Oliver's Site

12. Simon/Peter, Saul/Paul

Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Simon/Peter, Saul/Paul | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Reformation, Enlightenment (1300s -1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. The 21st Century | 36. Outer Space | 37. | 42.

Continued from previous page, 11. Rome B. C. - A. D. 96

For the King James Version of the entire Bible:

The Old Testament

The Hebrew Bible

The Tanakh

The Isaiah Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, in Hebrew, from 4th to 2nd century (399 to 100 B. C.)

Holy Land Maps showing Maps of the Holy Land

The Lands and cities of the Bible

The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh)

- The Torah, or Pentateuch   =   Five books, the Law of Moses (Instruction)

- Nevi'im   =   Prophets (Former and Latter [Major and Minor])

- Ketuvim   =   Writings (The Three Poetic Books, The Five Scrolls, and The Three Other Books)  

Related image

The Catholic Church Old Testament has 46 books

 Related image

The Protestant Church Old Testament has 39 books

Related image



The Eastern Orthodox Church Old Testament has 50 books 



A People is Born
First of nine episodes of the 1984 - 1998 documentary series Heritage: Civilization and the Jews presented by Abba Eban
The Power of the Word
Episode # 2 of the 1984 documentary series Heritage: Civilization and the Jews presented by Abba Eban

Secrets of the Bible
Episode from the documentary series The Bible's Buried Secrets (NOVA)

The Garden of Eden

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
(Genesis 1:1.)

God creating the universe on the first day (1220).  


Adam and Eve

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our own likeness . . . (Genesis 1:26).

God created man, Adam.

He set Adam in paradise   -   the Garden of Eden.

God told Adam that he could eat all the fruit in the garden but forbade him not to pick the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. 

But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. (Genesis 2:17)

. . . male and female created he them. (Genesis 1:27).

God created a woman, Eve, for Adam.

Image result for adam and eve 
Adam and Eve by the Danish painter Julius Paulsen in 1893

A serpent tempted Eve to pick the forbidden fruit. Eve offered the fruit to Adam.

Adam and Eve by Jan Gossaert (ca. 1525)


Adam and Eve ate the fruit. This gave them Knowledge of Good and Evil.

But this made God angry. Ada and Eve had disobeyed Him. So He banished them from the Garden of Eden.

Love and Sex in the Hebrew Bible
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible  

Mesopotamia   -   Return to Eden


Episode from the documentary series Lost Civilizations narrated by Sam Waterston












Cain and Abel

The first two sons of Adam and Eve were Cain and Abel.

Cain murdered Abel.  

Image result for Titian - Cain slays Abel

Cain and Abel by Titian (1542 - 1544)

Cain & Abel: A Murder Mystery

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible





Noah and the Ark

God saw that His people had not turned out as he wanted and decided to return the world to its original state, with only water.

He commanded Noah to build an ark for himself and his family and board one pair of each kind of animal, male and female.

When the ark was completed, God created a storm that flooded the Earth for 40 days and 40 nights. All life perished.   

Noah's Ark by Edward Hicks, 1846

Noah's Ark
BBC documentary

Related image

The Great Flood by Bonaventura I Peeters (1614 - 1652), Flemish painter.

After 150 days, the sea dried and Noah and the ark reached Mount Ararat.  



The angel Gabriel stops Abraham from sacrificing
his son Isaac by Juan de Valdés Leal (1622 – 1690)


Timeline (from Abraham to Simon bar Kochba)

The Story of Abraham and Sarah
Episode from the documentary series Great People of the Bible and How they Lived

In 3 clips: 
The Patriarchs
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
Episode # 1 from the 2009 documentary series The Bible Unearthed

Abraham  -  One Man, One God

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible




Movie with Richard Harris (1993)



In the Beginning

2-part 2000 movie (3 hrs. 9 min.)

The Patriarchs, Exodus from Egypt, Conquest of Canaan

Part 1.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kF6VuVxxE7E

Part 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-v-53Uh_Do



The Biblical stories of Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph


In French:



The sons of Abraham

Abraham + Hagar (Sarah's maidservant) = Ishmael

Abraham + Sarah (wife) = Isaac



Isaac + Rebecca = Jacob, Esau   
The Biblical story of the Isaac's sons Jacob and Esau. The story of Jacob and his uncle, Laban. The story of Jacob and Rachel.

The twelve sons (tribes) of Jacob (Israel)

Jacob + Leah (wife) = Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun 

Jacob + Bihah (Rachel's maidservant) = Dan, Napthali

Jacob + Zilpah (Leah's maidservant) = Gad, Asher

Jacob + Rachel (wife) = Joseph, Benjamin


Joseph and his Brethren
The Biblical story of Joseph, son of Jacob, and his brothers
The Biblical story of Joseph, son of Jacob, who was sold into slavery by his brothers, but became the most powerful man in Egypt after the pharaoh.


The Pharaoh of Egypt saw the Hebrews in Egypt multiply and commanded that all male Hebrews be drowned in the Nile at birth. The mother of a new-born infant, called Moses, put him in a basket and set it on the Nile. The daughter of Pharaoh saw the basket, found the child, and raised him as an Egyptian.   

The Finding of Moses (floating in a basket in the Nile by Pharaoh's daughter) by British painter Edwin Long (1886).

Scene from The Ten Commandments (1956)

When a young man, Moses killed an Egyptian who was beating his Hebrew slave.

Moses fled Egypt and lived many years in the land of Midian.   

The Exodus

God commanded Moses to lead his people, the Hebrews, out of Egypt.

Moses returned to Egypt. 

Moses and Aaron arrive back in Egypt and demand the release of the ...
Moses and his brother Aaron warned Pharaoh to let the Hebrews leave Egypt.

But Pharaoh would not let the Hebrews leave Egypt. 

Moses turned to God.

. . . as the Lord commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. (Exodus: 7:20.)

 Did you know that the ten plagues of Egypt were a direct attack on ...

