Oliver's Site

12. Simon/Peter, Saul/Paul














Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Simon/Peter, Saul/Paul | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Reformation, Enlightenment (1300s -1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. The 21st Century | 36. Outer Space | 37. | 42.





Continued from previous page, 11. Rome B. C. - A. D. 96

 
For the King James Version of the entire Bible:
 
http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/
 
 
 








































The Old Testament

The Hebrew Bible

The Tanakh




The Isaiah Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, in Hebrew, from 4th to 2nd century (399 to 100 B. C.)


Holy Land Maps showing Maps of the Holy Land

The Lands and cities of the Bible


The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh)

- The Torah, or Pentateuch   =   Five books, the Law of Moses (Instruction)

- Nevi'im   =   Prophets (Former and Latter [Major and Minor])

- Ketuvim   =   Writings (The Three Poetic Books, The Five Scrolls, and The Three Other Books)  


Related image



The Catholic Church Old Testament has 46 books

 Related image


The Protestant Church Old Testament has 39 books

Related image

Image

 

The Eastern Orthodox Church Old Testament has 50 books 

 


 
 
 
-------------
 
 
 
 
 

 
A People is Born
 
First of nine episodes of the 1984 - 1998 documentary series Heritage: Civilization and the Jews presented by Abba Eban
 
 
 
 
The Power of the Word
 
Episode # 2 of the 1984 documentary series Heritage: Civilization and the Jews presented by Abba Eban
 
 
 
 
 

               -------
 
 
Secrets of the Bible
 
Episode from the documentary series The Bible's Buried Secrets (NOVA)
 
 
 

The Garden of Eden


In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
(Genesis 1:1.)



God creating the universe on the first day (1220).  

 


Adam and Eve


And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our own likeness . . . (Genesis 1:26).


God created man, Adam.

He set Adam in paradise   -   the Garden of Eden.

God told Adam that he could eat all the fruit in the garden but forbade him not to pick the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. 

But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. (Genesis 2:17)


. . . male and female created he them. (Genesis 1:27).

God created a woman, Eve, for Adam.


Image result for adam and eve 
Adam and Eve by the Danish painter Julius Paulsen in 1893


A serpent tempted Eve to pick the forbidden fruit. Eve offered the fruit to Adam.
  


Adam and Eve by Jan Gossaert (ca. 1525)

 

Adam and Eve ate the fruit. This gave them Knowledge of Good and Evil.

But this made God angry. Ada and Eve had disobeyed Him. So He banished them from the Garden of Eden.


 
Love and Sex in the Hebrew Bible
 
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible  
 
 


Mesopotamia   -   Return to Eden

 

Episode from the documentary series Lost Civilizations narrated by Sam Waterston

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47qcqcBKueY 

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h534FTPHQoY&feature=related

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=on3cdN3iZqc

 
 
 

Cain and Abel


The first two sons of Adam and Eve were Cain and Abel.

Cain murdered Abel.  


Image result for Titian - Cain slays Abel

Cain and Abel by Titian (1542 - 1544)


Cain & Abel: A Murder Mystery

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hzgt4KDOBVQ

 

 

 
----------------


Noah and the Ark


God saw that His people had not turned out as he wanted and decided to return the world to its original state, with only water.

He commanded Noah to build an ark for himself and his family and board one pair of each kind of animal, male and female.

When the ark was completed, God created a storm that flooded the Earth for 40 days and 40 nights. All life perished.   

 
Noah's Ark by Edward Hicks, 1846


Noah's Ark
 
BBC documentary
 
 
 


Related image

The Great Flood by Bonaventura I Peeters (1614 - 1652), Flemish painter.

After 150 days, the sea dried and Noah and the ark reached Mount Ararat.  


----------------


Abraham


The angel Gabriel stops Abraham from sacrificing
his son Isaac by Juan de Valdés Leal (1622 – 1690)


 

Timeline (from Abraham to Simon bar Kochba)




The Story of Abraham and Sarah
 
Episode from the documentary series Great People of the Bible and How they Lived
 

In 3 clips: 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Patriarchs
 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
 
Episode # 1 from the 2009 documentary series The Bible Unearthed
 
 
 
 
 
 

Abraham  -  One Man, One God

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuNB4EeoKi8

 

Abraham

Movie with Richard Harris (1993)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vc-48fImgiQ

 

In the Beginning

2-part 2000 movie (3 hrs. 9 min.)

The Patriarchs, Exodus from Egypt, Conquest of Canaan

Part 1.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kF6VuVxxE7E

Part 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-v-53Uh_Do

 

 

The Biblical stories of Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AGDdr2c3zlI 

In French:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMq9Vc3xFyE 

 

The sons of Abraham

Abraham + Hagar (Sarah's maidservant) = Ishmael

Abraham + Sarah (wife) = Isaac

 

----------------

                                              
 
Isaac + Rebecca = Jacob, Esau   
 
 
Jacob
 
The Biblical story of the Isaac's sons Jacob and Esau. The story of Jacob and his uncle, Laban. The story of Jacob and Rachel.
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aK7eOAEINvM 

 
 
The twelve sons (tribes) of Jacob (Israel)

Jacob + Leah (wife) = Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun 

Jacob + Bihah (Rachel's maidservant) = Dan, Napthali

Jacob + Zilpah (Leah's maidservant) = Gad, Asher

Jacob + Rachel (wife) = Joseph, Benjamin


 
 
 
 
 
-------------------

 
 
 
Joseph and his Brethren
 
The Biblical story of Joseph, son of Jacob, and his brothers
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hbsmfBdUrU
 
 
Joseph
 
The Biblical story of Joseph, son of Jacob, who was sold into slavery by his brothers, but became the most powerful man in Egypt after the pharaoh.
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEiZ_8KuGos
 
 
 
 
------------------
 
 
 
 

Moses 


The Pharaoh of Egypt saw the Hebrews in Egypt multiply and commanded that all male Hebrews be drowned in the Nile at birth. The mother of a new-born infant, called Moses, put him in a basket and set it on the Nile. The daughter of Pharaoh saw the basket, found the child, and raised him as an Egyptian.   


 
The Finding of Moses (floating in a basket in the Nile by Pharaoh's daughter) by British painter Edwin Long (1886).


Scene from The Ten Commandments (1956)



When a young man, Moses killed an Egyptian who was beating his Hebrew slave.

Moses fled Egypt and lived many years in the land of Midian.   


 
The Exodus
 

God commanded Moses to lead his people, the Hebrews, out of Egypt.

Moses returned to Egypt. 

Moses and Aaron arrive back in Egypt and demand the release of the ...
Moses and his brother Aaron warned Pharaoh to let the Hebrews leave Egypt.



But Pharaoh would not let the Hebrews leave Egypt. 

Moses turned to God.

. . . as the Lord commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. (Exodus: 7:20.)

 
 
 Did you know that the ten plagues of Egypt were a direct attack on ...

The Ten Plagues
 
1st: Blood - the waters of Egypt turned into blood
2nd: Frogs - frogs appear everywhere
3rd: Lice - lice infests men and animals
4th: Flies - the land was covered with flies
5th: Disease of Livestock - cattle, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, sheep,
6th. Boils - flesh of man and animals covered with festering boils
7th: Hail - hailstones fall on the land
8th: Locusts - locusts eat everything
9th: Darkness - the sky turned dark for three days, blinding everyone
10th: Death of the First-Born

First: Blood
10 Plagues of Egypt and Their Real Causes | Reader's Digest 

2nd.: Frogs
ZachsMind on Twitter: ""You cannot have a plague of frogs. You can ...

