R., Roman legionary 58 BC -AD 69 W 71 (London 2003) 64p.
    Cowan, R., Imperial Roman legionary AD 161-248 (London 2003) 64p.
    Cristol, M., 'La carrière de Traianus Mucianus et l'origine des protectores' in: Chiron 7 (1977), 393-408.
    Crawford, M.H., 'War and finance' in: JRS 54 (1964), 29-32.
    Cromwell, R.S., The rise and decline of the late Roman field army (Shippensburg 1998) 79p.
    Crump, G.A., 'Ammianus and the Late Roman Army' in: Historia 22 (1973), 91-103.
    Crump, G.A., Ammianus as a military historian. Historia Einzelschriften 27 (Stuttgart 1975) 140p.
    Cuvigny, H., 'Plèrôma dans l'identification des soldats de marine' in: ZPE (1994), 169-173.

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    Dabrowa, E., Legio X Fretensis. A prosographical study of its officers (I-III c. AD) (Stuttgart 1993) 128p.
    Dabrowa, E. (ed.), Roman military studies (Krakow 2001) 191p.
    Dabrowa, E. (ed.), Pod znakami Aresa i Marsa / Sub signis Aris et Martis (Krakow 1995) 158p.
    Daele, B. van, Het Romeinse leger (Leuven 2003) 252p.
    Daele, R. van, De Romeinse marine (Leuven 2006) 254p.
    Dahlheim, W., 'Die Armee eines Weltreiches: der römische Soldat und sein Verhältnis zu Staat und Gesellschaft' in: Klio 74 (1992), 197-220.
    Daly, G., Cannae. The experience of battle in the second Punic war (London 2002) 251p.
    Dando-Collins, S., Caesar's legion (Hoboken 2002) 320p.
    Daris, S., Documenti per la storia dell’esercito Romano in Egitto (Milano 1964) 261p.
    Davies, R., ‘Ratio and opinio in Roman military documents’ in: Historia 16 (1967), 115-118.
    Davies, R. et al., Sammelband. Epigraphische Studien 9 (Köln 1972) 260p.
    Davies, R., Service in the Roman army (Edinburgh 1989) 336p.
    Davison, J., 'A note on Roman infantry roles' in: Arma 1.2 (1989), 28-29.
    Dawson, D., The origins of Western warfare. Militarism and morality in the Ancient World (Oxford 1996) 203p.
    Delbrück, H., History of the art of war, volume I: warfare in antiquity (Lincoln and London 1990) 604p.
    Delbrück, H., History of the art of war, volume II: the barbarian invasions (London 1990) 505p.
    Dennis, G.T., and E. Gamillscheg, Das Strategikon des Maurikios (Vienna 1981) 557p.
    Dennis, G.T., Maurice's Strategikon. Handbook of Byzantine military strategy ( Philadelphia 1984) 178p.
    Dennis, G.T., Three Byzantine military treatises. Text, translations and notes (Washington 1985) 380p.
    Deschler-Erb, E., Ad arma. Römische Militär des 1. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. in Augusta Raurica (Augst 1999) 236p.
    Develin, R., 'The army pay rises under Severus and Caracalla, and the question of annona militaris' in: Latomus 30 (1971), 687-695.
    Devijver, H., 'Les 'militiae equestres' de P. Helvius Pertinax' in: ZPE 75 (1988), 207-214.
    Devijver, H., 'A new Roman auxiliary cohort in Egypt' in: ZPE 104 (1994), .
    Devijver, H., The equestrian officers of the Roman imperial army (Amsterdam 1989) 474p.
    Devine, A.M., 'Arrian's 'Tactica'' in: ANRW II 34-1 (1993), 312-317.
    DeVoto, J.G., Flavius Arrianus: Technè Taktika (Tactical handbook) and Ektaxis kata Alanoon (The expedition against the Alans) (Chicago 1993) 132p.
    Dietz, K., 'Der Pollio in der römischen Legion' in: Chiron 15 (1985), 235-252.
