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Artillery personnel
Great Embassy
Prisoners of war
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The Great Northern War
Sunday, 28 December 2014
Carl Gustaf Skytte again
Topic: Factoids

Some days ago my attention was drawn to the article (or rather part of an article) in Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon (Swedish Biographical Dictionary) which covers Carl Gustaf Skytte and the Skytte family. About Skytte's career during the first half of GNW the following is stated:

"1697 utnämndes S till kommendant i Dorpat och överste för ett värvat livländskt infanteriregemente. S blev ansvarig för förstärkningen av fästningen i Dorpat, som han framgångsrikt försvarade mot ryska angrepp. 1703 lyckades S besegra en överlägsen rysk styrka vid Wimarski, men följande år blev Dorpat belägrat av ryska trupper. S tvingades efter ett hjältemodigt försvar att kapitulera, och trots löfte om fritt uttåg fördes han till Reval och kvar-hölls en längre tid i rysk fångenskap. Han frigavs och blev 1706 utnämnd till generalmajor i infanteriet och fortsatte att delta i försvaret av Baltikum. Han var 1708 förlagd till Kurland och sändes följande år med sitt regemente till Litauen." 

The most interesting part here concerns the Russian attack on Dorpat 1704, which roughly translates as "Skytte was forced to surrender after a heroic defense. Despite promises of free passage he was brought to Reval and kept as a Russian prisoner for a long time. He was released and was in 1706 appointed Major General and continued to take part in the defense of the Baltic provinces."

Now, Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon is generally considered to be the most important Swedish reference work of its kind. It has been published since the late 1910's and the articles have over the years been written by some of the foremost experts we have (and have had). The part about Skytte is, particularly in light of this, absolutely awful. For starters - how could Skytte possibly have been a Russian prisoner of war in Reval in 1704?? The town wasn't captured by them until 1710... What makes things even worse is that Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon works out of the Riksarkivet building in Stockholm - with literally hundreds of Skytte letters right under their feet (to Schlippenbach, to Charles XII, to Governor Generals Dahlbergh and Frölich and so on). In fact, not even this would have been necessary - Skytte's so called "journal" of the siege was printed in 1916 and it contains sufficient information for avoiding such a mistake.

As for Skytte's "heroic defense" there were obviously other opinions (as I have mentioned before), but such opinions are symptomatic of what happens when too much weight is given to works which are based only on the writings of one side  - in this case Skytte himself.

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 9:32 PM CET
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Sunday, 21 December 2014
The attack on Riga in 1700 - part 1
Topic: Livonia

The archive of the Livonian Governor General contains a lot of material concerning the surprise Saxon attack in February 1700. Let's start from the very beginning:

On 11 january 1699 Governor General Dahlbergh informed Charles XII that some units from "The Royal Polish Army" had been quartered at Birzai, close to the Courland border. In order to find out more about this Dahlbergh had sent an officer to the area. A month later the Governor General reported that Lt. General Flemming had visited Riga for the purpose of buying various items for his regiment of dragoons. However, Dahlbergh remarked, Flemming appeared to be a better statesman than soldier and had a gift for "intrigues". 

Another indication can be found in a letter from Dahlbergh to the commander at Kokenhusen major Haij, dated 9 May 1699. Haij had apprently reported troop movements in Courland. The matter did not appear to be cause for concern, Dahlbergh replied, but it would do no harm if Haij very discreetly made inquiries. However, no spy should be sent.

More worrying signs started to appear towards the end of 1699. On 27 December wrote to Charles XII, telling him that seven Saxon regiments were quartered on the other side of Mitau, while one regiment was at Polangen. A lot of rumors were going around, but Dahlbergh was making preparations for an outbreak of hostilities following a "rupture" in Holstein.

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 10:11 PM CET
Updated: Sunday, 21 December 2014 10:12 PM CET
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Sunday, 14 December 2014
Russian prisoners at Neumünde
Topic: Food

On 26 February 1703 Colonel Joachim Cronman, commander of Neumünde (Dünamünde) fortress wrote to Governor Frölich in Riga about a problem. Old flour which had arrived from Mitau in March 1702 was still in storage and some of it was beginning to taste "terribly". Cronman was thinking about distributing the sacks that appeared to be OK among his own soldiers and then mixing the rest in the flour which was given to the Russian prisoners. 

In his reply to Cronman's suggestion Frölich seems to have disregarded the idea and instead concluded that this showed how urgent it was to complete the bakery at Neumünde. If for some reason some flour was unsuitable for baking bread it could be used for producing snaps.