3rd. Lice and gnats
Plague #3. Gnats or Lice 8:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Say ...

4th. Flies      
The Fourth Plague: Swarms of Flies

5th. Disease of livestock
The Ten Plagues - The Exodus Story

6th. Boils on flesh of humans and livestock
MOSES and the TEN PLAGUES OF EGYPT

7th. Hailstones rained upon the land
Fitxer:Martin, John - The Seventh Plague - 1823.jpg - Viquipèdia ...

8th. Locusts swarmed over the land
Q&A: Are the 2019-20 locust swarms linked to climate change?

9th. Darkness
The Pulpit commentary




The Ten Plagues of Egypt
 
Brief description - The Passover Story
 


 
  
The Tenth Plague

Death of the first-born

God sent the Angel of Death to Egypt to kill the first-born of every family.

The Pass Over

To Sheep Christ Our Passover 1 Cor 5 7 For Indeed
 

The Tenth Plague
 
God warns the Hebrews to paint lamb's blood on their doors so the angel of death will "pass over" them.
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-IwFT14KSI
 
 
The Ten Plagues and the Passover Meal
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUrgYoSJ-Kc&ebc=ANyPxKopBqXA-IdmphRpC82D_l7QDwti-Q59w-N8NoNjfaEnfGPNoRxj7RwbIrSrskWO0iH0FA6WuDWN3GhpTHRr7ofh7fk8Qg 



 Death of the firstborn of Egypt - the last of the ten plagues ...
 
In the morning, Pharaoh found his eldest son dead. 

Pharaoh told Moses to go.


Brief documentary about a scientific attempt to explain the ten plagues 
 


The Biblical Plagues 

Three episodes consider the possible causes and effects of various natural calamities in ancient Egypt (about 43 min. each).

1. Dual on the Nile

Changes of climate and the ancient Egyptian cities of Pi-Ramesses and Tanis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wi8qBAQUeQQ
 
2. Darkness Over Egypt

The effects of the volcanic eruption of Thera (Santorini)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Vy3UVv-Ar4 

3. Flight from Egypt

The Hyksos, Asiatics from Anatolia  -  Were they Canaanites? Did they become Canaanites? Were they the people of the Bible?  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0kbDMjAOXQE 



The Whole Book": #222 Consider the Source
Moses led the Hebrews from the land of Goshen, in northeastern Egypt, to the Red Sea.


How to Have True Faith in God: Enlightenment From Moses' Journey ...

The Hebrews (Israelites) followed Moses to the Red Sea. 


File:Molnár Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt 1861.jpg ...

Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt.


Pharaoh Pursues the Israelites & Parting the Red Sea - Exodus 14
Pharaoh changed his mind and ordered his soldiers to pursue the Hebrews (Israelites) and stop them.  


And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. (Exodus 14:21).

 
 
Moses parting the Red Sea.


When the Hebrews escaped their slavery, the Egyptians followed ...

The Hebrews (Israelites) crossed the sea to the opposite side.


Did the Exodus Really Happen? – Focus Online



The Egyptian soldiers pursued them, the seas closed and the soldiers were drowned.  

Gambar Laut Merah Terbelah - Pemandanganoce


Bridgman Frederick Arthur - Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed by the ...

The sea closed on the pursuing Egyptian soldiers.  


Exodus Revealed
 
Episode from the National Geographic documentary series Riddles of the Bibles (50:43)
 

 
Exodus


Episode # 2 from the documentary series The Bible Unearthed
 


 
 

The Exodus Revealed

Search for the Red Sea Crossing

Documentary




Image result for Mount sinai - map

Map shows the path of Moses and the Hebrews, from Exodus to the River Jordan. Moses led his people through the wilderness for forty years before reaching the River Jordan.


Why Didn't Moses Lead God's People into the Holy Land? | Spiritual ...

Moses led the Hebrews out of the land of Goshen, in northeast Egypt, across the Red Sea and through the desert to Mount (Horeb) Sinai.

On Mount Sinai, God gave Moses Ten Commandments the Hebrews would have to obey and live by.



Moses and the Ten Commandments
by James J. Tissot (1836  -  1902).


The Ten Commandments

1. I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

2. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above . . . Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them . . .

3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain . . .

4. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy . . .

5. Honour thy father and thy mother . . .

6. Thou shalt not kill.

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.

8. Thou shalt not steal.

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

(Exodus 20)

The Ten Commandments

 

Preview of 1956 movie presented by Cecil B. DeMille

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8iNvzzak5U

 

Prelude


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gc4Yeiogl0


Entire movie with Charlton Heston (3:51:38)

 

https://archive.org/details/TheTenCommandmentsMovie1956

 

 

Moses

 

1995 movie with Ben Kingsley (3:02:25)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0P0jzlfmz80

 

 

The Ten Commandments

 

2006 movie (mini-series) (2:59:30)

   

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmgAmkU0o8A 



The Ten Commandments
 
Animated movie (2007) recounts the Biblical story of Moses
 

 

 

Moses, the Lawgiver

 

1973 - 1974 TV series with Burt Lancaster as Moses (4 hrs., 32 min.) 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LkOl7CiH2S0

 

or (3 hrs. 57 min.)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGwZVocmr98 



MOSES

 

Death Chase

 

Documentary from the documentary series Battles BC

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxpoLryw0uA

 

 

Once Upon A Time

 

Part 1 of 7 of the documentary series Testament with John Romer (1988) (51:33)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cG2ffXb8dJ4 


or

 



The Ten Commandments 
 
Excerpt form 2009 animated movie
  

 




 The Conquest of Canaan

After wandering about the wilderness forty years, Moses and the Hebrews came to the River Jordan. Across the river was the land of Canaan. Moses was old and would not live to enter the land. He chose his closest assistant, Joshua, who commanded the armies, to lead the people into Canaan, destroy the cities and people there, and settle there. 

Crossing the River Jordan, Joshua led the Hebrews to the first city in Canaan, Jericho, and destroyed it.  

 
 
 
 
Joshua and the Battle of Jericho
 
Episode from the BBC documentary series Bible Mysteries 




 

  
Joshua at the Wall of Jericho
 
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible with Bill Kylie and Jeanne Simmons
 
 
 
 
Joshua and the Battle of Jericho
 
Episode from the movie series Greatest Heroes of the Bible
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
The Israelites' Conquest of Canaan
 
Episode from the 1995 documentary series Archeology with John Rhys-Davies
 
Was there a Joshua? Was there a Battle of Jericho? Who were the Israelites?
 



----------------



Patriarchs, Exodus, Conquest: Fact or Fiction?

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Hebrew University, Farmington Hills, Michigan

October 2005


Comment by Amihai Mazar

22 October 2005



 
---------------
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Philistines
 
 
The Philistines were Indo-Europeans, probably from the Aegean, who settled on the Mediterranean coast of southern Canaan circa 1200 B. C.    -   at the end (collapse) of the Bronze Age and beginning of the Iron Age.
 
The Bible mentions five major Philisitine city-states or kingdoms   -   the Philistine Pentapolis   -   Gaza, Askelon and Ashdod along the coast and Ekron and Gath between the coastal plain and eastern foothills. 
 
The Philistines vanished from Canaan circa 600 B. C.  
 
