Clark H. Lewis, President Art & Carol Bergeron, Editors
P. O. Box 1122 3901 Paces Ferry Road
Richmond, VA 23218 Chester, VA 23831-1239
December 2002 PROGRAM
Dr. Gary W. Gallagher
"A Civil War Watershed?:
Assessing the Impact of Antietam and
the 1862 Maryland Campaign"
8:00 p.m., Tuesday, December 10, 2002, at the
Boulevard United Methodist Church, 321 N. Boulevard,
Richmond, VA (corner of Boulevard and Stuart Ave.)
Gary W. Gallagher is the John L. Nau III Professor in the
History of the American Civil War at the University of
Virginia. A native of Los Angeles, California, he received
his B.A. from Adams State College of Colorado (1972) and
his M.A. (1977) and Ph.D. (1982) from the University of
Texas at Austin. He taught for twelve years at Penn State
University before joining the faculty at the University of
Virginia. His research and teaching focus on the era of the
Civil War and Reconstruction. He is the author of Stephen
Dodson Ramseur: Lee's Gallant General (University of North
Carolina Press, 1985; History Book Club selection), The
Confederate War (Harvard University Press, 1997; HBC
selection), Lee and His Generals in War and Memory
(Louisiana State University Press, 1998; HBC selection), The
American Civil War: The War in the East 1861-May 1863 (HBC
selection), and Lee and His Army in Confederate History
(University of North Carolina Press, 2001); editor of
Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of
General Edward Porter Alexander (University of North
Carolina Press, 1989; HBC Main Selection); and editor and
co-author of fourteen books. He also has published more
than nine dozen articles and notes in scholarly journals and
popular historical magazines, serves as editor of two book
series at the University of North Carolina Press ("Civil War
America" and "Military Campaigns of the Civil War"), and has
appeared regularly on the Arts and Entertainment Network's
series "Civil War Journal" as well as participating in other
television projects in the field.
Active in the field of historic preservation, Gallagher was
president from 1987 to mid-1994 of the Association for the
Preservation of Civil War Sites (an organization with a
membership of more than 11,500 representing all 50 states).
He also served as a member of the Board of the Civil War
Trust and has given testimony about preservation before
Congressional committees on several occasions.
Review of the November Program
Dr. Thomas J. DiLorenzo presented a program entitled
"Lincoln's Second American Revolution" at the Round Table's
annual Christmas banquet. He stated that this revolution
was against free market capitalism, the principles of the
Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, international
law, and the idea of states' rights.
Lincoln ended slavery through violence (war) rather than
peaceful means. This was a repudiation of what the rest of
the world did, which in every case was to avoid war.
According to DiLorenzo, Lincoln told the truth about why he
waged war against the South. He wanted to save the Union.
His attack against slavery was only to help his ultimate
goal. For twenty-eight years, Lincoln toiled in the Whig
and Republican parties for economic objectives that had
nothing to do with slavery. He believed in a protectionist
tariff. Southerners paid about three-quarters of all tariff
revenues, which were monies used by the Federal government.
Lincoln and the Republicans raised rates to triple the
previous level. Lincoln wanted to help Northern industrial
Additionally, Lincoln wanted the government to sponsor
internal improvements which would also benefit industry. He
was a champion of central banking as well. Lincoln favored
paper money not backed by either gold or silver. Paper
money would be used to finance internal improvements. These
policies are known as mercantilism, the opposite of free
market capitalism. All were put in place within eighteen
months of Lincoln's inauguration.
DiLorenzo stated that Lincoln's behavior showed that he
repudiated all of the principles of the Declaration of
Independence. For one thing, he did not favor equality.
Lincoln openly said so in his debates with Stephen Douglas.
He firmly believed that whites were superior to blacks.
Lincoln supported the Fugitive Slave Act and colonization.
Second, Lincoln philosophically destroyed the concept of
union because the South was coerced into returning to the
union, which is the opposite of the idea that government
derives its just powers from the consent of the governed.