Frölich was (as I have noted before) a man with many ideas. The following year he started a great baking experiment at Neumünde, in the course of which he took it upon himself to teach the bakers of Riga their profession.  


Uppsala University Library, Riga-Tartu collection, Box 3, Joachim Cronman to Carl Gustaf Frölich 26 February 1703 

LVVA, Fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 75, Carl Gustaf Frölich to Joachim Cronman 28 February 1703 

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 9:31 PM CET
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Sunday, 7 December 2014
The Embassy of 1674
Topic: Diplomacy

In LVVA, fond 7349, op. 2, vol. 73-76 is preserved  a considerable amount of material concerning the Swedish embassy to Moscow in 1674. Among the more odd items is a fragment of a letter book (June-July 1673) which once belonged to Gustaf Oxenstierna, the leader of the Swedish delegation. It contains information about the preparations for the journey, for instance the hiring of a translator and the purchase of presents. In vol. 76 there is a specification of how many horses and wagons the delegation needed. Count Oxenstierna should have 20 wagons, while his two colleagues would have to do with 15. The total number required was 169 - along with 148 horses (for riding). A curious item in the same volume is an unsigned and undated diatribe against the Russians, "this barbaric nation which does not care for reason or agreements". 

The volumes also contains a number of letters from Gustaf Oxenstierna and other members of the delegation to Governor General Tott and Governor Fersen in Riga. Some of the letters are coded, but luckily there is a key in vol. 74.

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 11:05 PM CET
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Sunday, 30 November 2014
Otto Vellingk and the fear of a Russian attack
Topic: Generals

On 16 February 1700 (Old Style) Erik Dahlbergh wrote to Colonel Carl Gustaf Skytte in Dorpat and Governor Otto Vellingk in Narva to inform them of the Saxon attack on Riga. The two letters were mostly identical, but in the one sent to Vellingk Dahlbergh added that the attack had not been preceded by any sort of declaration. Because of this, the Governor General stated, it was difficult to interpret the situation. Were these Saxon troops in fact in the service of the Danes or did they represent a new enemy? The letter did not reach Vellingk for quite some time as he was away inspecting the border with Russia, but on 9 March he was back in Narva. Several couriers were on there way to Sweden, Vellingk wrote. The mobilization of the Finnish regiments had also started due to an order by Governor General de la Gardie in Reval, but Vellingk himself had not dared to take similar action without orders from the King. He was also under the impression that the Saxons were not planning a direct attack on Riga, but simply wanted to collect provisions in Livonia after consuming those that could be found in Courland. Vellingk was expecting the King's orders any day and hoped these would permit an attack across the river into Courland. In the Governor's opinion such a development would be welcomed by the Polish Republic as a means of getting rid of the unwanted Saxons. 

About the situation on the Russian side Vellingk stated that there had been a lot of rumours about an attack, but this was just reports by nervous merchants. Even the Swedish representative Thomas Herbers in Pskov had been struck by this fear, Vellingk stated. However, Vellingk continued, he did not himself believe these reports as it was well known that the Czar would not undertake anything while his negotations with the Ottoman Empire were continuing. News from Moscow further suggested that the Czar was busy with his fleet and such preparations indicated that he did not plan to start a new war.


LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 72, pp. 70-74, Erik Dahlbergh to Otto Vellingk, Riga 16 February 1700 

Uppsala University Library, Dorpat-Riga collection, Box 1, Otto Vellingk to Erik Dahlbergh, Narva 9 March 1700

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 9:58 PM CET
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Sunday, 23 November 2014
Adlerfelt's Histoire Militaire
Topic: Source criticism

One of the most popular sources for the history of the Great Northern War is Histoire militaire de Charles XII, roi de Suède (1741), presented as a work by Gustaf Adlerfelt (1671-1709). As the late historian Hans Villius showed in his dissertation Karl XII:s ryska fälttåg (1951) it is nothing of the kind, especially as far as the campaign of 1707-1709 is concerned. Histoire Militaire is in fact an extremly "dangerous" source in the sense that it, contrary to what is explicitly stated in the introduction, was heavily edited by Adlerfelt's son (who had no firsthand knowledge of the events). This resulted in many mistakes which are not present in the Gustaf Adlerfelt's original Swedish manuscript (published in 1919 under the title Karl XII:s krigsföretag).