 
 
Arch-Enemy:  The Philistines
 
Episode from the A & E documentary series Mysteries of the Bible with Richard Kylie and Jeanne Simmons (1995)
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
Last Days of the Philistines
 
Short documentary from the 1993 series Archaeology  -  Mysteries of the Holy Land with John Rhys-Davies
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
Ekron of the Philistines
 
From Sea Peoples to Olive Oil Industrialists
 
Lecture by Sy Gitin  at the Lanier Theological Library in Houston, Texas on March 17, 2012 (01:04:47)
 
Philistines in Canaan till 604 B. C.
 
 
Q. & A.
 
 
 
 
 
New Light on the Biblical Philistines in Light of the Excavations at Philistine Gath
 
Lecture by Aren M. Maeir on excavations at the Philistine site of Gath and its significance for biblical history
 
David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies, Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah
 
May 17, 2013
 
 
 
 
Archeologists discover Philistine cemetery
 
2016
 
 
 
 
-----------------
 
 
 



Samson and Delilah
 
 
 
Samson and Delilah by Guercino (1591–1666)
 
 
 
 
SAMSON AND DELILAH
 
Hollywood movie
 
 
 
 
Samson and Delilah

1949 movie with Hedy Lamarr





Samson


(1:34:13) 



Samson and Delilah

(1:30:05)







---------------



David

Image result for david and goliath by Titian

David and Goliath by Titian
 
 
 
DAVID AND GOLIATH
 
1961 movie with Orson Welles
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
David and Goliath
 
2015 movie
 
 
 
 
Did King David's Empire Exist?
 
Episode from the documentary series
The Bible's Buried Secrets
 
 
 
 
Lost Kings of Israel
 
National Geographic documentary
 
 
 
 
King David, Poet Warrior
 
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible
 
 
 
 
King David
 
1997 movie
 
 
 


------------



Solomon

 
King Solomon
 
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
 
King Solomon's Tablet of Stone
 
Documentary (BBC Horizon)
 
 
 
 
 
King Solomon's Mines
 
1937 movie with Paul Robeson
 
 
 
 
 
Quest for King Solomon's Mines
 
1985 NOVA/National Geographic documentary film
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
The Real King Solomon's Mines  
 
Episode from the documentary series Myth Hunters
 
 
 

What is the Truth about King Solomon's Golden Age? 

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Hebrew University, Detroit, October 2005


Lecture by Amihai Mazar

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FenfvlYpj4c


King Solomon
 
1997 movie
 

 
 
 
 
The Queen of Sheeba
 
Episode from the documentary series Digging for the Truth
 


 
 
 
 
The visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon by the English painter Sir John Poynter in 1890 





-------------

 
 
 
 
The Prophet Isaiah
 
Prophet of Judah
 
 

 
 
------------
 
 




The Twelve Tribes of Israel

Related image

The twelve tribes were united into a kingdom under Saul, David and Solomon. (1050 - 930 BC.) 

Under Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, the Kingdom of Israel split in two kingdoms, with Israel as the northern kingdom, with ten tribes, and the southern kingdom, Judah, with two tribes. (930 BC.) The ten northern tribes would not accept Rehoboam as their king.


Image result for the united monarchy of judah and israel
The northern and southern kingdoms, Israel and Judah.


The Assyrians sacked Aramea and Israel and carried off the Arameans and the ten tribes of Israel. The tribes disappeared forever. They are commonly recalled as The Lost Tribes. (732 - 720 BC.) An Assyrian governor ruled Israel.


Israel and Judah

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Detroit, 2005

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wjSj1Xz6ZmQ

 
The Divided Monarchy

Lecture by Amihai Mazar

2005 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wL1NSZYvRBU 


The Assyrians, under Sennacherib, invaded Judah in 701 BC ad laid siege to Jerusalem until paid tribute.    


The Assyrians conquered Babylon in 729 BC.

The Babylonians overthrew the Assyrians (626 - 620 BC) and, with the Medes, conquered Assyria (609 BC).

The Babylonians, under Nebuchadnezzar II, defeated the Egyptians and invaded Judah in 605 BC.   

Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the (Solomon's) Temple in 598 BC.

The Babylonians carried off the elite of Jerusalem (c. 604 - 597 to 583 BC).  

The king of Persia, Cyrus the Great, conquered the Babylonians in 539 BC. Judah made a province of Persia.

In 538, Cyrus allowed the Jews to return home to Judah. 

The period c. 604 to c. 538 BC is called the Babylonian exile or captivity by Jews.


--------------



Esther
 

 

 Related image

Esther approaches the Great King of Persia, Xeries I (Ahasuerus), as he presents to her his sceptre.


Esther was Jewish. Esther was the King's wife and his Queen. The King's minister, Haman, plotted the massacre of the Jews. The Jews asked Esther to intervene.


To approach the King, even if his wife and Queen, was to risk death.


Esther approached the King and he extended his sceptre to her to signal that she was welcome.  



Image result for esther denounces haman

Esther denounces Haman to the King   -   1885 painting by Ernest Normand.



On Samuel, Saul, David, Agag, Amalek, Haman, Esther

 

Episode 11 of the series is the Bible for Children

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSSFHFdj1dY

 

 

The Story of Esther

 

Brief explanation

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGQ3oSJ_xbc

 

 

 

The Story of Esther

 

Brief explanation

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2YOZyegFmE

 

 

Queen Esther

 

Far Away and Long Ago

 

A 1995 episode from the documentary series

Mysteries of the Bible

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwbrsKikX7I

 

Or in 4 clips:

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=brH_mANLa6c

 

2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-eTyPeIU_9s

 

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvJJl70tMc4

 

4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X8jBv_IBhC0

 

 

Esther and the King

 

1960 Hollywood movie

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQ6qYypfmIo

 

 

Esther

 

1999 movie

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAUxQs-ZE-I

 

 

One Night with the King

 

2006 Hollywood movie

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yN5vInd9DkM

 

 

The Book of Esther

 

2013 Hollywod movie

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7KmoFoRaaY

 

 

Purim

 

Crash Course in Purim

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQUyri9S9Xg

 

 

Purim in Israel

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AHs_nMQg7-U

 

 
 

 
 
 
--------------

 

Daniel
 
 
 Image result for daniel in the lion's den
 
Daniel's Answer to the King (Daniel in the Lion's Den) by the British painter Briton Reviere in 1890


Daniel
 
The Biblical story of Daniel

N. A. 


The Book of Daniel 

Movie (1:27:46)
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jncAlaPyhVE
 
 

Daniel

Episodes from the series Greatest Heroes of the Bible

Daniel in the Lion's Den (41:27)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsEyPihVIrQ 

Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar (49:08)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGnIg5z7y8w 




---------------



Alexander the Great

R. 336 - 323 BC.  


Related image

The Empire of Alexander the Great, Alexander's route and battle sites.


The Diadochi (Successors)


Related image

After Alexander's death, his generals fought each other and divided his empire among themselves in 301 BC.

The Ptolemies, based in Egtpt, the Antigonids, based in Asia Minor, and Seleucids, based in Syria, fought over the Levant and each ruled the Levant at various times.  

The Ptolemies ruled the Levant most of the time from 300 - 201 BC

The Seleucids dominated the Levant from 201 - 63 BC. The Seleucids defeated the Ptolemies and invaded Egypt in 168 BC. The Romans intervened and compelled the Seleucids to withdraw.


Rome

Roman armies defeated the Seleucids in Lydia (Anatolia) in 190 BC.

Roman armies destroyed Carthage (Third Punic War) and conquered Greece in 146 BC.


Related image
 
Rome in 146 BC.


 
----------------


Apocrypha

 
 
Maccabees
 
 

Map of the Hasmonean Dynasty, Origins of Judea and Israel

The Seleucids dominated the Levant from 201 to 63 BC.