The Ten Plagues
1st: Blood - the waters of Egypt turned into blood
2nd: Frogs - frogs appear everywhere
3rd: Lice - lice infests men and animals
4th: Flies - the land was covered with flies
5th: Disease of Livestock - cattle, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, sheep,
6th. Boils - flesh of man and animals covered with festering boils
7th: Hail - hailstones fall on the land
8th: Locusts - locusts eat everything
9th: Darkness - the sky turned dark for three days, blinding everyone
10th: Death of the First-Born

First: Blood
10 Plagues of Egypt and Their Real Causes | Reader's Digest 

2nd.: Frogs
ZachsMind on Twitter: ""You cannot have a plague of frogs. You can ...

3rd. Lice and gnats
Plague #3. Gnats or Lice 8:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Say ...

4th. Flies      
The Fourth Plague: Swarms of Flies

5th. Disease of livestock
The Ten Plagues - The Exodus Story

6th. Boils on flesh of humans and livestock

7th. Hailstones rained upon the land
Fitxer:Martin, John - The Seventh Plague - 1823.jpg - Viquipèdia ...

8th. Locusts swarmed over the land
Q&A: Are the 2019-20 locust swarms linked to climate change?

9th. Darkness
The Pulpit commentary

The Ten Plagues of Egypt
Brief description - The Passover Story

The Tenth Plague

Death of the first-born

God sent the Angel of Death to Egypt to kill the first-born of every family.

The Pass Over

To Sheep Christ Our Passover 1 Cor 5 7 For Indeed

The Tenth Plague
God warns the Hebrews to paint lamb's blood on their doors so the angel of death will "pass over" them.
The Ten Plagues and the Passover Meal

 Death of the firstborn of Egypt - the last of the ten plagues ...
In the morning, Pharaoh found his eldest son dead. 

Pharaoh told Moses to go.

Brief documentary about a scientific attempt to explain the ten plagues 

The Biblical Plagues 

Three episodes consider the possible causes and effects of various natural calamities in ancient Egypt (about 43 min. each).

1. Dual on the Nile

Changes of climate and the ancient Egyptian cities of Pi-Ramesses and Tanis

2. Darkness Over Egypt

The effects of the volcanic eruption of Thera (Santorini)


3. Flight from Egypt

The Hyksos, Asiatics from Anatolia  -  Were they Canaanites? Did they become Canaanites? Were they the people of the Bible?  


The Whole Book": #222 Consider the Source
Moses led the Hebrews from the land of Goshen, in northeastern Egypt, to the Red Sea.

How to Have True Faith in God: Enlightenment From Moses' Journey ...

The Hebrews (Israelites) followed Moses to the Red Sea. 

File:Molnár Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt 1861.jpg ...

Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt.

Pharaoh Pursues the Israelites & Parting the Red Sea - Exodus 14
Pharaoh changed his mind and ordered his soldiers to pursue the Hebrews (Israelites) and stop them.  

And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. (Exodus 14:21).

Moses parting the Red Sea.

When the Hebrews escaped their slavery, the Egyptians followed ...

The Hebrews (Israelites) crossed the sea to the opposite side.

Did the Exodus Really Happen? – Focus Online

The Egyptian soldiers pursued them, the seas closed and the soldiers were drowned.  

Gambar Laut Merah Terbelah - Pemandanganoce

Bridgman Frederick Arthur - Pharaoh and His Army Engulfed by the ...

The sea closed on the pursuing Egyptian soldiers.  

Exodus Revealed
Episode from the National Geographic documentary series Riddles of the Bibles (50:43)


Episode # 2 from the documentary series The Bible Unearthed


The Exodus Revealed

Search for the Red Sea Crossing


Image result for Mount sinai - map

Map shows the path of Moses and the Hebrews, from Exodus to the River Jordan. Moses led his people through the wilderness for forty years before reaching the River Jordan.

Why Didn't Moses Lead God's People into the Holy Land? | Spiritual ...

Moses led the Hebrews out of the land of Goshen, in northeast Egypt, across the Red Sea and through the desert to Mount (Horeb) Sinai.

On Mount Sinai, God gave Moses Ten Commandments the Hebrews would have to obey and live by.

Moses and the Ten Commandments
by James J. Tissot (1836  -  1902).

The Ten Commandments

1. I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

2. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above . . . Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them . . .

3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain . . .

4. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy . . .

5. Honour thy father and thy mother . . .

6. Thou shalt not kill.

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.

8. Thou shalt not steal.

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

(Exodus 20)

The Ten Commandments


Preview of 1956 movie presented by Cecil B. DeMille






Entire movie with Charlton Heston (3:51:38)







1995 movie with Ben Kingsley (3:02:25)





The Ten Commandments


2006 movie (mini-series) (2:59:30)



The Ten Commandments
Animated movie (2007) recounts the Biblical story of Moses



Moses, the Lawgiver


1973 - 1974 TV series with Burt Lancaster as Moses (4 hrs., 32 min.) 




or (3 hrs. 57 min.)





Death Chase


Documentary from the documentary series Battles BC





Once Upon A Time


Part 1 of 7 of the documentary series Testament with John Romer (1988) (51:33)




The Ten Commandments 
Excerpt form 2009 animated movie


 The Conquest of Canaan

After wandering about the wilderness forty years, Moses and the Hebrews came to the River Jordan. Across the river was the land of Canaan. Moses was old and would not live to enter the land. He chose his closest assistant, Joshua, who commanded the armies, to lead the people into Canaan, destroy the cities and people there, and settle there. 

Crossing the River Jordan, Joshua led the Hebrews to the first city in Canaan, Jericho, and destroyed it.  

Joshua and the Battle of Jericho
Episode from the BBC documentary series Bible Mysteries 


Joshua at the Wall of Jericho
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible with Bill Kylie and Jeanne Simmons
Joshua and the Battle of Jericho
Episode from the movie series Greatest Heroes of the Bible
The Israelites' Conquest of Canaan
Episode from the 1995 documentary series Archeology with John Rhys-Davies
Was there a Joshua? Was there a Battle of Jericho? Who were the Israelites?