The preserved manuscript is accompanied by various letters to Gustaf Adlerfelt, which bear testimony to the fact that he sought to collect information from various theatres of war. Another example of this can be found in a small collection of Lewenhaupt papers in Riksarkivet, Stockholm (E 4645). On 18 May 1706 Gustaf Adlerfelt wrote to Lewenhaupt from Pinsk about the latest developments, thanking the General for his willingness to send a copy of his journal. "My curiosity is legitimate and has to be excused", Adlerfelt writes. If it was possible to send the journal over Königsberg he would be much obliged. Later contacts between the two can also be established. On 23 February 1707 Adlerfelt wrote to Lewenhaupt from Altranstädt (LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1., vol. 296, pp. 253-255). The wish this time was very different: a relative by the name of Ernst Magnus von Hargen, who was serving in the garrison at Wismar, was interested in obtaining a vacant spot in the Österbotten infantry regiment. The Colonel of the regiment, a friend of Adlerfelt, was favorably disposed and had promised to write to Lewenhaupt about it. Adlerfelt hoped this would settle the matter and assured the General that his relative was a very experienced officer. So how did it go? Well, according to a note on Adlerfelt's letter it arrived in Riga on 11 March. On the very same day Lewenhaupt appointed von Hargen to the vacant position and on 2 April Charles XII confirmed the appointment (Krigskollegium, Militiekontoret, Avlöningshandlingar., SE/KrA/0009/A/G IV b/59 (1707), page 509). 

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 9:27 PM CET
Updated: Sunday, 23 November 2014 9:28 PM CET
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Sunday, 16 November 2014
Systerbäck 1703
Topic: Battles

The known Swedish sources for the encounter at Systerbäck on 9 July 1703 are few. Most extensive is Relation von der Action, so den 9 Julii 1703 bey Sösterbeck zwischen der unter meinem Commendo stehenden under feindtlichen armee vorgefallen, printed by Yrjö Koskinen in 1865. This account was sent by Cronhjort to "Defensionskommissionen" on 14 July and is preserved in the committee's archive.

A couple previously overlooked Systerbäck sources can be found in LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 358 as attachments to a letter from Lt. General Georg Johan Maydell to Governor Frölich in Riga. Maydell had at that point not yet reached the army in Finland, but as a long time commander of a Finnish infantry regiment he undoubtedly had many contacts in Cronhjort's army. In the letter Maydell writes that the losses luckily hadn't been as bad as the rumours had been suggesting despite the fact that the action had started at 6 in the morning and continued until 2 p.m. The Swedes had lost 250 killed and 220 wounded, but the Russian losses were twice as high, Maydell claimed (according to Cronhjort's account there had been 203 killed and 184 wounded on the Swedish side). 

Maydell's sources seems to have been two letters, one from captain Maydell and one from captain Paykull (summaries attached to the letter to Frölich).



Riksarkivet, ÄK 243, vol.  107 (Letters to Defensionskommissionen from Cronhjort 1703)

LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 258 (Miscellaneous letters 1693-1703) 

Handlingar till upplysande af Finlands öden under det Stora nordiska kriget / utg. af Yrjö Koskinen. - Helsinki, 1865


Posted by bengt_nilsson at 9:39 PM CET
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Sunday, 9 November 2014
The action at Vinni 16 June 1708
Topic: Livonia
Some weeks ago Vlad Velikanov wrote about the action at Vinni on 16 August 1708. The Swedish literature on the subject is pretty meagre, basically just a few pages in Fredrik Hjelmqvist's Kriget i Finland och Ingermanland 1707-1708 (1909) and Fredrik Arfwidsson's Försvaret av Östersjöprovinserna 1708-1710 (1936). Both relied heavily on Kelch's Liefländische Historie and reports from Governor General Nils Stromberg rather than on testimony from actual Swedish participants. Such do exist, although fairly well hidden. Most detailed is a letter from Lt. Colonel J. F. von Liewen to Stromberg, dated 19 August 1708 (most likely an important source for Stromberg's own reports), which was copied and on 3 September forwarded to Deputy Governor of Riga Rembert von Funcken by Hans Henrik von Liewen (LVVA, fond 7349, op. 2, vol. 248, pp 1-6). Contrary to the descriptions by Hjelmqvist and Arfwidsson the report by J. F. von Liewen does not suggest poor behavior by any Swedish unit. Everybody did their outmost, Liewen writes, and the only reason for the defeat was the overwhelming numerical superiority of the enemy.