Judas Maccabeus, a Hebrew priest, led a successful revolt against the Seleucids from 167 to 160 BC.


The Maccabees - Revolution And Redemption
 
Documentary (44:46)
 
 
 

 

The Old Testament

 

1962 movie about the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucids (1:28:57)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQunS1iq0Qg 


 

 

Judas Maccabeus concluded a treaty of friendship with the Roman senate in 161 BC.

Judas' brother, Simon, established a dynasty, the Hasmonian, in 140 BC, which ruled Judea as a vassal of the Seleucid Empire to 110 BC and as a semi-independent kingdom until 63 BC. 

The Hasmonians fought each other for the high priesthood and kingship.

In 64 BC, the Romans defeated the Syrians and annexed Syria as a Roman province.

In 63 BC, Rome intervened in a civil war in Judea and the Roman general Pompey took Jerusalem. Judea became a client kingdom of Syria.    

The Hasmonians remained as vassals of Rome.


 Image result for roman empire in 63 BC

The eastern Mediterranean in 63 BC.



----------------



Jonah
 
Jonah swallowed by a sea serpent, a bas-relief on an ancient Christian sarcophagus in Rome 
 
 
 
Jonah and the Whale
 
Moody Bible Story
 
 
 
 


--------------------



 
 

Josephus

Joseph ben Matityahu, better known as Titus Flavius Josephus (AD 37 – c. AD 100), author of the The Jewish War, Jewish Antiquities, and Against Apion

Josephus

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

With guests Tessa Rajak, Philip Alexander and Martin Goodman

21 May 2015

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05vfdzl#auto

 

Who Was Josephus?

Lecture by Dr. Henry Abramson at the Young Israel of Bal Harbour, Florida on October 2, 2013

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FkbLT9IrqDY

 

The Jewish War

c. AD 75 

The Antiquities of the Jews

c. AD 94

 

 
----------------

 
 
 
 
About the Old Testament
 
 
The Bible Unearthed
 
Documentary with Israel Finkelstein
 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O5RfScpEcZ8 


When and How did the Israelites Emerge?

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Detroit, 2005

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3TtPkK0PMFE

Amihai Mazar

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u0hBmKpsXPw 

Panel Response

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_avyD5nqT3E


Archaeology and the Bible

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Detroit, 2005

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4j04JeJYRa8


Jerusalem in Biblical Times

Comments on the Archaeology and the History  

1350 - 100 BCE

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

9 November 2018

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Z-7qKFTOys

 

Jerusalem in the Bronze Age

Interview with Israel Finkelstein

2016 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PCpTVK9v3o


Archaeology and the Bible

Interview with Israel Finkelstein

August 2018

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vw5eOmnStF4




 
 
 
-----------------
 
 
 
 
 
The Dead Sea Scrolls

 
Fragment of a scroll found in a cave above the archeologlcal site of Qumran by the Dead Sea between 1946 and 1956.   


 

Qumran Cave 4

Cave # 4 of 11 caves in Qumran.

Fragments from every book of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), except the Book of Esther, were found in the caves from 1946 to 1956.

Texts were written in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Nabataean.

The scrolls and fragments are thought to date from approximately 385 B. C. at the earliest to A. D. 100 at the latest.    



 
Qumran on a map of the Dead Sea, Israel and
Jordan. The area was part of Jordan until
taken by Israel in 1967. The site was a day's hike
from Jerusalem and a two-hour walk from Jericho.

 

Image result for qumram
The archeological site of Qumram. At various times, the site may have been a religious temple, a religious retreat, a fortress, a trading centre, or villa. It may have been destroyed by Roman soldiers in A. D. 70 or 73.

Excavations of the site found cisterns, a water-system, graves with male and female skeletons, a toilet, pottery, bronze coins and silver coins (c. 150 BC - c. AD 210), vases, bowls, pots, baskets, ropes, ink-wells.


Image result for qumran by the Dead Sea
 
Qumram and the Dead Sea


Israel Restores 2,000-Year-Old Biblical Scrolls
 
Warner Pathé newsreel (1955)
 
 
 
The Dead Sea Scrolls
 
British Pathé film footage (1965)
 
Resurrecting the Dead Sea Scrolls
 
1993 BBC documentary
 
 
same:
 
 
 
The Riddle of the Dead Sea Scrolls
 
1990 Australian documentary with Barabara Thiering
 
 
 

The Scrolls

1994 BBC documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KgKJc7CzDE

 

The Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls

1999 documentary
 
 

or in many clips (only six available):

1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzLfZgzuN-s

2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bqr5kzNp6hg

3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoNyDbEjxyU

4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihm3UBcYVxE

5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHCCdjfqVic

6 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEVLN6Egtqc

Remaining clips NA

 
The Dead Sea Scrolls
 
The Greatest Archaeological Discovery of the 20th Century
 
2000 Field Museum short documentary
 
.
.





 
 Image result for father roland de vaux
Father Roland De Vaux (1903
- 1971), Dominican priest
of the Ecole Biblique in East
Jerusalem who excavated
Qumram (1951 - 1956),
nearby caves (1949 - 1956)
and studied the scrolls (1947 - ).


Related image
De Vaux, on the left, at Qumram in 1952.


Related image
De Vaux with reassembled
fragments from a scroll. 


The Haunted Desert

Archeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls

Documentary

Timeline version (2001) (47:40)  

 

Scholars, Scrolls and Scandals:
 
Judaism, Christianity and the Daed Sea Scrolls
 
Lecture by Lawrence Shiffman at the U. of Cal. at Santa Barbara, January 2003
 
 
 
The Dead Sea Scrolls
 
2009 BBC documentary with Rageh Omar (57:35)
 
 
 
Writing the Dead Sea Scrolls
 
2010 National Geographic documentary
 
 
 
The Dead Sea Scrolls
 
A tour of an exhibit with Lawrence Shiffman (2012) 
 
 
 
 
The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Biography
 
Lecture by John Collins at the Yale Divinity School Convocation
 
24 October 2013  
 
 
 
 
Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls and Why Were They Forgotten?
 
Lecture by Rachel Elior at the University of Chicago Divinity School (2014)
 
(01:23:52)
 
 
or
 



Quoi de neuf sur Qumrân ?

La foi prise au mot

Jean-Baptiste Humbert, archéologue, directeur du laboratoire d'archéologie de l'École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem, et David Hamidovic, historien, spécialiste des manuscrits

23 - 4 - 2017




 

 
 
 
 
 
 
--------------------
 
 
 
 

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Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible)

24 Lectures by Christine Hayes, Yale U. (rlst 145), Fall 2006


Lecture 1. The Parts of the Whole

1. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible and Its Radical Ideas 2. Common Myths about the Bible 3. An Overview of the Structure of the Bible 4. Course Organization

Yale U.: http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-145/lecture-1

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mo-YL-lv3RY

Transcript: http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/968/rlst-145 

 

2. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Biblical Religion in Context

1. The Bible as a Product of Religious and Cultural Revolution  2. Kaufman's Characterization of "Pagan Religion" 3. Kaufman's Characterization of One Sovereign God 4. Continuity or Radical Break?

