|Comment from Doug Renselle: From what I can tell, energy conservation is a SOM nonstarter. Vacuum Energy (non)Space is so dense that it has enough energy in 1 cubic centimeter to make ~100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 of our known universes, give or take a few zeroes. If we retain the concept of energy conservation, it, as SOM, must be kept in a small, subsumed portion of our new theory.|
However, 5 months after this was written, Walter Bothe and Hans Geiger of Germany demonstrated that energy was indeed strictly conserved in individual atomic interactions, thus disproving Bohr's proposal. On the very day he received news of this experiment, Bohr wrote:
"...it seems therefore that there is nothing else to do than to give
our revolutionary efforts as honorable a funeral as possible...In fact
I think that the possibility of describing these experiments without a
radical departure from an ordinary space-and-time description is so remote
that we may as well surrender at once and prepare ourselves for a coupling
[i.e., an interaction] between the changes of state in distant atoms
of the kind involved in the light quantum theory...I am thinking of all
kinds of wild symbolic analogies." (Pg. 77)
|Comment from Doug Renselle: See remarks above. My interpretation, given today's knowledge, is nonspace (DQ) can add to and subtract from total static (SQ) energy in space. Just prior to the big-bang quantum/Quality event, space was without static (SQ) energy or matter (they are identical by E=mc^2). Just after BB event, space became static (SQ) energy embedded in its parent, the isotropic dynamic energy we call nonspace or DQ. Today, supernovas and black holes, et al., add and subtract respectively to and from space's static (SQ) energy. If I am right, there is no way nonlocal space energy may be conserved. Clearly, it changes over time.|
|Doug Renselle: My description above is cosmological. But if you read Feynman, et al., they speak of virtual particles, tunneling, BECs, etc. Maewan Ho shows us that our muscles are coherent zero-entropy, non-thermalized energy consumers. Clearly, flexing your arm uses DQ/nonspace energy in a coherent process. Probably mind does too.|
Once Bohr realized that matter/energy conservation could not be given up, he also realized that the dualism of particles and waves would be something his new framework would have to deal with. It was during this time that Bohr had intense, almost daily discussions with a young assistant named Werner Heisenberg.
" ...it comes as no surprise that Heisenberg recalls in their discussions during the spring of 1926, Bohr reluctantly agreed for the first time to completely abandon any attempt to describe the atomic system in terms of 'visualizable' or pseudo-mechanical models. Here 'visualizable' clearly refers to 'space-time description' as classically understood. Nevertheless, it is probable that the parties to this agreement had rather different interpretations of what had been agreed to. On the one hand, Heisenberg apparently read their agreement as Bohr's endorsement for pursuing a purely mathematical theory that would ascribe properties only to observed phenomena resulting from interactions between atomic systems and radiation. On the other hand, Bohr characteristically read this agreement as endorsing a search for a revised understanding of how we use space and time concepts in picturing the behavior of atomic systems. For Heisenberg, this resolve helped to produce first matrix mechanics, then some twenty months later, the uncertainty principle. For Bohr, this agreement marked a major step on the road to complementarity." (Pg. 78)
Heisenberg saw Bohr's doubts about 'visualizable' models as implying that theoretical representations of the atom should proceed without attempting a space-time description of what is actually happening there. Heisenberg felt that the theory should focus on simply predicting results between radiation and atomic systems. Bohr was critical of Heisenberg's disregard for describing the physical aspect of the atom.
" 'I was completely shocked', recalled Heisenberg; 'I got quite furious because I thought I had something real and now they tried to explain it away'. So we had quite a heated discussion but at the end I came out with a slight victory...And I had for the first time the feeling that now I had been able to convince Bohr about something about which we had disagreed." (Pg. 79)
The Uncertainty Principle
In the summer of 1925, Heisenberg succeeded in formulating matrix calculus, the first expression of the 'new' quantum mechanics and a theory that completely eradicated any dependence on space-time descriptions of the atom. This success led Bohr to determine the exact point where the classical descriptive ideal broke down, and ultimately led to his theory of complementarity.
However, the highly abstract nature of matrix calculus seems to bar the way to finding any physical interpretation of the mathematical scheme. Thus Heisenberg's achievement led Bohr to analyze the relationship between the empirical classical system and the meaning of those same concepts within quantum representation of the atom.
When matrix mechanics appeared, both particle and wave representations seemed necessary to describe the full range of phenomena observed in the atomic system. However, if these theoretical representations applied to 'real' objects, then it would seem that these systems must have contradictory properties. Bohr put this inconsistency into the 'dualism' of particles and waves.
In 1927, Heisenberg presented his Uncertainty Principle, and in April of 1927 Heisenberg and Bohr finally reached an agreement. Bohr wrote to Einstein: "Heisenberg has asked that I send you a copy of the proofs he expects of a new article which he hopes will interest you...it has long been recognized how intimately the difficulties of quantum theory are connected with the concepts, or rather the words, which are used in the description of nature and all of which have their origin in classical theory...This situation permitted us by the limitations on our possibility of observations, in order to avoid all contradictions, as Heisenberg stresses...Through his new formulation we are given the possibility to harmonize the demand for conservation of energy with the wave theory of light, while in accord with the nature of description, the different sides of the problem never come into appearance simultaneously." (Pg. 97)
In this letter, Bohr outlines many of his arguments for complementarity which would lead to its birth. Bohr is looking for a "limitation" which would restrict the application of classical physical ideas when applied to quantum theory. At the same time, Bohr maintained that these classical notions must be maintained to describe the physical interactions which the new theory treated as an "interpretation of the experimental material".
Bohr felt that "because if the objects described by quantum mechanics as such waves and particles did in fact have independent reality in the ordinary physical sense, it would be possible to define classical mechanical states to them." (Pg. 111)
Bohr concludes that space/time coordination and causal description are complementary: "The very nature of the quantum theory thus forces us to regard the space-time co-ordination and the claim of causality, the union of which characterizes the classical theories, as complementary but exclusive features of the description, symbolizing the idealization of observation and definition." (Pg. 113)
The argument presented in the Como Papers remained Bohr's approach to
complementarity throughout his life. This overview of complementarity is
now complete, and you may continue the review by following the links at
the bottom. Thanks for reading!
Part 2 - Argument
Part 3 - Comments on Complementarity
Part 4 - Complementarity and the Uncertainty Principle
Part 5 - Refinement of Complementarity
Part 6 - Extension of Complementarity
Part 7 - The Nature of Empirical Knowledge
Part 8 - Complementarity and the Metaphysics of Quality