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 8:58 PM CET
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Sunday, 2 November 2014
The Lewenhaupt memoirs
Topic: Source criticism

One of the most hotly debated Swedish sources is the Lewenhaupt memoirs, written while the author was a prisoner of war in Russia. They were first (partially) published in the 1750's by Carl Gustaf Boije, married to one of the late General's daughters. A complete edition appeared as late as in 1952. Historians traditionally formed two different camps - one which considered Lewenhaupt a tragic victim of a stubborn monarchs disregard for common sense and another which viewed the memoirs as an attempt to rewrite history and place blame for the author's own mistakes on everybody but himself. 

One of the most contested items in the memoirs is the description of the prelude to Lewenhaupt's march eastwards in the summer of 1708. The historian Ernst Carlson (1854-1909), who was firmly in the first camp, relied heavily on the memoirs and apparently believed that the first order to collect supplies for three months was given on 26 May - in the same letter which ordered Lewenhaupt to march in early June! This was of course not the case. The order to collect supplies for three months was given on 24 February 1708 and reached Lewenhaupt in early March (see for instance letter from B. O. Stackelberg to Nils Stromberg 10 March 1708). So how could Carlson have been so mistaken? Well, there is no mention of the February order in Lewenhaupt's memoirs. Instead the General gives the King's letter of 26 May and comments: I sent a courier to the King and reported that it would be impossible for me to leave so soon and how my departure would leave Estonia and Livonia open to the enemy. But as I received no new orders the march continued...

So when did this courier leave with Lewenhaupt's report and his request for different orders? The memoirs are vague on this point, but Carlson naturally assumed that it was done immediately.  Well, the letter dated 26 May arrived in Riga on 3 June, but Lewenhaupt's doubts and worries were not translated into action until three weeks later. On 25 June Lewenhaupt wrote to Gustaf Adolf Strömfelt (who a few days before had appealed to him to leave some units behind) that he "now" was sending an extensive report about the situation and that this "perhaps" would result in different orders. 



Bernt Otto Stackelberg to Nils Stromberg, Mitau 10 March 1708, Riksarkivet, Livonica II, vol. 313.

Gustaf Adolf Strömfelt to Adam Ludvig Lewenhaupt, Pernau 19 June 1708, LVVA, Fond 7349, op. 2, vol. 247.

Karl XII to Adam Ludvig Lewenhaupt, Radoszkowicze 26 May 1708, Uppsala Univ. Library, F. 103

Swedish letter book 1708, LVVA, Fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 79. 

Carlson, Ernst, Sveriges historia under Karl den tolftes regering. D. 3. - Stockholm, 1910.

Lewenhaupt, Adam Ludvig, Adam Ludvig Lewenhaupts berättelse... Stockholm, 1952. 


Posted by bengt_nilsson at 9:37 PM CET
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Sunday, 26 October 2014
Even more indexes again
Topic: Archives

The list at present: 

The Tartu volumes 

EAA. 278.1.XX-10c (Letters from Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach 1706-1707)
EAA.278.1.XX-12c (Letters from Carl Gustaf Skytte 1701-1707)
EAA.278.1.XX-15 (Letters from Carl Magnus Stuart 1702-1703)
EAA.278.1.XX-17 (Letters from Otto Vellingk 1699-1700)
EAA.278.1.XX-18 (Letters concerning the war in Livonia 1700-1709)
EAA.278.1.XX-19 (Letters from Livonian clergymen 1700-1707)
EAA.278.1.XX-21b (Miscellaneous letters to Erik Dahlbergh 1700-1702)
EAA.278.1.XX-25b (Letters from Gustaf Ernst Albedyhl 1705-1706)
EAA.278.1.XX-25f (Letters from Gustaf Ernst Albedyhl 1702-1709)
EAA.278.1.XX-29 (Letters from Carl Gustaf Frölich 1701-1707)
EAA.278.1.XX-31 (Miscellaneous letters about the war in Courland 1701-1708)