Yale U.: http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-145/lecture-2

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRPqtGywkCw

Transcript: http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/944/rlst-145

 

3. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Genesis 1 - 4 in Context 

1. The Creation Story in "Enuma Elish"
2. The Creation Stories in Genesis
3. Creation as God Imposing Order on the World
4. Allusion to and Resonances of Ancient Near Eastern Themes

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ANUD8IK12ms

 

4. Doublets and Contradictions, Seams and Sources: Genesis 5-11 and the Historical-Critical Method 

1. The Taming of Enkidu in The "Epic of Gilgamesh"
2. The Story of Enkidu as Parallel to the Second Story of Creation in Genesis
3. Major Themes in the Story of Cain and Abel
4. Comparing Mesopotamian, Semitic and Israelite Flood Stories
5. Contradictions and Doublets in the Flood Story in Genesis 6-9
6. Implications of the Repetitions and Contradictions throughout the Bible 

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK2PBAG3064

 

5. Critical Approaches to the Bible: Introduction to Genesis 12-50

1. Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and Characteristics of Biblical Sources
2. The Purpose of Literary, Source and Historical Criticism
3. The Generations of the Patriarchs and Matriarchs
4. Critical Methodology Used in Biblical Scholarship  

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KBSOn0MSrk8

 

6. Biblical Narrative: The Stories of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-36) 

1. Scholarly Opinion on the Historical Accuracy of the Bible
2. Divine Command and Divine Promise: Truths Freed from the Burden of Historicity
3. The Covenant between God and Abraham
4. The Story of Isaac
5. Jacob the Trickster

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O89-OaWMkP0

 

7. Israel in Egypt: Moses and the Beginning of Yahwism (Genesis 37- Exodus 4) 

1. One Who Wrestles: The Significance of Jacob's Name Change
2. The 12 Sons of Jacob: Joseph and His Brothers
3. Exodus: Sequel to Genesis and Myth of Origins for a Nation
4. Moses's Legendary Birth Story and Early Life
5. Descriptions of God in the Bible
6. Smith's Convergence and Divergence Model

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_UmuEBmS5k

 

8. Exodus: From Egypt to Sinai (Exodus 5-24, 32; Numbers) 

1. Passover as a Historicization of Earlier Ritual Practices
2. The Exodus as a Paradigm for Collective Salvation
3. The Mosaic Covenant between God and Israel at Sinai
4. Patience with the Israelites: Towards the Promised Land

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kS17dLuTPd0

 

9. The Priestly Legacy: Cult and Sacrifice, Purity and Holiness in Leviticus and Numbers 

1. Introduction to the Israelite Sanctuary
2. The Priestly Conceptions of Holiness and Time
3. Holiness, Purity, Moral and Ritual Impurity
4. Ritual Purification, Sacrifices and Offerings, and "Imitatio Dei"
5. Moral Impurity, Defiling the Land and Purification
6. Dietary Law and the Holiness Code

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URMs-17otFE

 

10. Biblical Law: The Three Legal Corpora of JE (Exodus), P (Leviticus and Numbers) and D (Deuteronomy) 

1. Introduction to the Israelite Sanctuary 

2. The Priestly Conceptions of Holiness and Time
3. Holiness, Purity, Moral and Ritual Impurity
4. Ritual Purification, Sacrifices and Offerings, and "Imitatio Dei"
5. Moral Impurity, Defiling the Land and Purification
6. Dietary Law and the Holiness Code

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJ5qYM24vUA

 

11. On the Steps of Moab: Deuteronomy

1. Moses as the Paradigmatic Leader of Biblical Tradition
2. Basic Structure of Deuteronomy
3. Updated and Revised Laws According to New Ideas
4. Major Themes in Deuteronomy
 

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5y0_aBvEtI

 

12. The Deuteronomistic History: Life in the Land (Joshua and Judges) 

1. Deuteronomy: A Capstone to the Pentateuchal Narrative
2. Source Theory and the Pentateuch
3. Introduction to the Former Prophets
4. Geographical Setting and Its Historical Implications
5. Structure of Joshua
6. Three Scholarly Models for the Emergence of the Nation State of Israel

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v07NFEstPjc

 

13. The Deuteronomistic History: Prophets and Kings (1 and 2 Samuel) 

1. Distinguishing between Israelis and Israelites
2. An Alliance of Tribes
3. The Book of Judges
4. Samuel, a Transition Figure and the Last in a Line of Prophet Judges
5. Saul and David as Representations of Ambivalence about Monarchy
6. The Davidic Covenant

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yETqNk0eMc

 

14. The Deuteronomistic History: Response to Catastrophe (1 and 2 Kings) 

1. Distinguishing between Israelis and Israelites
2. An Alliance of Tribes
3. The Book of Judges
4. Samuel, a Transition Figure and the Last in a Line of Prophet Judges 
5. Saul and David as Representations of Ambivalence about Monarchy
6. The Davidic Covenant

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmNa2ILXlaI 

 

15. Hebrew Prophecy: The Non-Literary Prophets 

1. The Uncompromising Honesty of the Story of David
2. Tensions in Kings I and II
3. The Separation of the Kingdom Following Solomon's Death
4. Historiosophy of the Deuteronomistic School

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBXCuyF_laE

 

16. Literary Prophecy: Amos 

1. An Introduction to the Literary Prophets
2. Structure of and Literary Features in the Book of Amos
3. Major Themes in the Book of Amos
4. Differences between Deuteronomistic and Prophetic Interpretations of Israel's History

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJd0Swp7d9Y

 

17. Literary Prophecy: Hosea and Isaiah 

1. Historical Background for and Major Themes of the Book of Hosea
2. Doom and Hope as Two Conceptions of Covenant
3. Historical Background for and Structure of the Book of Isaiah
4. Emphasis on the Davidic Covenant
5. Major Themes in the Book of Isaiah

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzjskzxXTqk

 

18. Literary Prophecy: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum and Habbakuk 

1. Structure of the Book of Micah
2. Common Paradoxes in Prophetic Writings
3. The Book of Zephaniah
4. The Book of Nahum
5. The Book of Habakkuk
6. Structure and Features of the Book of Jeremiah
7. Unique Features of Jeremiah's Message of Consolation

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AO0i-7DlnJU

 

19.  Literary Prophecy: Perspectives on the Exile (Jeremiah, Ezekiel and 2nd Isaiah) 

1. Structure and Tone of the Book of Ezekiel
2. Ezekiel's Denunciations of Jerusalem and Rejection of Collective Punishment
3. The Sometimes Contradictory Nature of the Biblical Text
4. Ezekiel's Interpretation of the Final Destruction of Jerusalem
5. Major Themes in Second Isaiah
6. Second Isaiah's Servant Songs

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u85pHixyoOI

 

20. Responses to Suffering and Evil: Lamentations and Wisdom Literature 

1. The Book of Lamentations
2. An Introduction to Wisdom Books in the "Ketuvim"
3. The Book of Proverbs
4. Structure of and Literary Components in The Book of Job
5. Prose Prologue in the Book of Job
6. Poetic Speech Cycles in the Book of Job
7. God's Response in the Book of Job

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxENRH-v0Xk

 

21. Biblical Poetry: Psalms and Song of Songs 

1. Remarks for Final Paper
2. The Problem of Dating; Canonical Criticism
3. The Book of Ecclesiastes
4. Introduction to the Book of Psalms
5. Themes and Formal Characteristics in the Book of Psalms

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdjRz2b8BZo 

 

22. The Restoration: 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah 

1. Additional Forms and Genres in the Book of Psalms
2. Song of Songs
3. The Restoration and the Books of Chronicles I and II, Ezra and Nehemiah
4. Ezra's Dissolution of Foreign Marriages and Renewal of the Covenant
5. The Calamities as Cautionary Tales in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDYJwHW1lsM

 