Patriarchs, Exodus, Conquest: Fact or Fiction?

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Hebrew University, Farmington Hills, Michigan

October 2005

Comment by Amihai Mazar

22 October 2005

The Philistines
The Philistines were Indo-Europeans, probably from the Aegean, who settled on the Mediterranean coast of southern Canaan circa 1200 B. C.    -   at the end (collapse) of the Bronze Age and beginning of the Iron Age.
The Bible mentions five major Philisitine city-states or kingdoms   -   the Philistine Pentapolis   -   Gaza, Askelon and Ashdod along the coast and Ekron and Gath between the coastal plain and eastern foothills. 
The Philistines vanished from Canaan circa 600 B. C.  
Arch-Enemy:  The Philistines
Episode from the A & E documentary series Mysteries of the Bible with Richard Kylie and Jeanne Simmons (1995)
Last Days of the Philistines
Short documentary from the 1993 series Archaeology  -  Mysteries of the Holy Land with John Rhys-Davies
Ekron of the Philistines
From Sea Peoples to Olive Oil Industrialists
Lecture by Sy Gitin  at the Lanier Theological Library in Houston, Texas on March 17, 2012 (01:04:47)
Philistines in Canaan till 604 B. C.
Q. & A.
New Light on the Biblical Philistines in Light of the Excavations at Philistine Gath
Lecture by Aren M. Maeir on excavations at the Philistine site of Gath and its significance for biblical history
David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies, Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah
May 17, 2013
Archeologists discover Philistine cemetery

Samson and Delilah
Samson and Delilah by Guercino (1591–1666)
Hollywood movie
Samson and Delilah

1949 movie with Hedy Lamarr



Samson and Delilah




Image result for david and goliath by Titian

David and Goliath by Titian
1961 movie with Orson Welles
David and Goliath
2015 movie
Did King David's Empire Exist?
Episode from the documentary series
The Bible's Buried Secrets
Lost Kings of Israel
National Geographic documentary
King David, Poet Warrior
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible
King David
1997 movie



King Solomon
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible
King Solomon's Tablet of Stone
Documentary (BBC Horizon)
King Solomon's Mines
1937 movie with Paul Robeson
Quest for King Solomon's Mines
1985 NOVA/National Geographic documentary film
The Real King Solomon's Mines  
Episode from the documentary series Myth Hunters

What is the Truth about King Solomon's Golden Age? 

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Hebrew University, Detroit, October 2005

Lecture by Amihai Mazar


King Solomon
1997 movie

The Queen of Sheeba
Episode from the documentary series Digging for the Truth

The visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon by the English painter Sir John Poynter in 1890 


The Prophet Isaiah
Prophet of Judah


The Twelve Tribes of Israel

Related image

The twelve tribes were united into a kingdom under Saul, David and Solomon. (1050 - 930 BC.) 

Under Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, the Kingdom of Israel split in two kingdoms, with Israel as the northern kingdom, with ten tribes, and the southern kingdom, Judah, with two tribes. (930 BC.) The ten northern tribes would not accept Rehoboam as their king.

Image result for the united monarchy of judah and israel
The northern and southern kingdoms, Israel and Judah.

The Assyrians sacked Aramea and Israel and carried off the Arameans and the ten tribes of Israel. The tribes disappeared forever. They are commonly recalled as The Lost Tribes. (732 - 720 BC.) An Assyrian governor ruled Israel.

Israel and Judah

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Detroit, 2005


The Divided Monarchy

Lecture by Amihai Mazar



The Assyrians, under Sennacherib, invaded Judah in 701 BC ad laid siege to Jerusalem until paid tribute.    

The Assyrians conquered Babylon in 729 BC.

The Babylonians overthrew the Assyrians (626 - 620 BC) and, with the Medes, conquered Assyria (609 BC).

The Babylonians, under Nebuchadnezzar II, defeated the Egyptians and invaded Judah in 605 BC.   

Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the (Solomon's) Temple in 598 BC.

The Babylonians carried off the elite of Jerusalem (c. 604 - 597 to 583 BC).  

The king of Persia, Cyrus the Great, conquered the Babylonians in 539 BC. Judah made a province of Persia.

In 538, Cyrus allowed the Jews to return home to Judah. 

The period c. 604 to c. 538 BC is called the Babylonian exile or captivity by Jews.




 Related image

Esther approaches the Great King of Persia, Xeries I (Ahasuerus), as he presents to her his sceptre.

Esther was Jewish. Esther was the King's wife and his Queen. The King's minister, Haman, plotted the massacre of the Jews. The Jews asked Esther to intervene.

To approach the King, even if his wife and Queen, was to risk death.

Esther approached the King and he extended his sceptre to her to signal that she was welcome.  

Image result for esther denounces haman

Esther denounces Haman to the King   -   1885 painting by Ernest Normand.

On Samuel, Saul, David, Agag, Amalek, Haman, Esther


Episode 11 of the series is the Bible for Children





The Story of Esther


Brief explanation






The Story of Esther


Brief explanation





Queen Esther


Far Away and Long Ago


A 1995 episode from the documentary series

Mysteries of the Bible




Or in 4 clips:


1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=brH_mANLa6c


2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-eTyPeIU_9s


3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvJJl70tMc4


4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X8jBv_IBhC0



Esther and the King


1960 Hollywood movie







1999 movie





One Night with the King


2006 Hollywood movie





The Book of Esther


2013 Hollywod movie







Crash Course in Purim





Purim in Israel







 Image result for daniel in the lion's den
Daniel's Answer to the King (Daniel in the Lion's Den) by the British painter Briton Reviere in 1890

The Biblical story of Daniel

N. A. 

The Book of Daniel 

Movie (1:27:46)


Episodes from the series Greatest Heroes of the Bible

Daniel in the Lion's Den (41:27)


Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar (49:08)



Alexander the Great

R. 336 - 323 BC.  

Related image

The Empire of Alexander the Great, Alexander's route and battle sites.

