The pharaohs may have believed that it was their link with the gods that kept Egypt going, but really it was the hard work of ordinary people. It was they who dug the soil, worked in the mines and quarries, sailed the boats on the Nile river, marched with the army into Syria and Nubia, cooked food and raised children.

Slavery was not very important in ancient Egypt, but it did exist.
Most of the slaves were prisoners who had been captured during the many wars that Egypt fought with its neighbors in the Near East.
Slaves were usually treated well and were allowed to own property.

Many Egyptians workers were serfs. This meant that their freedom was limited. They could be bought and sold along with the estates where they worked.
Farmers had to be registered with the government. They had to sell crops at a fixed price and pay taxes in the form of produce. During the season of the Nile floods, when the fields lay under water, many workers were recruited into public building projects.

Punishment for those who ran away was harsh.