23. Visions of the End: Daniel and Apocalyptic Literature 

1. The Book of Ruth
2. The Last Prophetic Books
3. Features of Apocalyptic Literature
4. Apocalyptic Passages in Post-Exilic Books
5. The Book of Daniel, Chapters 1-6
6. The Book of Daniel, Chapters 7-12

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5J6q1J09oNw

 

24. Alternative Visions: Esther, Ruth, and Jonah 

1. The Book of Esther 2. The Book of Jonah 3. Concluding Remarks about the Dynamic and Complex Messages in the Hebrew Bible

Yale U.: http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-145/lecture-24

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUN9e_m1izI

Transcript: http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/967/rlst-145

 

 

---------------

 

 






The New Testament

The New Covenant

 
 

 
Perhaps the oldest known example of New
Testament literature, a papyrus fragment, known
as Papyrus # 90, of the Gospel of John, in Greek, from Oxyrhynchus, Egypt in the 2nd century (Oxford) 
 

 
The New Testament is the same in the Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Bibles and has 27 books.
Divisions of the Protestant Bible (chart) shown above
 
Note: 1 & 2 Samuel, 1 & 2 Kings and 1 & 2 Chronicles are six books; Lamentations is the third book of the Major Prophets

 
Introduction:
 
Why Study the New Testament?

Lecture # 1 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009 

1. Why take this course?
2. The Bible as a historical text
3. Imagining an ancient's perspective
4. Questions and answers
5. Going over the syllabus

You Tube (uploaded by Yale):

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtQ2TS1CiDY

Yale U. site:

http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-152/lecture-1#ch0

Transcript:

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/869/rlst-152

 
 
From Stories to Canon
 
Lecture 2 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009 
 
1. Canon vs. Scripture
2. The forming of canons
3. The invention of the Codex
4. A slowly developing (and Incomplete) consensus
5. The reasons for canonical inclusion and exclusion
 
You Tube (uploaded by Yale):
 
 
Yale U:
 
 
Transcript:
 
 
 

 
 
The Roman empire from 100 BC to AD 150.


Related image


 Image result for the greco-roman world

Areas in which Greek (blue) and Latin (red) were spoken.  



The Greco-Roman World

Lecture # 3 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009 

1. Alexander the Great and Hellenization
2. The Greek city-state
3. Religious syncretism
4. The Roman household and social structure
5. The rise of Julius Caesar and Octavian (Augustus)
6. The Pax Romana

You Tube:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ecpn3bkVvv0&feature=relmfu

Yale U. site:

http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-152/lecture-3

Transcript:

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/871/rlst-152

 

 
Judaism in the First Century A. D.

Lecture # 4 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009

1. After Alexander: The Seleucids and the Ptolemies
2. The Jews, Hellenization, and the Maccabean Revolt
3. The 'Prophecy' of Daniel
4. The Jewish War and the Destruction of the Temple

You Tube:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QIBB7gXHKc&feature=relmfu

Yale U. site:

http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-152/lecture-4

Transcript:

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/872/rlst-152 



ROME AND JUDEA


Image result for pompey

Pompey  


Image result for julius caesar

Caesar, painted by the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1619)


Image result for cleopatra - artist's sketch

Cleopatra VII Philopator


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Marc Antony


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Octavius (Augustus Caesar)


In 47 BC, Julius Caesar appointed Antipater, who was the chief advisor to the Hasmonian ruler of Judea, as Roman procurator of Judea.

Antipater's son Phasael was made governor of Jerusalem.  

Antipater's son Herod (c. 73 BC - 4 BC) was the governor of Galilee from 47 to 41 BC.

The Roman acting governor of Syria, Sextus Caesar, appointed Herod general of Samaria and Coelesyria.

Antipater was assassinated in 43 BC.

The Parthians invaded eastern Roman territories in 40 BC, forced out the Roman rulers and their Hasmonian clients, and made a pro-Parthian Hasmonian high priest and king of Judea. Herod went to Rome.


Herod the Great

In c. 40 BC the Roman senate appointed Herod King of Judea, to rule as a client king of Rome.

In 37 BC, Marc Antony directed Herod and the governor of Syria to retake Jerusalem.

The Parthian-backed Hasmonian ruler was deposed, ending the Hasmonean Dynasty, and the Herodian Dynasty was establshed.  

Herod backed Marc Antony against Octavian for control of the Roman empire.

After Octavian's victory over Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC, Herod supported Octavian (later known as Augustus Caesar).  

   

Herod's Temple



Jews returning from exile in Babylon built a Temple (The Second Temple) on the site of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

Herod rebuilt the Temple (c. 20 - c. 10 BC) and built the port of Caesarea Maritima on the Mediterranean coast (22 - 10 BC).



Solomon's Temple 3D
Herod's Temple
 

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Herod's Temple


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Caesarea Maritima (artist's reconstruction)



King Herod the Great

Herod (73/74 - 4 BC), King of Judea (37 - 4 BC.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=miRg3Ng9eC8 


Herod the Great

French-Italian movie (1958) (1:32:14)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oP0TGEr4UXc 



Herod Antipas

At Herod's death, the Romans divided the Kingdom of Judea among three of Herod's sons and a daughter, to rule under the Romans.


One son, Herod Archelaus, received half the kingdom and ruled as ethnarch until AD 6, when the Romans made Judea a Roman province and governed by a Roman prefect.

Herod's oldest son, Herod Antipas, was governor of Galilee, a client state of Rome, as Tetrarch from 4 BC to AD 39. 

Herod Philip II received the northeast quarter as Tetrarch.

The Romans moved the military and civil administrative headquarters of Judea from Jerusalem to Caesarea Maritima.



------------



Mary and Elizabeth


Zecharias and Elizabeth were a childless elderly couple. Elisabeth was over sixty. While Zecharias was in the Temple of Jerusalem, the Archangel Gabriel appeared and told him Elizabeth would bear him a son and his name would be John.



Image result for the archangel visits Zechariah

 

The Archangel Gabriel appears before Zecharias in the Temple.


Gabriel tells Zecharias that he will be unable to speak until the birth of John.  



 
Image result for Virgin Annunciate by Antonello da Messina of Italy (ca. 1476)
Virgin Annunciate by Antonello da
Messina, Sicily (c. 1476).

Mary is interrupted by the Archangel Gabriel.  

 
 
The Annunciation by the Danish painter
Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834 - 1890).

The Archangel Gabriel appears before Mary and announces that she is to have a child.  

 
 

Mary, the Mother of God

 

From the documentary seres The Footprints of God with Stephen Ray (2002) 


N. A.




Related image

The Visitation   -  The Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1866).

Virgin Mary, pregnant with child, Jesus, visits her older cousin, Elizabeth, who is also  pregnant, with John (the Baptist).


 Image result for the birth of john the baptist

The Nativity of John the Baptist


The Birth of John the Baptist

The Living Bible series 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YmTIENWu7XA 



 

Mary and Elizabeth, Reims Cathedral, France 


 



When Was Jesus Born?

IN What Year? On What Day?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NdQVtzjckA

 

Augustus Caesar required all to return to their native homes to register for the census. Mary was from Nazareth. Joseph was from Bethlehem. Joseph and Mary lived in Nazareth but had to travel to Bethlehem.

 

Joseph and Mary on the road to Bethlehem


Image result for christmas day - birth of christ

Joseph. Mary and Jesus (Hebrew: Yeshua; Greek: Iesous; Latin: Iesus) in Bethlehem.


 

Reading a prophecy, the Wise Men from the East, bearing three gifts, went to Bethlehem and followed the star to the place of the child born King of the Jews.   