The Diadochi (Successors)

Related image

After Alexander's death, his generals fought each other and divided his empire among themselves in 301 BC.

The Ptolemies, based in Egtpt, the Antigonids, based in Asia Minor, and Seleucids, based in Syria, fought over the Levant and each ruled the Levant at various times.  

The Ptolemies ruled the Levant most of the time from 300 - 201 BC

The Seleucids dominated the Levant from 201 - 63 BC. The Seleucids defeated the Ptolemies and invaded Egypt in 168 BC. The Romans intervened and compelled the Seleucids to withdraw.


Roman armies defeated the Seleucids in Lydia (Anatolia) in 190 BC.

Roman armies destroyed Carthage (Third Punic War) and conquered Greece in 146 BC.

Related image
Rome in 146 BC.




Map of the Hasmonean Dynasty, Origins of Judea and Israel

The Seleucids dominated the Levant from 201 to 63 BC.

Judas Maccabeus, a Hebrew priest, led a successful revolt against the Seleucids from 167 to 160 BC.

The Maccabees - Revolution And Redemption
Documentary (44:46)


The Old Testament


1962 movie about the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucids (1:28:57)





Judas Maccabeus concluded a treaty of friendship with the Roman senate in 161 BC.

Judas' brother, Simon, established a dynasty, the Hasmonian, in 140 BC, which ruled Judea as a vassal of the Seleucid Empire to 110 BC and as a semi-independent kingdom until 63 BC. 

The Hasmonians fought each other for the high priesthood and kingship.

In 64 BC, the Romans defeated the Syrians and annexed Syria as a Roman province.

In 63 BC, Rome intervened in a civil war in Judea and the Roman general Pompey took Jerusalem. Judea became a client kingdom of Syria.    

The Hasmonians remained as vassals of Rome.

 Image result for roman empire in 63 BC

The eastern Mediterranean in 63 BC.


Jonah swallowed by a sea serpent, a bas-relief on an ancient Christian sarcophagus in Rome 
Jonah and the Whale
Moody Bible Story




Joseph ben Matityahu, better known as Titus Flavius Josephus (AD 37 – c. AD 100), author of the The Jewish War, Jewish Antiquities, and Against Apion


Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

With guests Tessa Rajak, Philip Alexander and Martin Goodman

21 May 2015



Who Was Josephus?

Lecture by Dr. Henry Abramson at the Young Israel of Bal Harbour, Florida on October 2, 2013



The Jewish War

c. AD 75 

The Antiquities of the Jews

c. AD 94



About the Old Testament
The Bible Unearthed
Documentary with Israel Finkelstein


When and How did the Israelites Emerge?

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Detroit, 2005


Amihai Mazar


Panel Response


Archaeology and the Bible

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

Detroit, 2005


Jerusalem in Biblical Times

Comments on the Archaeology and the History  

1350 - 100 BCE

Lecture by Israel Finkelstein

9 November 2018



Jerusalem in the Bronze Age

Interview with Israel Finkelstein



Archaeology and the Bible

Interview with Israel Finkelstein

August 2018


The Dead Sea Scrolls

Fragment of a scroll found in a cave above the archeologlcal site of Qumran by the Dead Sea between 1946 and 1956.   


Qumran Cave 4

Cave # 4 of 11 caves in Qumran.

Fragments from every book of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), except the Book of Esther, were found in the caves from 1946 to 1956.

Texts were written in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Nabataean.

The scrolls and fragments are thought to date from approximately 385 B. C. at the earliest to A. D. 100 at the latest.    

Qumran on a map of the Dead Sea, Israel and
Jordan. The area was part of Jordan until
taken by Israel in 1967. The site was a day's hike
from Jerusalem and a two-hour walk from Jericho.


Image result for qumram
The archeological site of Qumram. At various times, the site may have been a religious temple, a religious retreat, a fortress, a trading centre, or villa. It may have been destroyed by Roman soldiers in A. D. 70 or 73.

Excavations of the site found cisterns, a water-system, graves with male and female skeletons, a toilet, pottery, bronze coins and silver coins (c. 150 BC - c. AD 210), vases, bowls, pots, baskets, ropes, ink-wells.

Image result for qumran by the Dead Sea
Qumram and the Dead Sea

Israel Restores 2,000-Year-Old Biblical Scrolls
Warner Pathé newsreel (1955)
The Dead Sea Scrolls
British Pathé film footage (1965)
Resurrecting the Dead Sea Scrolls
1993 BBC documentary
The Riddle of the Dead Sea Scrolls
1990 Australian documentary with Barabara Thiering

The Scrolls

1994 BBC documentary



The Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls

1999 documentary

or in many clips (only six available):

1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzLfZgzuN-s

2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bqr5kzNp6hg

3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoNyDbEjxyU

4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihm3UBcYVxE

5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHCCdjfqVic

6 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEVLN6Egtqc

Remaining clips NA

The Dead Sea Scrolls
The Greatest Archaeological Discovery of the 20th Century
2000 Field Museum short documentary

 Image result for father roland de vaux
Father Roland De Vaux (1903
- 1971), Dominican priest
of the Ecole Biblique in East
Jerusalem who excavated
Qumram (1951 - 1956),
nearby caves (1949 - 1956)
and studied the scrolls (1947 - ).

Related image
De Vaux, on the left, at Qumram in 1952.

Related image
De Vaux with reassembled
fragments from a scroll. 