    Dise, R.L., 'A reassessment of the functions of beneficiarii consularis' in: AHB 9.2 (1995), 72-85.
    Dilke, O.A.W., Greek and Roman maps (London 1985) 224p.
    Dise, R.L., 'The beneficarii procuratoris of Celeia and the development of the statio network' in: ZPE 113 (1996), 286-292.
    Dise, R.L., 'Trajan, the Antonines and the governor's staff' in: ZPE 116 (1997), 273-284.
    Dise, R.L., 'Variation in Roman administrative practice: the assignments of beneficiarii consularis' in: ZPE 116 (1997), 284-299.
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    Krentz, P. and E.L. Wheeler, Polyaenus. Stratagems of war Volumes I & II (Chicago 1994) 1091p.
    Kulikowski, M., 'The Notitia Dignitatum as a historical source' in: Historia 49 (2000), 358-377.
    Künzl, E., Der römische Triumph. Siegesfeiern im antiken Rom (München 1988) 171p.

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    Laing, J., Warriors of the dark ages (Stroud 2000) 178p.
    Lajtar, A., 'Ptolemaic soldiers under the Romans. A note on the dedication of an Ilarchès (ZPE 87, 1991, 53-55)' in: ZPE 94 (1992), 213-216.
    Lambert, N. and J. Scheuerbrandt, Das Militärdiplom. Quelle zur römischen Armee und zum Urkundenwesen (Stuttgart 2002)75p.
    Lammert, F., 'Die romische Taktik' in: Philologus Supplement 23-II (1932), 1-62.
    Lander, J. and S. Thomas Parker, 'Legio IV Martia and the legionary camp at El-Lejjun' in: Byzantion 8 (1982), 185-210.
    Lazenby, J., Hannibal's war (Warminster 1978)340p.
    Lazenby, J., The first Punic war (London 1996) 205p. Review
    Le Roux, P., 'L'armée Romaine au cotidien: deux graffiti legionnaires de Pompei et Rome' in: Epigraphica 45 (1983), 65-77.
    Le Roux, P., 'L'armée Romaine sous les Sévères' in: ZPE 94 (1992), 261-268.
    Le Roux, P., 'Armées, rhétorique et politique dans l'empire Gallo-Romain' in: ZPE 115 (1997), 281-290.
    Leander Touati, A., The great Trajanic frieze (Stockholm 1987) 130p.
    Lehmann, C., 'On the latin of Claudius Terentianus (P. Mich. VIII, 467-472)' in: Cuadernos de Filologia Clasica 21 (1988), 11-23.
    Lems, E., Op zoek naar Matilo (Leiden 1995) 80p.
    Lendering, J., Oorlogsmist. Veldslagen en propaganda uit de Oudheid (Amsterdam 2006) 406p.
    Lendon, J.E., Soldiers and ghosts. A history of battle in Classical Antiquity (Yale 2005) 468p. Review
    Lenski, N., 'The election of Jovian and the role of the late imperial guards' in: Klio 82 (2000), 492-515.
    Lenoir, M., 'La littérature De re militari' in: Fondations Hardt 42 (1995), 77-115.
    Liberati, A.M. and F. Silverio, Organizzazione militare: esercito (Roma 1988) 93p.
    Liberati, A.M. and F. Silverio, Le legioni di Roma (Roma 1990) 39p.
    Liddell Hart, B.H., Scipio Africanus. Greater than Napoleon (London 1926) 281p.
    Liertz, U., 'Zur Frage der Romanisierung durch das Heer in Germania Inferior am Beispiel Kaiserkult' in: Arctos 28 (1994), 27-37.
    Lightfoot, C.S. and J.F. Healy, 'A Roman veteran on the Tigris' in: Epigraphica Anatolica 17 (1991), 1-7.
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    Lindner, P., 'Nomadism, horses and Huns' in: Past and Present 92 (1981), 3-19.
    Lintott, A., Violence in republican Rome (2nd ed.) (Oxford 1999) 240p.