The Nativity Story

(2006) (1:40:51)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wqu2r7qj7Fs

 

 


The Joyful Mysteries

Part 1 of three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary

Five episodes: The Annunciation, The Nativity, The Visitation, The Presentation and The Finding  (92 min.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_bKY_gEpcc


Herod the Great heard from the Wise Men of the East of the birth of a child   -   the King of Israel, the Messiah   -   in Bethlehem and ordered the massacre of all children in Bethlehem up to the age of two.

Joseph and Mary went with Jesus to Egypt and remained there until Herod died. They returned to Nazareth.

   

The baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist

The Baptism of Christ in the River Jordan by John the Baptist painted by Joachim Patenier, 1515.


Excerpt from King of Kings (1961)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEpVeKI-hL8 

Excerpts from other movies:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w9NgHAy-0yM 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBn-kY7xpz4 

 

Jesus met John the Baptist's many followers.

Jesus' first followers were John's followers.


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Jesus met Andrew and Simon (Peter), fishermen and followers of John the Baptist.


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Jesus fishing with the brothers Andrew and Simon and the brothers John and James.

The four fishermen were the first disciples of Jesus.



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Jesus and the Samaritan woman at the well.


 

The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834-1890).


From his disciples, Jesus chose twelve to be his apostles: 


 File:Christ with his disciples. Mironov.jpg

Christ and his Disciples by the Russian painter Andrei N. Mironov in 2016.


He chose his first disciples, four fishermen who fished together:

  Simon (Peter);

  Andrew, brother of Simon;

  John;

  James the Older, brother of John;


and, from his later disciples, he chose:

  Levi (Matthew) the Tax Collector;

  Philip;

  Bartholomew (Nathaniel);

  Thomas Didymus (The Twin);

  Thaddaeus (Judas);

  Simon the Zealot; and

  Judas Iscariot.

- All were from Galilee except Judas Iscariot, who was from Judea.

  Matthias was chosen later by the apostles to replace Judas Iscariot.  


John the Baptist

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Painting by Giovanni Fattori (1825 - 1908).

John the Baptist rebukes Herod Antipas (20 BC - AD 39+), the ethnarch of Galilee, for divorcing his wife Phasaelis and marrying Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip II.

'It is not lawful for you to have your brother’s wife.' (Mark 6:18.)


Herod Antipas imprisoned John the Baptist.  


Image result for salome's nude dance for Antipas

Salome or Dance of the Seven Veils by the French painter Gaston Bussière (1925).


Salome, daughter of Herod Philip II and Herodias, danced for her uncle Herod Antipas on his birthday. Herod was so pleased that he offered to grant Salome any wish she might ask.

Herodias told Salome to ask Herod for the head of John the Baptist.

Salome went to Herod and said:

'I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptist on a platter.' (Mark 6:25.)


Image result for the beheading of john the baptist

The Beheading of John the Baptist by the Italian painter Faustino Raineri (early to mid-1700s)


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The beheading of John the Baptist by the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1610).


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Salome's Dance by the Hungarian painter Gyula Tornai (1861 - 1928). 


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Dance of Salome by the German painter Leopold Schmutzler (1910)


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Salomé by the Spanish painter Julio Romero de Torres (1917)


Image result for the head of st john the baptist on a plate - painting

Salome presents the head of John the Baptist to her mother Herodias. Painting by Onorio Marinari (1627 - 1715). 


Salome and the Dance of the Seven Veils

From the opera by Richard Strauss based on the play by Oscar Wilde

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0bPS35QzSA


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hr2IiwreQ64 



Dance of the Seven Veils

Richard Strauss on piano (1905)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGa5qi-kBSE  


Salome

Opera by Richard Strauss based on the play Salome by Oscar Wilde

1975 performance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJ1kHi1HjQE




Dance of the Seven Veils

Strauss

Harp class 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tk81s-f2ZBI



The Fate of John the Baptist

Episodes 9 of 12 from The Living Christ series by Cathedral Films (1951) (27:56)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdtQ8veXRxk 



John the Baptist

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=869zgyn1UjU 


St. John the Baptist

From Birth to Beheading

The National Gallery, London

Ten episodes

1. Introduction  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1gFBNqpIQM

2. Visitation  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3KMiqsgRZE

3. Birth and Naming  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zPdso8Ueww

4. Infancy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=elscewC1g4k

5. Wilderness

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZK5UaEn_JcY

6. Preaching

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VASDDrqNd78

7. Baptism

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5xJh0nS9pZ4

8. Martyrdom

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UohHcRLbtqY

9. The Baptist's Head

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EHzA5EILliY

10. Power and Judgment

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1X_r02x7WE 


Salome

1953 movie with Rita Hayworth as Salome and Charles Laughton as Herod Antipas (1:38:41)

This Hollywood version changes the ending a bit: Salome dances for Herod to please him and ask for the release of John the Baptist.   

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOd5AjHWZVg 

In French (1:38:44)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TB1Gf5kMkuo 



The Raising of Lazarus (by Jesus) painted by Rembrandt van Rijn (1630) 

 

Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead | Raising of lazarus, Lion of ...

Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead.


Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead
 
Excerpt from the movie The Gospel of John (2003)
 
 
Excerpt from a movie:
 
 
Excerpt from a movie:
 
 
 

 
Image result for The Resurrection of Lazareth   -   painting (c. 1570) by Marco Pino (1521–1583)

The Resurrection of Lazareth   -   painting (c. 1570) by Marco Pino (1521–1583)

 
 
'But, Lord, He Stinketh!':
 
Marco Pino's The Resurrection of Lazarus
 
Lecture 4 of the course Let This Be a Lesson: Heroes, Heroines and Narrative in Paintings at Yale, by John Walsh, Yale U. Art Gallery, Fall 2013
 
 

 

Jesus enters Jerusalem




Image result for jesus triumphant entry into jerusalem


 

Palm Sunday

 

Jesus enters Jerusalem

 

Excerpt from a Hollywood movie:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdyJO-_aAv8


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMbF_6c1EZE&feature=related

 

Palm Sunday, Jerusalem (2009)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ifuemgpl7BA&feature=related

 

Palm Sunday in Jerusalem - 2012
 


Holy Monday

Related image

Jesus expels the merchants from the Temple by Francesco Coghetti (1800s)

 
 Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple by Il Guercino ...


Jesus Cleansed the Temple: Respect for Sacred Things? | Christ.org



Holy Tuesday

 The Authority of Jesus — New Hope Cumberland Presbyterian
Jesus debated the Sadducees, Pharisees, the chief priests and the elders in the Temple.


Holy Thursday

The Last Supper
 
The Passover Meal
Jesus with eleven of his twelve disciples at the Passover meal (The Last Supper). Apparently, Judas Iscariot has already left.
 


 Liturgické oblečenie
Jesus and his twelve disciples ate their last supper together.



The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci, painted in the 1480s.

Jesus with his twelve disciples, from left to right: Bartholomew, James the Younger, Andrew, Judas Iscariot, Simon (Peter), John, Jesus, Thomas, James the Older, Philip, Judas Thaddaeus, Levi (Matthew) and Simon the Zealot. 

Some question if the figure of John, to the left of Jesus, is actually Mary Magdalene. If so, John is missing and there are only eleven apostles present. Or Judas Iscariot has departed and that figure is John instead.  

The mural fresco was painted on a stone wall of the convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.