The Haunted Desert

Archeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls


Timeline version (2001) (47:40)  


Scholars, Scrolls and Scandals:
Judaism, Christianity and the Daed Sea Scrolls
Lecture by Lawrence Shiffman at the U. of Cal. at Santa Barbara, January 2003
The Dead Sea Scrolls
2009 BBC documentary with Rageh Omar (57:35)
Writing the Dead Sea Scrolls
2010 National Geographic documentary
The Dead Sea Scrolls
A tour of an exhibit with Lawrence Shiffman (2012) 
The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Biography
Lecture by John Collins at the Yale Divinity School Convocation
24 October 2013  
Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls and Why Were They Forgotten?
Lecture by Rachel Elior at the University of Chicago Divinity School (2014)

Quoi de neuf sur Qumrân ?

La foi prise au mot

Jean-Baptiste Humbert, archéologue, directeur du laboratoire d'archéologie de l'École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem, et David Hamidovic, historien, spécialiste des manuscrits

23 - 4 - 2017



Related image

Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible)

24 Lectures by Christine Hayes, Yale U. (rlst 145), Fall 2006

Lecture 1. The Parts of the Whole

1. Introduction to the Hebrew Bible and Its Radical Ideas 2. Common Myths about the Bible 3. An Overview of the Structure of the Bible 4. Course Organization

Yale U.: http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-145/lecture-1

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mo-YL-lv3RY

Transcript: http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/968/rlst-145 


2. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Biblical Religion in Context

1. The Bible as a Product of Religious and Cultural Revolution  2. Kaufman's Characterization of "Pagan Religion" 3. Kaufman's Characterization of One Sovereign God 4. Continuity or Radical Break?

Yale U.: http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-145/lecture-2

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRPqtGywkCw

Transcript: http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/944/rlst-145


3. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Genesis 1 - 4 in Context 

1. The Creation Story in "Enuma Elish"
2. The Creation Stories in Genesis
3. Creation as God Imposing Order on the World
4. Allusion to and Resonances of Ancient Near Eastern Themes

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ANUD8IK12ms


4. Doublets and Contradictions, Seams and Sources: Genesis 5-11 and the Historical-Critical Method 

1. The Taming of Enkidu in The "Epic of Gilgamesh"
2. The Story of Enkidu as Parallel to the Second Story of Creation in Genesis
3. Major Themes in the Story of Cain and Abel
4. Comparing Mesopotamian, Semitic and Israelite Flood Stories
5. Contradictions and Doublets in the Flood Story in Genesis 6-9
6. Implications of the Repetitions and Contradictions throughout the Bible 

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK2PBAG3064


5. Critical Approaches to the Bible: Introduction to Genesis 12-50

1. Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and Characteristics of Biblical Sources
2. The Purpose of Literary, Source and Historical Criticism
3. The Generations of the Patriarchs and Matriarchs
4. Critical Methodology Used in Biblical Scholarship  

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KBSOn0MSrk8


6. Biblical Narrative: The Stories of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-36) 

1. Scholarly Opinion on the Historical Accuracy of the Bible
2. Divine Command and Divine Promise: Truths Freed from the Burden of Historicity
3. The Covenant between God and Abraham
4. The Story of Isaac
5. Jacob the Trickster

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O89-OaWMkP0


7. Israel in Egypt: Moses and the Beginning of Yahwism (Genesis 37- Exodus 4) 

1. One Who Wrestles: The Significance of Jacob's Name Change
2. The 12 Sons of Jacob: Joseph and His Brothers
3. Exodus: Sequel to Genesis and Myth of Origins for a Nation
4. Moses's Legendary Birth Story and Early Life
5. Descriptions of God in the Bible
6. Smith's Convergence and Divergence Model

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_UmuEBmS5k


8. Exodus: From Egypt to Sinai (Exodus 5-24, 32; Numbers) 

1. Passover as a Historicization of Earlier Ritual Practices
2. The Exodus as a Paradigm for Collective Salvation
3. The Mosaic Covenant between God and Israel at Sinai
4. Patience with the Israelites: Towards the Promised Land

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kS17dLuTPd0


9. The Priestly Legacy: Cult and Sacrifice, Purity and Holiness in Leviticus and Numbers 

1. Introduction to the Israelite Sanctuary
2. The Priestly Conceptions of Holiness and Time
3. Holiness, Purity, Moral and Ritual Impurity
4. Ritual Purification, Sacrifices and Offerings, and "Imitatio Dei"
5. Moral Impurity, Defiling the Land and Purification
6. Dietary Law and the Holiness Code

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URMs-17otFE


10. Biblical Law: The Three Legal Corpora of JE (Exodus), P (Leviticus and Numbers) and D (Deuteronomy) 

1. Introduction to the Israelite Sanctuary 

2. The Priestly Conceptions of Holiness and Time
3. Holiness, Purity, Moral and Ritual Impurity
4. Ritual Purification, Sacrifices and Offerings, and "Imitatio Dei"
5. Moral Impurity, Defiling the Land and Purification
6. Dietary Law and the Holiness Code

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJ5qYM24vUA


11. On the Steps of Moab: Deuteronomy

1. Moses as the Paradigmatic Leader of Biblical Tradition
2. Basic Structure of Deuteronomy
3. Updated and Revised Laws According to New Ideas
4. Major Themes in Deuteronomy

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5y0_aBvEtI


12. The Deuteronomistic History: Life in the Land (Joshua and Judges) 

1. Deuteronomy: A Capstone to the Pentateuchal Narrative
2. Source Theory and the Pentateuch
3. Introduction to the Former Prophets
4. Geographical Setting and Its Historical Implications
5. Structure of Joshua
6. Three Scholarly Models for the Emergence of the Nation State of Israel

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v07NFEstPjc


13. The Deuteronomistic History: Prophets and Kings (1 and 2 Samuel) 

1. Distinguishing between Israelis and Israelites
2. An Alliance of Tribes
3. The Book of Judges
4. Samuel, a Transition Figure and the Last in a Line of Prophet Judges
5. Saul and David as Representations of Ambivalence about Monarchy
6. The Davidic Covenant