    Lorincz, B., 'Zur Herkunft eines Soldaten der cohors I Augusta ituraeorum in: ZPE 95 (1993), 297-299.
    Lorincz, B. and S. Petenyi, 'Zwei neue Militärdiplome aus Pannonien' in: ZPE101 (1994), 197-204.
    Luttwak, E.N., The grand strategy of the Roman Empire (Baltimore 1976) 255p.

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    MacDonald, F., A Roman fort (Hove 1993) 48p.
    MacDowall, S., Late Roman Infantryman W 9 (London 1994) 64p. Review
    MacDowall, S., Late Roman Cavalryman W 15 (London 1995) 64p. Review
    MacDowall, S., Germanic Warrior 236-568 AD W 17 (London 1996) 64p.
    MacDowall, S., Adrianople AD 378 CA 84 (London 2001) 96p. Review
    MacIvor, I., M.C. Thomas and D.J. Breeze, 'Excavations on the Antonine Wall fort of Rough Castle, Stirlingshire 1957-61' in: Proc Soc Antiq Scot 110 (1978-1980), 230-285.
    MacMullen, R., 'The legion as a society' in: Historia 33 (1984), 440-456.
    MacMullen, R., Soldier and civilian in the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge Mass. 1963).
    MacMullen, R., 'How big was the Roman Army?' in: Klio 62 (1980), 451-460.
    MacMullen, R., 'The Roman emperor's army costs' in: Latomus 43 (1984), 571-580.
    Manley, J., AD 43 the Roman invasion of Britain. A reassessment (Stroud 2002) 160p.
    Mann, J.C., 'A note on the numeri' in: Hermes 82 (1954), 501-506.
    Mann, J.C., 'The raising of new legions during the principate' in: Hermes 91 (1963), 483-489.
    Mann, J.C., 'The frontiers of the principate' in: ANRW II-1 (1975), 508-533.
    Mann, J.C., 'Power, force and the frontiers of the empire' in: JRS 69 (1979), 175-183.
    Mann, J.C., Legionary recruitment and veteran settlement during the principate (London 1983) 184p.
    Mann, J.C., 'The castra peregrina and the peregrini' in: ZPE 74 (1988), 148.
    Mann, J.C.,'The organisation of frumentarii' in: ZPE 74 (1988), 149-150.
    Mann, J.C. en M.M. Roxan, 'Discharge certificates of the Roman army' in: Britannia 19 (1988), 341-347.
    Mann, J.C., 'Roman legionary centurial symbols' in: ZPE 115 (1997), 295-298.
    Mann, J.C., 'A note on the legion IV Italica' in: ZPE 126 (1999), 228.
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    Marsden, E.W., 'Polybius as a military historian' in: Fondation Hardt 20 (1973), 269-301.
    Marsden, E.W., Greek and Roman artillery: historical development (Oxford 1999) 232p.
    Marsden, E.W., Greek and Roman artillery: technical treatises (Oxford 1999) 277p.
    Mason, D.J.P., Roman Britain and the Roman navy (Stroud 2003) 224p.
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    Matthews, R., Roman soldiers (Hove 1989) 24p.
    Maxfield, V.A., The military decorations of the Roman army (London 1981) 304p.
    Maxfield, V.A. and M.J. Dobson (eds.), Roman frontier studies. Proceedings of the XVth international congress of Roman frontier studies (Exeter 1991) 512p.
    May, E.C., G.P. Stadler and J.F. Votaw, Ancient and medieval warfare (Wayne 1984) 124p.
    Mayerson, P., 'The use of the term phylarchos in the Roman-Byzantine east' in: ZPE 88 (1991), 291-295.
    Mayor, A., Greek fire, poison arrows & scorpion bombs (New York 2004) 319p.
    McCall, J.B., The cavalry of the Roman republic (London 2001) 200p.
    McDonald, A.H., 'The Roman conquest of Cisalpine Gaul (201-191 B.C.)' in: Antichthon 8 (1974), 44-53.
