Clark H. Lewis, President Art & Carol Bergeron, Editors
P. O. Box 1122 3901 Paces Ferry Road
Richmond, VA 23218 Chester, VA 23831-1239
January 2002 PROGRAM
John C. Waugh
"The Class of 1846: The Civil War's Band of Brothers"
8:00 p.m., Tuesday, January 8, 2002, at the
Boulevard United Methodist Church, 321 N. Boulevard,
Richmond, VA (corner of Boulevard and Stuart Ave.)
John C. Waugh is the author of the prize-winning book The
Class of 1846: From West Point to Appomattox - Stonewall
Jackson, George McClellan and Their Brothers (1994);
Reelecting Lincoln: The Battle for the 1864 Presidency
(1997); and Sam Bell Maxey and the Confederate Indians
(1995). His latest book, Last Stand at Mobile is due out
this month. Waugh's writings have appeared in the New York
Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Boston Globe, American
Heritage, and Civil War Times Illustrated. A native of
Clarksburg, West Virginia, he began his career as a
freelance writer in that state. Waugh is the former
newspaper correspondent and bureau chief of the Christian
Science Monitor. He was also an aide to Nelson Rockefeller.
Now retired, he lives in Arlington, Texas.
Waugh will speak on The Class of 1846 and the characters in
it. The book details the famous West Point graduates of
that year. The class included some of the most famous
military leaders in American history, including George B.
McClellan, Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, and George E.
Pickett. These men went from the parade ground at the
United States Military Academy to the battlefields of the
Mexican War. All of them gained practical combat experience
for the war that would erupt in 1861.
The leading generals of the Civil War personally knew their
opponents on many of the battlefields where they fought
against each other. Some of the latter, like Antietam, were
what one person has described as "practically a class
reunion." Waugh will not only cover the more well known
officers but will also look at some of the less celebrated.
Review of the December Program
Dr. John M. Coski gave an interesting and informative
presentation on "The Battle Flag: A Brief History of
America's Most Controversial Symbol." Coski has been
studying Confederate flags in an objective way to understand
them, their meanings, and their uses. What we call the
Battle Flag has become "the" symbol of the Confederacy.
Coski talked about it in all of its shapes. There were many
battle flags during the Civil War, but the one bearing the
St. Andrew's cross has become the most recognizable symbol
of the Confederacy. It is the only Confederate flag that
most people know.
The Battle Flag was born as a rejection of the Stars and
Bars, or the First National Flag. General P. G. T.
Beauregard of Louisiana sought a new banner for the troops
to carry. William Porcher Miles assisted Beauregard with
the design and suggested the St. Andrew's cross pattern.
Although the "Beauregard" flag was square, General Joseph E.
Johnston favored a rectangular shape and had such banners
made for both the army in Virginia and the Army of
Tennessee. In 1863, the Second National Flag, which
incorporated the Battle Flag, was adopted. This change in
the national banner began the transition of the Battle Flag
becoming "the" Confederate flag. The Battle Flag was thus
becoming the symbol of the Confederacy shortly after May
Coski pointed out that, from 1865 to 1914, the Battle Flag
had restricted use. It was seen primarily at parades and
reunions and was flown only to commemorate Confederate
soldiers. In 1904, the United Confederate Veterans formed a
committee to study the history of the flag. The UCV's
report in 1907 stated that "the" Confederate flag was the
square Battle Flag. Both the UCV and the United Daughters
of the Confederacy experienced trouble after 1907 getting
companies to produce square banners. Manufacturers insisted
that most people wanted rectangular flags, which were
parallel with the Stars and Stripes.
An explosion of use of Battle Flags occurred during the
1940s. This happened in several contexts. The flag came
into vogue in the United States army during World War II and
the Korean War. Men associated it with home and the spirit
of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. Because the United
States flag was not used in Korea, many soldiers substituted
the Confederate Battle Flag for it. Young delegates at the
States Rights, or Dixiecrat, Party convention in 1948 used
the Battle Flag as a symbol of political rebellion. Use of
the banner at colleges, however, was the key to its
proliferation. It appeared at football games and other
activities as a symbol of school spirit. This helped
disassociate the flag from commemorative uses.
In the 1950s, a large-scale flag fad began and soon spread
across the nation. The Battle Flag appeared on T-shirts,
license plates, diapers, belt buckles, hats, and other
items. It had now become devoid of ideology. The Battle
Flag had become a logo for Dixie and things Southern. At
the same time, the Ku Klux Klan began using the banner to
oppose desegregation. With the civil rights movement of the
1960s and 1970s, opposition to the Battle Flag became
widespread and more vocal.
Will there be a solution to the flag controversy? Coski
said that people must recognize that there are differences
in what it means to various people and that we must not
ascribe negative motives to others simply because the flag
means something different to us. We should make allowances
for the flag's historical use but must also recognize that
it should not be used in a sovereignty context.
Round Table Raffle
The January raffle item is a nicely bound 2-volume set of
The Long Arm of Lee by Jennings C. Wise.
The following slate of officers was elected at the December
meeting-Clark Lewis, President; Brag Bowling, First Vice
President; and Art Bergeron, Second Vice President. Jack
Ackerly, Bob Krick, and Scott Mauger were named to the
A separate mailing will be made in 2002 so that people can
renew their membership in the Richmond Civil War Round
Table. You should expect to find the renewal notice in your
mailbox in the near future.
To facilitate the printing and timely distribution of the
monthly newsletter, information for it should be submitted
to the editors no later than the following dates: January 18
for February; February 22 for March; March 22 for April;
April 19 for May; May 24 for June; June 21 for July; July 19
for August; August 23 for September; September 20 for
October; October 18 for November; and November 22 for
Richmond Civil War Round Table Speakers for 2002
January - John C. Waugh
February - John Quarstein
March - William J. Cooper, Jr.
April - Edward Smith
May - Frank O'Reilly
June - Gordon Rhea
July - Cramer Gallimore
August - not determined
September - not determined
October - Gabor Boritt
November - Jay Winick
December - William C. "Jack" Davis
Museum of the Confederacy Programs
Civil War Encounters. These are living history encounters
at the Museum where costumed historians portray eyewitnesses
to significant Civil War events and will occur one Saturday
each month. The first will be held on January 26 at 2:00
p.m. In "The Battle of Trent's Reach," a quarter gunner
describes the Confederate attack on the last remaining Union
ironclad during the battle of Trent's Reach, January 1865.
Free with Museum admission.
Lee-Jackson Day. On Friday, January 18, from 10:00 a.m. to
5:00 p.m., the Museum will remember Robert E. Lee and
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson on the official state
holiday. Admission is free to the Museum all day.
Children's Activity Day. On Saturday, January 19, from
1:00-4:00 p.m., bring your family to enjoy crafts, special
demonstrations and living history for an exciting afternoon
of Civil War history. Free with Museum admission.
Find Your Civil War Ancestors Workshops I & II. On Sunday,
January 20, and Monday, January 21, from 2:00-4:00 p.m. both
days, join Museum library staff for an introduction of
sources and techniques to identify and locate Confederate
ancestors and trace their wartime experiences. Space is
limited; call today. $15/free to members. RSVP to
649-1861, ext. 28.
Richmond Civil War Round Table Newsletter
Art & Carol Bergeron, Editors
3901 Paces Ferry Road
Chester, VA 23831-1239