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yETqNk0eMc


14. The Deuteronomistic History: Response to Catastrophe (1 and 2 Kings) 

1. Distinguishing between Israelis and Israelites
2. An Alliance of Tribes
3. The Book of Judges
4. Samuel, a Transition Figure and the Last in a Line of Prophet Judges 
5. Saul and David as Representations of Ambivalence about Monarchy
6. The Davidic Covenant

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmNa2ILXlaI 


15. Hebrew Prophecy: The Non-Literary Prophets 

1. The Uncompromising Honesty of the Story of David
2. Tensions in Kings I and II
3. The Separation of the Kingdom Following Solomon's Death
4. Historiosophy of the Deuteronomistic School



16. Literary Prophecy: Amos 

1. An Introduction to the Literary Prophets
2. Structure of and Literary Features in the Book of Amos
3. Major Themes in the Book of Amos
4. Differences between Deuteronomistic and Prophetic Interpretations of Israel's History

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJd0Swp7d9Y


17. Literary Prophecy: Hosea and Isaiah 

1. Historical Background for and Major Themes of the Book of Hosea
2. Doom and Hope as Two Conceptions of Covenant
3. Historical Background for and Structure of the Book of Isaiah
4. Emphasis on the Davidic Covenant
5. Major Themes in the Book of Isaiah

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzjskzxXTqk


18. Literary Prophecy: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum and Habbakuk 

1. Structure of the Book of Micah
2. Common Paradoxes in Prophetic Writings
3. The Book of Zephaniah
4. The Book of Nahum
5. The Book of Habakkuk
6. Structure and Features of the Book of Jeremiah
7. Unique Features of Jeremiah's Message of Consolation

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AO0i-7DlnJU


19.  Literary Prophecy: Perspectives on the Exile (Jeremiah, Ezekiel and 2nd Isaiah) 

1. Structure and Tone of the Book of Ezekiel
2. Ezekiel's Denunciations of Jerusalem and Rejection of Collective Punishment
3. The Sometimes Contradictory Nature of the Biblical Text
4. Ezekiel's Interpretation of the Final Destruction of Jerusalem
5. Major Themes in Second Isaiah
6. Second Isaiah's Servant Songs

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u85pHixyoOI


20. Responses to Suffering and Evil: Lamentations and Wisdom Literature 

1. The Book of Lamentations
2. An Introduction to Wisdom Books in the "Ketuvim"
3. The Book of Proverbs
4. Structure of and Literary Components in The Book of Job
5. Prose Prologue in the Book of Job
6. Poetic Speech Cycles in the Book of Job
7. God's Response in the Book of Job

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxENRH-v0Xk


21. Biblical Poetry: Psalms and Song of Songs 

1. Remarks for Final Paper
2. The Problem of Dating; Canonical Criticism
3. The Book of Ecclesiastes
4. Introduction to the Book of Psalms
5. Themes and Formal Characteristics in the Book of Psalms

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdjRz2b8BZo 


22. The Restoration: 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah 

1. Additional Forms and Genres in the Book of Psalms
2. Song of Songs
3. The Restoration and the Books of Chronicles I and II, Ezra and Nehemiah
4. Ezra's Dissolution of Foreign Marriages and Renewal of the Covenant
5. The Calamities as Cautionary Tales in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDYJwHW1lsM


23. Visions of the End: Daniel and Apocalyptic Literature 

1. The Book of Ruth
2. The Last Prophetic Books
3. Features of Apocalyptic Literature
4. Apocalyptic Passages in Post-Exilic Books
5. The Book of Daniel, Chapters 1-6
6. The Book of Daniel, Chapters 7-12

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5J6q1J09oNw


24. Alternative Visions: Esther, Ruth, and Jonah 

1. The Book of Esther 2. The Book of Jonah 3. Concluding Remarks about the Dynamic and Complex Messages in the Hebrew Bible

Yale U.: http://oyc.yale.edu/religious-studies/rlst-145/lecture-24

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUN9e_m1izI

Transcript: http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/967/rlst-145






The New Testament

The New Covenant


Perhaps the oldest known example of New
Testament literature, a papyrus fragment, known
as Papyrus # 90, of the Gospel of John, in Greek, from Oxyrhynchus, Egypt in the 2nd century (Oxford) 

The New Testament is the same in the Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Bibles and has 27 books.
Divisions of the Protestant Bible (chart) shown above
Note: 1 & 2 Samuel, 1 & 2 Kings and 1 & 2 Chronicles are six books; Lamentations is the third book of the Major Prophets

Why Study the New Testament?

Lecture # 1 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009 

1. Why take this course?
2. The Bible as a historical text
3. Imagining an ancient's perspective
4. Questions and answers
5. Going over the syllabus

You Tube (uploaded by Yale):


Yale U. site:




From Stories to Canon
Lecture 2 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009 
1. Canon vs. Scripture
2. The forming of canons
3. The invention of the Codex
4. A slowly developing (and Incomplete) consensus
5. The reasons for canonical inclusion and exclusion
You Tube (uploaded by Yale):
Yale U:

The Roman empire from 100 BC to AD 150.

Related image

 Image result for the greco-roman world

Areas in which Greek (blue) and Latin (red) were spoken.  

The Greco-Roman World

Lecture # 3 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009 

1. Alexander the Great and Hellenization
2. The Greek city-state
3. Religious syncretism
4. The Roman household and social structure
5. The rise of Julius Caesar and Octavian (Augustus)
6. The Pax Romana

You Tube:


Yale U. site:





Judaism in the First Century A. D.

Lecture # 4 of 24 by Dale B. Martin from the course Introduction to New Testament History and Literature (RLST 152), Yale U., Spring 2009

1. After Alexander: The Seleucids and the Ptolemies
2. The Jews, Hellenization, and the Maccabean Revolt
3. The 'Prophecy' of Daniel
4. The Jewish War and the Destruction of the Temple

You Tube:


Yale U. site:





Image result for pompey


Image result for julius caesar

Caesar, painted by the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1619)

Image result for cleopatra - artist's sketch

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Related image

Marc Antony

Image result for octavius

Octavius (Augustus Caesar)

In 47 BC, Julius Caesar appointed Antipater, who was the chief advisor to the Hasmonian ruler of Judea, as Roman procurator of Judea.