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    Milner, N.P., Vegetius: epitome of military science (Liverpool 1993) 152p. Review
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    Mitthof, F., 'Quittung eines Soldaten an presbyteroi koomès ueber verschiedene Lieferungen. Ein Neuedition von P. ALex. Inv. 463' in: ZPE 102 (1994), 207-212.
    Mommsen, Th., 'Die Conscriptionsordnung der römischen Kaiserzeit' in: Hermes 19 (1884), 1-79; 210-234.
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    Morgan, G., 69 AD. The year of the four emperors (Oxford 2006) 322p.
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    Nicasie, M.J., The twilight of empire. The Roman army from the reign of Diocletian until the battle of Adrianople (Amsterdam 1998) 321p.
    Nicolle, D., Rome's enemies V: the desert frontier MAA 243 (London 1991) 48p.
    Nicolle, D., Romano-Byzantine Armies 4th-9th centuries MAA 247 (London 1992) 48p.
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    Nollé, J., 'Militärdiplom für einen in Britannien entlassenen 'Daker'' in: ZPE 117 (1997), 269-276.

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    Oakley. S.P., 'Single combat in the Roman republic' in: Classical Quarterly 35 (1985), 392-410.
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    Parker, H.M.D., 'The legions of Diocletian and Constantine' in: JRS 23 (1933), 175-189.
    Parker, H.M.D., 'The antiqua legio of Vegetius' in: Classical Quarterly 16 (1932), 137-149.
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    Pavkovicz, M.F., 'Singulares legati legionis: guards of a legionary legate or a provincial governor?' in: ZPE 103 (1994), 223-228.
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    Peddie, J., The Roman war machine (Stroud 1994) 169p.
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    Pelling, C.B.R., 'Pharsalus' in: Historia 22 (1973), 249-259.
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    Petrikovits, H. von, 'Fortifications in the north-western Roman Empire from the third to the fifth centuries AD' in: JRS 61 (1971), 178-218.
    Pferdehirt, B., Die Rolle des Militärs für den sozialen Aufstieg in der römischen Kaiserzeit (Mainz 2002) 269p.
    Pflaum, H.G., 'Zur reform des Kaisers Gallienus' in: Historia 25 (1976), 109-117.
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    Pietilä-Castrén, L., 'New men and the Greek war booty' in: Arctos 16 (1982), 121-143.
    Piso, I., 'Ein Bruchstueck eines Militaerdiploms aus Apulum' in: ZPE 126 (1999), 246-248.
    Potter, D., 'Empty areas and Roman frontier policy' in: AJPh 113 (1992), 269-274.
    Prevas, J., Hannibal crosses the Alps. The invasion of Italy and the Punic wars (Cambridge MA 1988) 232p.

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    Raaflaub, K. and N. Rosenstein (ed.), War and society in the ancient and medieval world (Cambridge MA 1999) 484p.
    Rabold, B., E. Schallmayer and A. Thiel, Der Limes. Die Deutsche Limes-Strasse vom Rhein bis zur Donau (Stuttgart 2000) 160p.
    Raddatz, K., 'Die Bewaffnung der Germanen vom letzten Jahrhundert v. Chr. bis zur Voelkerwanderungszeit' in: ANRW 2.12.3 (1985), 281-361.
    Rankov, B., The Praetorian Guard E 50 (1994) 64p.
    Rankov, N.B., 'Singulares legati legionis: a problem in the interpretation of the Ti. Claudius Maximus inscription from Philippi' in: ZPE 80 (1990), 165-175.
    Rankov, N.B., 'Frumentarii, the Castra Peregrina and the provincial officia' in: ZPE 80 (1990), 176-182.
    Rawson, E., 'The literary sources for the pre-marian army' in: Papers of the British School in Rome (1971), 13-31.
    Rea, J.R., 'Ordinatus' in: ZPE 38 (1980), 217-219.
    Rea, J.R., 'A cavalryman's career, AD 384 (?)-401' in: ZPE 56 (1984), 79-88.
