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December 2002
Clark H. Lewis, President         Art & Carol Bergeron, Editors
P. O. Box 1122                    3901 Paces Ferry Road      
Richmond, VA 23218                 Chester, VA 23831-1239   

December 2002 PROGRAM Dr. Gary W. Gallagher "A Civil War Watershed?: Assessing the Impact of Antietam and the 1862 Maryland Campaign" 8:00 p.m., Tuesday, December 10, 2002, at the Boulevard United Methodist Church, 321 N. Boulevard, Richmond, VA (corner of Boulevard and Stuart Ave.) Gary W. Gallagher is the John L. Nau III Professor in the History of the American Civil War at the University of Virginia. A native of Los Angeles, California, he received his B.A. from Adams State College of Colorado (1972) and his M.A. (1977) and Ph.D. (1982) from the University of Texas at Austin. He taught for twelve years at Penn State University before joining the faculty at the University of Virginia. His research and teaching focus on the era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. He is the author of Stephen Dodson Ramseur: Lee's Gallant General (University of North Carolina Press, 1985; History Book Club selection), The Confederate War (Harvard University Press, 1997; HBC selection), Lee and His Generals in War and Memory (Louisiana State University Press, 1998; HBC selection), The American Civil War: The War in the East 1861-May 1863 (HBC selection), and Lee and His Army in Confederate History (University of North Carolina Press, 2001); editor of Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander (University of North Carolina Press, 1989; HBC Main Selection); and editor and co-author of fourteen books. He also has published more than nine dozen articles and notes in scholarly journals and popular historical magazines, serves as editor of two book series at the University of North Carolina Press ("Civil War America" and "Military Campaigns of the Civil War"), and has appeared regularly on the Arts and Entertainment Network's series "Civil War Journal" as well as participating in other television projects in the field. Active in the field of historic preservation, Gallagher was president from 1987 to mid-1994 of the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites (an organization with a membership of more than 11,500 representing all 50 states). He also served as a member of the Board of the Civil War Trust and has given testimony about preservation before Congressional committees on several occasions.
Review of the November Program
Dr. Thomas J. DiLorenzo
Dr. Thomas J. DiLorenzo presented a program entitled "Lincoln's Second American Revolution" at the Round Table's annual Christmas banquet. He stated that this revolution was against free market capitalism, the principles of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, international law, and the idea of states' rights. Lincoln ended slavery through violence (war) rather than peaceful means. This was a repudiation of what the rest of the world did, which in every case was to avoid war. According to DiLorenzo, Lincoln told the truth about why he waged war against the South. He wanted to save the Union. His attack against slavery was only to help his ultimate goal. For twenty-eight years, Lincoln toiled in the Whig and Republican parties for economic objectives that had nothing to do with slavery. He believed in a protectionist tariff. Southerners paid about three-quarters of all tariff revenues, which were monies used by the Federal government. Lincoln and the Republicans raised rates to triple the previous level. Lincoln wanted to help Northern industrial interests. Additionally, Lincoln wanted the government to sponsor internal improvements which would also benefit industry. He was a champion of central banking as well. Lincoln favored paper money not backed by either gold or silver. Paper money would be used to finance internal improvements. These policies are known as mercantilism, the opposite of free market capitalism. All were put in place within eighteen months of Lincoln's inauguration. DiLorenzo stated that Lincoln's behavior showed that he repudiated all of the principles of the Declaration of Independence. For one thing, he did not favor equality. Lincoln openly said so in his debates with Stephen Douglas. He firmly believed that whites were superior to blacks. Lincoln supported the Fugitive Slave Act and colonization. Second, Lincoln philosophically destroyed the concept of union because the South was coerced into returning to the union, which is the opposite of the idea that government derives its just powers from the consent of the governed. Most Northern newspapers expressed support for the theory of secession before the war. Finally, Lincoln carried out a train of abuses that all were worse than anything done by King George III. Historians do not talk about Lincoln's repudiation of the Constitution because it is embarrassing. Only a few historians have dared call Lincoln a dictator. He suspended the writ of habeus corpus even though the Constitution says only Congress can do so. Some 38,000 people were imprisoned in the North. Lincoln declared a blockade without a declaration of war. He nationalized the railroads. There was a systematic disarming of people in the border states. Lincoln shut down opposition newspapers and imprisoned their editors. He pushed for two confiscation acts, which employed an extremely broad interpretation of "aiding and abetting the rebellion." Informers could receive half of everything seized under these acts. Lincoln waged war against civilians. He encouraged destruction carried out by the armies of Grant, Sheridan, and Sherman. This was against international law. DiLorenzo stated that a great humanitarian does not do these things. DiLorenzo concluded that Abraham Lincoln was a political son of Alexander Hamilton. He favored a plutocracy. This meant the death of federalism and states' rights. To Lincoln, that was what "saving the Union" really meant.
Special Christmas Program On Sunday, December 15, from noon to 5:00 p.m., the Museum and White House of the Confederacy will sponsor "Court End Christmas." Kick off the season with a bit of good cheer at The Museum of the Confederacy. In honor of the holidays, The Museum and White House of the Confederacy will be open to the public free of charge. Your family will enjoy period music, living history, children's crafts, and holiday refreshments. This program will be held in conjunction with the Virginia State Capitol, the Valentine Richmond History Center, John Marshall House, and Monumental Church. These sites will also offer free admission and will host music, special tours, and activities honoring Virginia's history.
Holiday Recipes The following are from The Civil War Cookbook by William C. "Jack" Davis (1993): EGG NOG: 4 egg yolks 4 tbsps sugar 1 cup cream (whipping) 1 cup brandy 1/4 cup wine 4 egg whites A little grated nutmeg Beat the egg yolks until light then slowly beat in the sugar, cream, brandy and wine. Whip the egg whites separately and then fold into the other ingredients. Sprinkle with the nutmeg to serve. PLUM CAKE: (Heavy, alcohol-laden cakes were the most suitable for surviving the long and arduous journey necessary to get boxes of gifts to the soldiers.) 5 cups all-purpose flour 2 cups sugar 1/2 tsp salt 1 tsp ground clove 1 tsp cinnamon 1 cup molasses 1/2 cup shortening 1 cup of butter 1 tsp soda 1 cup soured milk 2 tbsps brandy 1/2 pound raisins, chopped 1/2 pound currants, chopped Mix the flour, sugar, salt, and spices together. Melt shortening, butter, and molasses, and mix into dry ingredients. Mix the soda in the sour milk and add to the mixture along with the brandy. Add the fruit and beat thoroughly. Pour into a large baking pan and bake in a low oven (325 F) for 2 1/2 hours. SWEET POTATO PUDDING: 6 medium-sized sweet potatoes (white or orange-fleshed) 1 cup milk 1 cup sugar 3 eggs juice of a lemon 1 tsp cinnamon Boil the potatoes for 30 minutes until soft and mash with the milk to a smooth consistency. Add the sugar, eggs, lemon juice, and cinnamon, and beat until smooth. Pour into a shallow, lightly buttered dish and bake in a moderate oven (375 F) for 30 minutes. Many Civil War soldiers did not enjoy such luxuries during the holidays in camp. One Confederate wrote in his diary on December 25, 1863, "My Christmas dinner was bean soup without bread. The boys are not seeing a good deal of fun." The following year, Private John S. Jackman reported a better meal: "For breakfast had fresh pork, biscuit, baked sweet-potatoes, etc." He went on to write, "Bad prospect for a Christmas dinner-can't cook in the rain."
Richmond Civil War Round Table Newsletter Art & Carol Bergeron, Editors 3901 Paces Ferry Road Chester, VA 23831-1239

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