Antipater's son Phasael was made governor of Jerusalem.  

Antipater's son Herod (c. 73 BC - 4 BC) was the governor of Galilee from 47 to 41 BC.

The Roman acting governor of Syria, Sextus Caesar, appointed Herod general of Samaria and Coelesyria.

Antipater was assassinated in 43 BC.

The Parthians invaded eastern Roman territories in 40 BC, forced out the Roman rulers and their Hasmonian clients, and made a pro-Parthian Hasmonian high priest and king of Judea. Herod went to Rome.

Herod the Great

In c. 40 BC the Roman senate appointed Herod King of Judea, to rule as a client king of Rome.

In 37 BC, Marc Antony directed Herod and the governor of Syria to retake Jerusalem.

The Parthian-backed Hasmonian ruler was deposed, ending the Hasmonean Dynasty, and the Herodian Dynasty was establshed.  

Herod backed Marc Antony against Octavian for control of the Roman empire.

After Octavian's victory over Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC, Herod supported Octavian (later known as Augustus Caesar).  


Herod's Temple

Jews returning from exile in Babylon built a Temple (The Second Temple) on the site of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

Herod rebuilt the Temple (c. 20 - c. 10 BC) and built the port of Caesarea Maritima on the Mediterranean coast (22 - 10 BC).

Solomon's Temple 3D
Herod's Temple

Image result for solomon's temple
Herod's Temple

Related image

Caesarea Maritima (artist's reconstruction)

King Herod the Great

Herod (73/74 - 4 BC), King of Judea (37 - 4 BC.)


Herod the Great

French-Italian movie (1958) (1:32:14)


Herod Antipas

At Herod's death, the Romans divided the Kingdom of Judea among three of Herod's sons and a daughter, to rule under the Romans.

One son, Herod Archelaus, received half the kingdom and ruled as ethnarch until AD 6, when the Romans made Judea a Roman province and governed by a Roman prefect.

Herod's oldest son, Herod Antipas, was governor of Galilee, a client state of Rome, as Tetrarch from 4 BC to AD 39. 

Herod Philip II received the northeast quarter as Tetrarch.

The Romans moved the military and civil administrative headquarters of Judea from Jerusalem to Caesarea Maritima.


Mary and Elizabeth

Zecharias and Elizabeth were a childless elderly couple. Elisabeth was over sixty. While Zecharias was in the Temple of Jerusalem, the Archangel Gabriel appeared and told him Elizabeth would bear him a son and his name would be John.

Image result for the archangel visits Zechariah


The Archangel Gabriel appears before Zecharias in the Temple.

Gabriel tells Zecharias that he will be unable to speak until the birth of John.  

Image result for Virgin Annunciate by Antonello da Messina of Italy (ca. 1476)
Virgin Annunciate by Antonello da
Messina, Sicily (c. 1476).

Mary is interrupted by the Archangel Gabriel.  

The Annunciation by the Danish painter
Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834 - 1890).

The Archangel Gabriel appears before Mary and announces that she is to have a child.  


Mary, the Mother of God


From the documentary seres The Footprints of God with Stephen Ray (2002) 

N. A.

Related image

The Visitation   -  The Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1866).

Virgin Mary, pregnant with child, Jesus, visits her older cousin, Elizabeth, who is also  pregnant, with John (the Baptist).

 Image result for the birth of john the baptist

The Nativity of John the Baptist

The Birth of John the Baptist

The Living Bible series 



Mary and Elizabeth, Reims Cathedral, France 


When Was Jesus Born?

IN What Year? On What Day?



Augustus Caesar required all to return to their native homes to register for the census. Mary was from Nazareth. Joseph was from Bethlehem. Joseph and Mary lived in Nazareth but had to travel to Bethlehem.


Joseph and Mary on the road to Bethlehem

Image result for christmas day - birth of christ

Joseph. Mary and Jesus (Hebrew: Yeshua; Greek: Iesous; Latin: Iesus) in Bethlehem.


Reading a prophecy, the Wise Men from the East, bearing three gifts, went to Bethlehem and followed the star to the place of the child born King of the Jews.   

The Nativity Story

(2006) (1:40:51)




The Joyful Mysteries

Part 1 of three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary

Five episodes: The Annunciation, The Nativity, The Visitation, The Presentation and The Finding  (92 min.)


Herod the Great heard from the Wise Men of the East of the birth of a child   -   the King of Israel, the Messiah   -   in Bethlehem and ordered the massacre of all children in Bethlehem up to the age of two.

Joseph and Mary went with Jesus to Egypt and remained there until Herod died. They returned to Nazareth.


The baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist

The Baptism of Christ in the River Jordan by John the Baptist painted by Joachim Patenier, 1515.

Excerpt from King of Kings (1961)


Excerpts from other movies:




Jesus met John the Baptist's many followers.

Jesus' first followers were John's followers.

  Related image

Jesus met Andrew and Simon (Peter), fishermen and followers of John the Baptist.

Related image

Jesus fishing with the brothers Andrew and Simon and the brothers John and James.

The four fishermen were the first disciples of Jesus.

Related image

Jesus and the Samaritan woman at the well.


The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834-1890).

From his disciples, Jesus chose twelve to be his apostles: 

 File:Christ with his disciples. Mironov.jpg

Christ and his Disciples by the Russian painter Andrei N. Mironov in 2016.

He chose his first disciples, four fishermen who fished together:

  Simon (Peter);

  Andrew, brother of Simon;


  James the Older, brother of John;

and, from his later disciples, he chose:

  Levi (Matthew) the Tax Collector;


  Bartholomew (Nathaniel);

  Thomas Didymus (The Twin);

  Thaddaeus (Judas);

  Simon the Zealot; and

  Judas Iscariot.

