Mind Over Mathematics:
The Epinomis and the Complex Domain --
A Fragmentary Dialogue in the Simultaneity of Eternity

by Bruce Director

Printed in The New Federalist, 1997.

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                    PEDAGOGICAL DISCUSSION

        The following is provided to provoke some thinking, with
respect to matters raised in previous pedagogical discussions,
and to lay a conceptual basis for subjects to be taken up in
the near future.
        Plato's dialogue of the Laws, continues in the short
appendix known as the Epinomis:
        "Let us then first consider what single science there is, of
all those we have, such that were it removed from mankind, or had
it never made its appearance, man would become the most
thoughtless and foolish of creatures.  Now the answer to this
question, at least, is not overhard to find. For, if we, so to
say, take one science with another, 'tis that which has given our
kind the knowledge of number, that would affect us thus, and I
believe, I may say that 'tis not so much our luck as a god who
preserves us by his gift of it....
        "But we must still go forth a little on our argument, and
recall our very just observation, that if number were banished
from mankind, we could never become wise at all. For a creature's
soul could surely never attain full virtue, if the creature were
without rational discourse, and a creature that could not
recognize two and three, odd and even, but was utterly
unacquainted with number, could give no rational account of
things, whereof, it had sensations and memories only, though
there is nothing to keep it out of the rest of virtue, valor, and
sobriety. But without true discourse, a man will never become
wise, and if he has not wisdom, the chiefest constituent of full
virtue, he can never become perfectly good, and, therefore, not
happy. Thus there is every necessity for number as a foundation,
though to explain why this is necessary, would demand a discourse
still longer than what has gone before. But, we shall be right,
if we say of the work of all the other arts which we recently
enumerated, when we permitted their existence, that nothing of it
all is left, all is utterly evacuated, if the art of number is
        "Perhaps when a man considers the arts, he may fancy that
mankind need number only for minor purposes -- though the part it
plays even in them is considerable. But could he see the divine
and the mortal in the world process -- a vision from which he
will learn both the fear of God and the true nature of number --
        "Well then,... How do we learn to count?... There are many
creatures whose native equipment does not so much as extend to
the capacity to learn from our Father above how to count. But in
our own case, God, in the first place, constructed us with this
faculty of understanding what is shown us, and then showed us the
scene he still continues to show. And in all this scene, if we
take one thing with another, what fairer spectacle is there for a
man, than the face of day from which he can then pass, still
retaining his power of vision, to the view of night, where all
will appear so different? Now as Uranus never ceases rolling all
these objects round, day after day, and night after night,
neither does he ever cease teaching men the lore of one and two,
until even the dullest scholar has sufficiently learned the
lesson of counting. For any of us who sees this show will form
the notion of three, four and many. And among these bodies of
God's fashioning, there is one, the moon, which goes its way, now
waxing, now waning, as it lights up one day after another, until
it has fulfilled fifteen days and nights, and they, if one will
treat its whole orbit as a unity, constitute a period, such that
the very slowest creature, if I may say so, on which God has
bestowed the capacity to learn, may learn it.... [W]hen God made
the moon in the sky, waxing and waning, as we have said, he
combined the months into a year and so all the creatures, by a
happy providence, began to have a general insight into the
relations of number with number. `Tis thus that earth conceives
and yields her harvest so that food is provided for all
creatures, if winds and rains are neither unseasonable nor
excessive; but if anything goes amiss in the matter, 'tis not
deity we should charge with the fault, but humanity, who have not
ordered their life aright....
        "... So we must do what we can to enumerate the subjects to
be studied, and explain their nature and the methods to be
employed, to the best of the abilities of myself who am to speak
and you who are to listen -- to say, in fact, how a man should
learn piety, and in what it consists. It may seem odd to the ear,
but the name we give to the study is one which will surprise a
person unfamiliar with the subject -- astronomy. Are you unaware
that the true astronomer, must be a man of great wisdom? I don't
mean an astronomer of the type of Hesiod and his like, a man who
has just observed settings and rising, but one who has studied
seven out of eight orbits, as each of them completes its circuit
in a fashion not easy of comprehension by an capacity not endowed
with admirable abilities. I have already touched on this and
shall now proceed, as I say, to explain how and on what lines the
study is to be pursued. And I may begin the statement thus.
        "The moon gets round her circuit most rapidly, bringing with
her the month, and the full moon as the first period. Next we
must observe the sun, his constant turnings throughout his
circuit, and his companions. Not to be perpetually repeating
ourselves about the same subjects, the rest of the orbits which
awe enumerated above are difficult to comprehend, and to train
capacities which can deal with them we shall have to spend a
great deal of labor on providing preliminary teaching and
training in boyhood and youth. Hence there will be need for
several sciences. The first and most important of them is
likewise that which treats of pure numbers -- not concreted in
bodies, but the whole generation of the series of odd and even,
and the effects which it contributes to the nature of things.
When all this has been mastered, next in order comes what is
called by the very ludicrous name mensuration, but is really a
manifest assimilation to one another of numbers which are
naturally dissimilar, effected by reference to areas...."