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    Rea, J.R., 'Order to deliver: P. Lond. V 1655 revised' in: ZPE 115 (1997), 189-193.
    Rea, J.R., 'Letter of a recruit: P. Lond. III 982 revised' in: ZPE 115 (1997), 189-193.
    Rebuffat, R. et al., Armée et provinces III (Paris 1984) 160p.
    Rebuffat, R., 'Via militaris' in: Latomus 46 (1987), 52-67.
    Reddé, M., Mare nostrum. Les infrastructures, le dispositif et l'histoire de la marine militaire sous l'empire Romain (Paris 1986) 737p.
    Reddé, M., Armée et provinces IV: la région de Syrte à l’époque Romaine 86p.
    Reddé, M. (ed.), L'armée Romaine en Gaule (Paris 1996) 278p.
    Rémy, B., 'Notes de lecture, soldats de Cilicie sous l'empire Romain' in: Epigraphica Anatolica 10 (1987), 107-110.
    Rengen, W. van and J.C. Balty, Apamea in Syrië: winterkwartieren van Legio II Parthica (Brussel 1992) 55p.
    Ricci, C., Soldati delle milizie urbane fuori di Roma. La documentazione epigrafica (Roma 1995) 57p.
    Rich, J. and G. Shipley (ed.), War and society in the Roman World (London 1993) 315p.
    Richardot, P., La fin de l'armée romaine (284-476) 2nd ed. (Paris 2001) 392p.
    Richier, O., Centuriones ad Rhenum. Les centurions legionnaires des armées romaines du Rhin (Paris 2004) 773p.
    Richmond, I.A., 'The Roman siegeworks of Masada, Israel' in: JRS 52 (1962), 142-155.
    Ridder, T. de, Bataven: boeren en bondgenoten ('s Hertogenbosch 1994) 32p.
    Ritchie, W.F. and J.N.G. Ritchie, Celtic warriors ShA 41 (Princes Risborough 1985) 56p.
    Ridley, R.T., 'Notes on Julian's Persian expedition (363)' in: Historia 22 (1973), 317-330.
    Ridley, R.T., 'The missing magister equitum' in: ZPE 116 (1997), 157-160.
    Ritterling, E., 'Ein Ambtsabzeichen der beneficiarii consularis im Museum zu Wiesbaden' in: BJ (1919), 9-37.
    Ritterling, E., 'Legio' in: Real-Encyclopaedie der classichen Altertumswissemschaften Band 12 (Stuttgart 1925), 1186-1837.
    Robinson, H.R., 'Problems in reconstructing Roman armour' in: BJ 172 (1972), 24-35.
    Robinson, H.R., The armour of imperial Rome (London 1975).
    Römer, C., 'Diplom für einen Fusssoldaten aus Koptos von 23. März 179' in: ZPE 82 (1990), 137-153.
    Rosenstein, N.S., Imperatores victi. Military defeat and aristocratic competition in the middle and late republic (Berkeley 1990) 224p.
    Rosenstein, N., 'Nobilitas and the political implications of military defeat' in: AHB 6.3 (1992), 117-126.
    Rosenstein, N., 'Marriage and manpower in the Hannibalic war: assidui, proletarii and Livy 24.18.7-8' in: Historia 51 (2002), 163-191.
    Rosenstein, N., Rome at war. Farms, families and death in the middle republic (Chappel Hill 2004) 339p.
    Rossi, L., Trajan's column and the Dacian wars (London 1971) 240p.
    Rossum, J.A. van, 'Julius Civilis en het Germaanse gevaar' in: Lampas 25.3 (1992), 184-197.
    Rostovtzeff, M., 'Synteleia tironon' in: JRS 8 (1918), 26-33.
    Rostovtzeff, M., 'Vexillum and victory' in: JRS 32 (1942), 92-106.
    Roth, J., 'The size and organisation of a Roman imperial legion' in: Historia 43 (1994), 346-362.
    Roth, J.P., The logistics of the Roman army at war (264 BC - AD 235) (Leiden 1999) 400p.