Unleavened bread


 

 

 

and red wine 

 red_wine_image

The Last Supper

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCL-S_4ac4c&feature=related 

 

The Last Supper

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible narrated by Richard Kiley and Jeanne Simmons

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1L_Y9RCiSFU

Or in 5 clips (click here and all five play in order)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ii_SKgAjDb8&list=PLBA892C336141F61A 

 

Passover Seder to Last Supper to Lord's Supper

Excerpt from a documentary  

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5aTKMC9MfCU&feature=related

 

 

 

The Last Supper

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible narrated by Richard Kiley and Jeanne Simmons

In 5 clips (click here and all five play in order)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ii_SKgAjDb8&list=PLBA892C336141F61A

 

 

Passover

 

From the Passover Meal to the Last Supper

(4 clips)

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0d49a8tceis&feature=related

 

2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2QZiJp9_3o&feature=related

 

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-l4lxcVX5tA

 

4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUaw7JU5W_8&feature=related

 

 

 

The Last Supper

  

Excerpt from movies

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=997ni1xcmKw

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCL-S_4ac4c&feature=related 

 

 



Jesus Is Arrested in Gethsemane | Children's Bible Lessons

Guards of the Temple, sent by the Sanhedrin and guided by Judas Iscariot, arrested Jesus in an olive grove, Gethsemane, at the base of the Mount of Olives outside Jerusalem.


 

The Agony in the Garden

Episode 1 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-GDc99tQ-8 


The Sanhedrin

Related image


Jesus was brought before the high priest and the Sanhedrin.


The Sanhedrin questioned Jesus. Jesus claimed to be the Messiah. The priests were outraged.

The Sanhedrin found Jesus guilty of violating the Sabbath, threatening to destroy the Temple, performing sorcery, exorcising with demons, and claiming to be the Messiah and the Son of God.

The Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to death.

According to their law, the Jews could not carry out an execution during Passover.


Good Friday

The Sanhedrin took Jesus to Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judea, who was in Jerusalem at the time, and demanded his death.




Pontius Pilate


Image result for Pontius Pilate Inscription at Caesarea

In 1961, Italian archaeologists excavating in Caesar Maritima found a limestone block with a damaged inscription in Latin:

 

[DIS AUGUSTI]S TIBERIÉUM
[...PONTI]US PILATUS
[...PRAEF]ECTUS IUDA[EA]E
[...FECIT D]E[DICAVIT]

To the Divine Augusti (this) Tiberieum
...Pontius Pilate
...prefect of Judea
...has dedicated
(this)


Pontius Pilate was the Roman prefect of the province of Judea from AD 25 to 36. The stone fragment may have been a dedication by Pilate of a temple built in honour of Tiberius, the Roman emperor from AD 14 - 37.

 

Pontius Pilate Inscription at Caesarea

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jMboFK0x5co

 

 

PONTIUS PILATE INSCRIPTION

 

Lauren Brown

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kHB_bVJRo0 



 


Brian Jekel Jesus Before Pilate Unframed Canvas #BrianJekel #Art ...


Pilate questioned Jesus.



Jesus before Pilate by the Hungarian painter Munkácsy Mihály (1881).


Because Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas, ethnarch of Galilee, who was visiting Jerusalem.


Herod Antipas

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Jesus before Herod Antipas by Duccio di Buoninsegna of Siena.  


trial before herod - YouTube


Herod and his soldiers mocked Jesus and sent him back to Pilate.


Pontius Pilate


A reproduction of Nikolai Ge s painting What is Truth 1890 Stock ...

Pilate questioned Jesus.


If Pontius Pilate had pardoned Jesus | Web24 News


Then Pilate turned to the crowd:

'Behold! I find no fault in him.'

Recalling the custom of freeing a Jewish prisoner at Passover, Pilate presented two prisoners to the crowd. 

Which one shall I free? Jesus, the 'King of the Jews', and Bar Abbas, a thief, a rebel and a murderer.

The crowd demanded Bar Abbas.

Pilate ordered his release.

'What shall I do then with Jesus who is called the Messiah?'

The crowd cried out: 'Crucify him!'

'But I find no fault in him. I shall chastise him and release him.'

Pilate offered to chastise Jesus and ordered his soldiers to whip him.



James Tissot The Scourging Of The Back

Pilate ordered the Roman soldiers to scourge Jesus.



Pilate presents Jesus to the crowd in 1871 painting Ecce Homo ('Behold the man!') by Antonio Ciceri.


 Related image

Ecce Homo ('Behold the man!') in 1896 painting by Munkácsy Mihály.  


Pilate presented Jesus. to the crowd:

'Behold your King! Shall I crucify your King? Why, what evil hath he done?'  

The crowd: 'Crucify him!'  

Pilate relented and told the soldiers to crucify Jesus.


Jesus Is Condemned Before Pilate: Matthew 27:11–25 - Bible Story

Pilate washed his hands.


The trials of Jesus – part 3: An interview with Pilate | philmoser

Then Pilate said to the crowd: 'I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it.'  

(The Four Biblical Gospels)


Pontius Pilate

Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c19E4py1r40 

 

Barabbas

1961 Hollywood movie

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g58dDAdvAa8

 

'Give Us Barabbas!'

Showcase Theatre (1961) (1:15)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjtLVH7_PxU

 

The Scourging at the Pillar

Episode 2 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary (26 min.) 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gC0YeIxWr0o

 

The Crowning with Thorns

Episode 3 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary (26 min.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jO0zVGJjng 


Jesus - The Real Story

 

3-part BBC documentary about Christ and the Passion

 

Episode 1. The Early Years

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=drthwjszOpI&feature=related 

 

Episode 2. The Mission

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IIiL4BhyMI&feature=related 

 

Episode 3. The Last Days

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obZ4qtv-3JE&feature=related

 


 

Jesus carrying his cross to the crucifixion

Christ carries the cross  -  Painting by Andrey Mironov 

 

 


50 Best Jesus and Soldiers images | Jesus pictures, Christ, New ...


Jesus meets his mother, Mary, while carrying his Cross stock image ...
Jesus carries his wooden cross.


Meditation on the Third Joyful Mystery: The Nativity of Jesus ...
The soldiers forced a by-stander, Simon of Cyrene, to help Jesus carry the cross. 

They carried the cross outside the walls of the city to a hill called Golgotha   -   meaning 'skull' in Aramaic (In Latin: Calvariea Locus).


The Carrying of the Cross

Episode 4 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary (21:29)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2K-E-Md_wj0

 


File:Jesus Being Crucified - William Brassey Hole.jpg - Wikimedia ...
The soldiers nailed Jesus to his cross.


c. A.D. 30-33 B.C. Jesus Christ is crucified by the... | Sutori

Pilate ordered a sign above Jesus.

Brian Deacon being nailed to the cross by Roman in a scene from ...

Latin:

I N R I  

IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDÆORVM

Jesus of Nazareth (Jesus the Nazarene), King of the Jews



 Symbolism: Why “INRI”? – Restless Pilgrim

Greek:

Ἰ Ν β Ἰ  (Ι Ν B Ι)

Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων


The Crucifixion

Hebrew:    

 הויה  (Y H W H)

To both sides of Jesus were thieves, one on each side, condemned to die.


Jesus On Cross, Meadow with Stock Footage Video (100% Royalty-free ...


Locating Golgotha – TaborBlog




 


Related image

Christ on the cross between the two thieves by Albrecht Altdorfer, 1526

 

 
 
 
The Execution of Jesus
 
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible narrated by Richard Kiley and Jeanne Simmons
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
Crucifixion scene from a movie
 
 
 
Who Killed Jesus?
 
Episode from the BBC documentary series Bible Mysteries