The Riga volumes

LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 272 (Letters from various officers 1700-1703)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 273 (Letters from J. von Campenhausen & others 1700-1704)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 274 (Letters from Axel Julius & Adam Carl de la Gardie 1700-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 275 (Letters from naval officers & others 1700-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 276 (Letters from Henning Rudolf Horn 1700-1702)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 277 (Letters from Henning Rudolf Horn 1703-1704)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 278 (Letters from district bailiffs Krebs, Ringenheim, Falkenhagen and Bayer von Weissfeldt 1699-1700)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 279 (Letters from district bailiffs Krebs, Ringenheim, Falkenhagen and Bayer von Weissfeldt 1701-1702)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 280 (Letters from Wolter von Laurentzen 1700-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 281 (Letters from Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach 1701-1702)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 282 (Letters from Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach 1702-1704)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 283 (Letters from Gustaf and Johan Henrik von Schwengeln 1700-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 284 (Letters from Gustaf von Schwengeln 1700-1701)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 285 (Letters from Gustaf and Johan Henrik von Schwengeln 1702-1705)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 286 (Letters from J. H. von Schwengeln 1705-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 287 (Letters from Carl Gustaf Skytte 1699-1700)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 288 (Letters from Carl Gustaf Skytte 1700-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 289 (Letters from Adam Heinrich von Steinau 1700)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 290 (Letters from the border 1699-1703)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 291 (Letters concerning the war in Livonia 1700-1703)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1. vol. 292 (Letters concerning the war in Livonia 1703-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 293 (Miscellaneous letters 1695-1700)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 294 (Letters to Erik Dahlbergh 1700-1702)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 295 (Letters from Swedish diplomats and officers in Danzig and Elbing 1699-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 296 (Miscellaneous letters from Swedish and foreign officials and diplomats 1694-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 297 (Miscellaneous letters to Charles XII and to Mårten Trotzig 1700)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 298 (Letters from Gustaf Ernst Albedyhl 1700-1702)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 299 (Letters from Gustaf Ernst Albedyhl 1703-1704)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 300 (Letters from Gustaf Ernst Albedyhl 1707-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1. vol. 301 (Letters from H. G. and H. J. von Buddenbrock 1701-1703)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 302 (Letters from Erik Dahlbergh 1696-1699)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 303 (Letters from Erik Dahlbergh 1700-1702)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 304 (Letters from Finland 1700-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 305 (Miscellaneous letters 1701-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 306 (Miscellaneous letters 1700-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 309 (Letters from Libau 1701-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 310 (Letters from F. W. and J. F. von Liphardt 1700-1705)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 311 (Letters from Abraham Cronhjort and Georg Lybecker 1701-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 312 (Letters from Georg Johan Maydell 1700-1706)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 313 (Letters from Magnus Wilhelm Nieroth 1701-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 314 (Letters from Ösel 1700-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 315 (Letters from Bauske, Mitau and Selburg 1701-1703)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 316 (Letters from various outposts near Riga 1701-1703)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 317 (Miscellaneous letters 1701-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 318 (Letters from Johan & Erik Sjöblad 1701-1707)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 319 (Letters from Carl Adam Stackelberg 1701-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 320 (Letters from Gustaf Adolf Strömfelt 1699-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 321 (Letters from Gustaf Adolf Strömfelt 1699-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 322 (Letters from Magnus Fredrik Wolffelt 1701-1707)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 323 (Letters from Johan Apolloff 1702-1703)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 324 (Letters from Göran Johan Knorring 1701-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 325 (Letters from Bernt Otto Stackelberg 1702-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 326 (Letters from Johan Adolf Clodt 1702-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 327 (Letters from Carl Fredrik Mengden 1703-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 328 (Miscellaneous letters 1703-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 329 (Miscellaneous letters 1703-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 330 (Letters from Johan Gustaf von der Osten, genannt Sacken 1706-1708)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 332 (Letters from Nils Stromberg 1707-1709)
LVVA, fond 7349, op. 1, vol. 333 (Miscellaneous letters 1697-1708)


Worth noting here is vol. 333, which primarily contains letters and other documents from 1708 (about 185 items out of 195). The volume, not included in Bienemann's catalogue and as far as I can see not used by Uddgren for his Lewenhaupt biography, contains quite a few documents concerning the preparations for Lewenhaupt's march eastwards in the summer of 1708. One letter (Lars Weidenhielm to Lewenhaupt, 18 July) makes it for instance clear that the battalion of the Österbotten infantry regiment which accompanied his army had in mid-July got no further than Zagare, southwest of Mitau (Jelgava) on the Lithuanian side of the modern border. The well-known Petre diary indicates that the Helsinge regiment was in the same area at the same time. Since Charles XII had expected Lewenhaupt's corps to start moving as early as the beginning of June it's clear that the delay (whatever the reasons behind it were) must have been most unwelcome to the King. If Lewenhaupt's corps had been able to move out when Charles had expected, it would likely have reached the main army some time in mid-August near Mogilev. 

Posted by bengt_nilsson at 10:38 PM MEST
Updated: Sunday, 26 October 2014 11:43 PM MEST
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