    Roth, J.P., "Jewish military forces in Roman service' (Austin 2004) 23p.
    Rowland, T.H., A short guide to the Roman Wall (Rothbury 1991) 48p.
    Roxan, M.M., Roman military diplomas 1954-1977 (London 1978) 104p.
    Roxan, M.M., Roman military diplomas 1978-1984 (London 1985) 231p.
    Rozan, M. and W. Eck, 'A military diploma of AD85 for the Rome cohorts' in: ZPE 96 (1993), 67-74.
    Roxan, M.M., Roman military diplomas 1985-1993 (London 1994) 362p.
    Roxan, M., 'Roman military diplomas' in: Minerva (1995).
    Roxan, M.M., 'An auxiliary/fleet diploma of Moesia Inferior: 127 august 20' in: ZPE,287-299.
    Roxan, M.M. and P. Weiss, ‘Die Auxiliartruppen der Provinz Thracia. Neue Militärdiplome der Antoninenzeit’ in: Chiron 28 (1998), 371-420.
    Roxan, M.M., 'Two complete diplomas of Pannonia Inferior: 19 may 135 and 7 Aug. 143' in: ZPE 127 (1999), 249-273.
    Rüpke, J., Domi militiae. Die religiöse Konstruktion des Krieges in Rom (Stuttgart 1990) 312p.
    Ruggeri, P., 'Un signifer della cohors Ligurum in Sardegna' in: ZPE 101 (1994), 193-196.

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    Sabin, P., 'Lines, maniples and cohorts. The employment of multiple lines in Roman republican armies' (1997) 18p.
    Sabin, P., 'The face of Roman battle' in: JRS 90 (2000), 1-17.
    Saddington, D.B., 'The development of the Roman auxiliary forces from Augustus to Trajan' in: ANRW II-3 (1975), 176-201.
    Saddington, D.B., The development of the Roman auxiliary forces from Caesar to Vespasian (Harare 1982).
    Saddington, D.B., 'The origin and nature of the German and British fleets' in: Britannia 21 (1990), 223-232.
    Saddington, D.B., 'Tacitus and the Roman army' in: ANRW II-35.5 (1991), 3484-3555.
    Saddington, D.B., 'A context for a dedication by five cavalry regiments to a Cornelius Scipio in Rome?' in: ZPE 104 (1994), 73-77.
    Saddington, D.B., 'Roman military and administrative personnel in the New Testament' in: ANRW II- (1996), 2409-2435.
    Salomies, O., 'Observations on some names of sailors serving in the fleets at Misenum and Ravenna' in: Arctos 30 (1996), 167-186.
    Salvatore, J.P., 'Roman tents replicated in stone-built barracks of the 2nd century BC in Spain' in: JRMES 4 (1993), 23-31.
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    Sander, E., 'Zur Rangordnung des römischen Heeres: der gradus ex caliga' in: Historia 3 (1954), 87-105.
    Sander, E., 'Die Reform des römischen Heerwesens durch Julius Caesar' in: Historische Zeitschrift 179 (1955), 225-254.
    Sander, E., 'Zur Rangordnung des römischen Heeres: der Duplicarius' in: Historia 8 (1959), 144-166.
    Sander, E., 'Die Kleidung des römischen Soldaten' in: Historia 12 (1963), 239-247.
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    Santosuosso, A., Storming the heavens. Soldiers, emperors and civilians in the Roman empire (Boulder 2001) 265p.
    Sarnowski, T., Nova ordinatio im Römischen Heer des 3. Jh.s und eine neue Primus pilus-Weihung aus Novae in Niedermoesien' in: ZPE 95 (1993), 197-204.
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    Sarnowski, T. and V.M. Zubar, 'Römische Besatzungstruppen auf der Südkrim und eine Bauinschrift aus dem Kastell Charax' in: ZPE 112 (1996), 229-234.
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    Schallmayer, E. (ed.), Hundert Jahre Saalburg: vom römischen Grenzposten zum europäischen Museum (Mainz 1997) 196p.
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