        Plato presents the irony, of a connection between the study
of "pure numbers not concreted in bodies," and the mastery, in
the mind, of the motion of the heavenly bodies -- astronomy. As
we discovered by our previous investigations into linear,
polygonal, and geometric numbers, and Gauss work on the calendar,
this connection is in the realm of Higher Arithmetic -- Gauss'
re-working of classical science.
        In our previous studies, we quickly learned the foolishness
of thinking of numbers in connection with objects or bodies.
Instead, we began to discover, that knowledge lies in
investigating the relations between numbers, not the numbers
themselves. We discovered how to begin to distinguish these
relations as different {types} of differences (change) among
numbers. Numbers, related to one another by the same {type} of
difference, are congruent relative to that {type} (modulus).
These {types} of differences, can be distinguished from one
another, either by magnitudes, as in the case of linear and
polygonal numbers, or by incommensurability, as in the case of
geometric numbers. As we discovered with the application of
Higher Arithmetic to the determination of the Easter Date, when
the mind abandons all foolish fixation on objects, and focuses
instead on the relations between them, an extremely complex many,
can be brought into our conceptual ken.
        A similar approach can be taken with respect to the issues
Jonathan raised in last week's pedagogical discussion. Nothing
can be discovered about the astrophysical, by, as Plato
indicates, simple observations, like the methods of Hesiod.
Instead, one must look to the {type} of change, (relations), of
which those observations are only a reflection.
        Think of two objects, representing two observations of a
planet in the sky. What is the relationship between these two
objects? What one must be investigate, is the type of difference
(change) between those objects. Or, under what curvature
(modulus) are the relations between these objects congruent.
        For example, if those two objects are related to each other
by a straight line, then the type of difference is measured by
rectilinear action, no matter how small the interval between
them. If, however, they are related to one another by a circular
arc, the type of difference will be characterized by constant
curvature, not rectilinear action, no matter how small the
interval between them. Or, if they are related by an elliptical
arc, the type of difference is characterized by changing
curvature, no matter how small the interval between them. The
mind must distinguish, the type of change, rectilinear, constant
curvature, changing curvature, or types of changing curvature.
The determination of which type of change, is related to these
specific observations, is not a formal question, but a matter of
        By the time he was 16 or 17, Gauss had already discovered a
new type of difference, congruence in the complex domain, which
he applied to his work throughout his life. Not until 37 years
later, in his second treatise on biquadratic residues, did Gauss
begin to elaborate the metaphysical principles behind this
        We can gain some insight, into Gauss' thinking, from the
following fragment, taken from one of Gauss' 1809 notebooks.

           Questions to the Metaphysics of Mathematics


        What is the essential condition, that a can be thought of,
to combine concepts with respect to a magnitude?


        Everything becomes much simpler, if at first we abstract
from infinite-divisibility and consider merely discrete
magnitudes. For example, as in the biquadratic residues, points
as objects, intersections, therefore relations as magnitudes,
where the meaning of a + bi - c - di is immediately clear. (This
is accompanied by a grid in the complex domain. See "The
Metaphysics of Complex Numbers" Spring 1990 21st. Century


        Mathematics is in the most general sense the science of
relationships, in which one abstracts from all content the
        Assume a relationship between two things, and call that the
simplest relationship, etc.


        The general idea of things, where each has a two-fold
relationship of inequality, are points in a line.


        If a point can have more than a two-fold relationship, the
image of it, is the position of points that are connected by
lines, in a surface,.  But, if one should investigate here all
possibilities, it can only concern the points, which are in a
three-fold reciprocal-relationship, and giving a relationship
between relationships.


        It were extremely important, to bring the theory of
differences to clarity without magnitudes. As occurs, for
example, in the series differences in a plane leveller. The
position of the bubble in the glass pipe is determined to be at
rest by the geometrical axis of the pipe, and a line through the
plane of the feet.

        In this brief fragment, we can see the complete unity in
Gauss' mind, between mathematics, metaphysics, and physics.  To
help grasp this, the reader should perform the following
demonstration with a carpenter's level, while thinking of the
above discussion:
        Hold the level on a surface so that the bubble is a rest in
the middle. Now rotate the level around a line perpendicular to
the surface. The bubble will not move. Now rotate the level along
an axis, in the direction of the glass tube. The bubble will
still not move. Now rotate one end of the level up and the other
end down, on an axis parallel the surface, but perpendicular to
the level. The bubble moves. Movement of the bubble back and
forth, is inseparably connected with movement of the level in a
second direction. These two actions back-forth and up down, are
not the same thing in two directions, but One two-fold action.
        (If you are self-conscious, while thinking about this
demonstration, you should be able to discover where the gremlins
of Newtonian mysticism might be lurking in your mind.)
        Acutely aware that only metaphor can adequately convey an
idea, Gauss wrote to his friend Hansen on December 11, 1825:
        "These investigations lead deeply into many others, I would
even say, into the Metaphysics of the theory of space, and it is
only with great difficulty can I tear myself away from the
results that spring from it, as, for example, the true
metaphysics of negative and complex numbers. The true sense of
the square root of -1 stands before my mind (Seele) fully alive,
but it becomes very difficult to put it in words; I am always
only able to give a vague image that floats in the air."

        In upcoming weeks, we will re-construct some of Gauss'
metaphors. We leave you today, with the following from the

        "Now the proper way is this -- so much explanation is
unavoidable. To the man who pursues his studies in the proper
way, all geometric constructions, all systems of numbers, all
duly constituted melodic progressions, the single ordered scheme
of all celestial revolutions, should disclose themselves, and
disclose themselves, they will, if, as I say, a man pursues his
studies aright with his mind's eye fixed on their single end. As
such a man reflects, he will receive the revelation of a single
bond of natural interconnection between all these problems. If
such matters are handled in any other spirit, a man, as I am
saying, will need to invoke his luck."

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The preceding article is a rough version of the article that appeared in The American Almanac. It is made available here with the permission of The New Federalist Newspaper. Any use of, or quotations from, this article must attribute them to The New Federalist, and The American Almanac.

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