Most Northern newspapers expressed support for the theory of
secession before the war. Finally, Lincoln carried out a
train of abuses that all were worse than anything done by
King George III.
Historians do not talk about Lincoln's repudiation of the
Constitution because it is embarrassing. Only a few
historians have dared call Lincoln a dictator. He suspended
the writ of habeus corpus even though the Constitution says
only Congress can do so. Some 38,000 people were imprisoned
in the North. Lincoln declared a blockade without a
declaration of war. He nationalized the railroads. There
was a systematic disarming of people in the border states.
Lincoln shut down opposition newspapers and imprisoned their
editors. He pushed for two confiscation acts, which
employed an extremely broad interpretation of "aiding and
abetting the rebellion." Informers could receive half of
everything seized under these acts.
Lincoln waged war against civilians. He encouraged
destruction carried out by the armies of Grant, Sheridan,
and Sherman. This was against international law. DiLorenzo
stated that a great humanitarian does not do these things.
DiLorenzo concluded that Abraham Lincoln was a political son
of Alexander Hamilton. He favored a plutocracy. This meant
the death of federalism and states' rights. To Lincoln,
that was what "saving the Union" really meant.
Special Christmas Program
On Sunday, December 15, from noon to 5:00 p.m., the Museum
and White House of the Confederacy will sponsor "Court End
Christmas." Kick off the season with a bit of good cheer at
The Museum of the Confederacy. In honor of the holidays,
The Museum and White House of the Confederacy will be open
to the public free of charge. Your family will enjoy period
music, living history, children's crafts, and holiday
refreshments. This program will be held in conjunction with
the Virginia State Capitol, the Valentine Richmond History
Center, John Marshall House, and Monumental Church. These
sites will also offer free admission and will host music,
special tours, and activities honoring Virginia's history.
The following are from The Civil War Cookbook by
William C. "Jack" Davis (1993):
4 egg yolks
4 tbsps sugar
1 cup cream (whipping)
1 cup brandy
1/4 cup wine
4 egg whites
A little grated nutmeg
Beat the egg yolks until light then slowly beat in the
sugar, cream, brandy and wine. Whip the egg whites
separately and then fold into the other ingredients.
Sprinkle with the nutmeg to serve.
(Heavy, alcohol-laden cakes were the most suitable for
surviving the long and arduous journey necessary to get
boxes of gifts to the soldiers.)
5 cups all-purpose flour
2 cups sugar
1/2 tsp salt
1 tsp ground clove
1 tsp cinnamon
1 cup molasses
1/2 cup shortening
1 cup of butter
1 tsp soda
1 cup soured milk
2 tbsps brandy
1/2 pound raisins, chopped
1/2 pound currants, chopped
Mix the flour, sugar, salt, and spices together. Melt
shortening, butter, and molasses, and mix into dry
ingredients. Mix the soda in the sour milk and add to the
mixture along with the brandy. Add the fruit and beat
thoroughly. Pour into a large baking pan and bake in a low
oven (325 F) for 2 1/2 hours.
SWEET POTATO PUDDING:
6 medium-sized sweet potatoes (white or orange-fleshed)
1 cup milk
1 cup sugar
juice of a lemon
1 tsp cinnamon
Boil the potatoes for 30 minutes until soft and mash with
the milk to a smooth consistency. Add the sugar, eggs,
lemon juice, and cinnamon, and beat until smooth. Pour into
a shallow, lightly buttered dish and bake in a moderate oven
(375 F) for 30 minutes.
Many Civil War soldiers did not enjoy such luxuries during
the holidays in camp. One Confederate wrote in his diary on
December 25, 1863, "My Christmas dinner was bean soup
without bread. The boys are not seeing a good deal of fun."
The following year, Private John S. Jackman reported a
better meal: "For breakfast had fresh pork, biscuit, baked
sweet-potatoes, etc." He went on to write, "Bad prospect for
a Christmas dinner-can't cook in the rain."
Richmond Civil War Round Table Newsletter
Art & Carol Bergeron, Editors
3901 Paces Ferry Road
Chester, VA 23831-1239