- All were from Galilee except Judas Iscariot, who was from Judea.

  Matthias was chosen later by the apostles to replace Judas Iscariot.  

John the Baptist

 Related image

Painting by Giovanni Fattori (1825 - 1908).

John the Baptist rebukes Herod Antipas (20 BC - AD 39+), the ethnarch of Galilee, for divorcing his wife Phasaelis and marrying Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip II.

'It is not lawful for you to have your brother’s wife.' (Mark 6:18.)

Herod Antipas imprisoned John the Baptist.  

Image result for salome's nude dance for Antipas

Salome or Dance of the Seven Veils by the French painter Gaston Bussière (1925).

Salome, daughter of Herod Philip II and Herodias, danced for her uncle Herod Antipas on his birthday. Herod was so pleased that he offered to grant Salome any wish she might ask.

Herodias told Salome to ask Herod for the head of John the Baptist.

Salome went to Herod and said:

'I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptist on a platter.' (Mark 6:25.)

Image result for the beheading of john the baptist

The Beheading of John the Baptist by the Italian painter Faustino Raineri (early to mid-1700s)

Related image

The beheading of John the Baptist by the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1610).

Related image

Salome's Dance by the Hungarian painter Gyula Tornai (1861 - 1928). 

Related image

Dance of Salome by the German painter Leopold Schmutzler (1910)

Related image
Salomé by the Spanish painter Julio Romero de Torres (1917)

Image result for the head of st john the baptist on a plate - painting

Salome presents the head of John the Baptist to her mother Herodias. Painting by Onorio Marinari (1627 - 1715). 

Salome and the Dance of the Seven Veils

From the opera by Richard Strauss based on the play by Oscar Wilde



Dance of the Seven Veils

Richard Strauss on piano (1905)



Opera by Richard Strauss based on the play Salome by Oscar Wilde

1975 performance


Dance of the Seven Veils


Harp class 


The Fate of John the Baptist

Episodes 9 of 12 from The Living Christ series by Cathedral Films (1951) (27:56)


John the Baptist

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible


St. John the Baptist

From Birth to Beheading

The National Gallery, London

Ten episodes

1. Introduction  


2. Visitation  


3. Birth and Naming  


4. Infancy


5. Wilderness


6. Preaching


7. Baptism


8. Martyrdom


9. The Baptist's Head


10. Power and Judgment



1953 movie with Rita Hayworth as Salome and Charles Laughton as Herod Antipas (1:38:41)

This Hollywood version changes the ending a bit: Salome dances for Herod to please him and ask for the release of John the Baptist.   


In French (1:38:44)


The Raising of Lazarus (by Jesus) painted by Rembrandt van Rijn (1630) 


Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead | Raising of lazarus, Lion of ...

Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead.

Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead
Excerpt from the movie The Gospel of John (2003)
Excerpt from a movie:
Excerpt from a movie:

Image result for The Resurrection of Lazareth   -   painting (c. 1570) by Marco Pino (1521–1583)

The Resurrection of Lazareth   -   painting (c. 1570) by Marco Pino (1521–1583)

'But, Lord, He Stinketh!':
Marco Pino's The Resurrection of Lazarus
Lecture 4 of the course Let This Be a Lesson: Heroes, Heroines and Narrative in Paintings at Yale, by John Walsh, Yale U. Art Gallery, Fall 2013


Jesus enters Jerusalem

Image result for jesus triumphant entry into jerusalem


Palm Sunday


Jesus enters Jerusalem


Excerpt from a Hollywood movie:




Palm Sunday, Jerusalem (2009)




Palm Sunday in Jerusalem - 2012

Holy Monday

Related image

Jesus expels the merchants from the Temple by Francesco Coghetti (1800s)

 Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple by Il Guercino ...

Jesus Cleansed the Temple: Respect for Sacred Things? | Christ.org

Holy Tuesday

 The Authority of Jesus — New Hope Cumberland Presbyterian
Jesus debated the Sadducees, Pharisees, the chief priests and the elders in the Temple.

Holy Thursday

The Last Supper
The Passover Meal
Jesus with eleven of his twelve disciples at the Passover meal (The Last Supper). Apparently, Judas Iscariot has already left.

 Liturgické oblečenie
Jesus and his twelve disciples ate their last supper together.

The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci, painted in the 1480s.

Jesus with his twelve disciples, from left to right: Bartholomew, James the Younger, Andrew, Judas Iscariot, Simon (Peter), John, Jesus, Thomas, James the Older, Philip, Judas Thaddaeus, Levi (Matthew) and Simon the Zealot. 

Some question if the figure of John, to the left of Jesus, is actually Mary Magdalene. If so, John is missing and there are only eleven apostles present. Or Judas Iscariot has departed and that figure is John instead.  

The mural fresco was painted on a stone wall of the convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.

Unleavened bread




and red wine 


The Last Supper




The Last Supper

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible narrated by Richard Kiley and Jeanne Simmons


Or in 5 clips (click here and all five play in order)



Passover Seder to Last Supper to Lord's Supper

Excerpt from a documentary  






The Last Supper

Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible narrated by Richard Kiley and Jeanne Simmons

In 5 clips (click here and all five play in order)






From the Passover Meal to the Last Supper

(4 clips)


1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0d49a8tceis&feature=related


2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2QZiJp9_3o&feature=related


3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-l4lxcVX5tA


4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUaw7JU5W_8&feature=related




The Last Supper


Excerpt from movies







Jesus Is Arrested in Gethsemane | Children's Bible Lessons

Guards of the Temple, sent by the Sanhedrin and guided by Judas Iscariot, arrested Jesus in an olive grove, Gethsemane, at the base of the Mount of Olives outside Jerusalem.


The Agony in the Garden

Episode 1 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary


The Sanhedrin

Related image

Jesus was brought before the high priest and the Sanhedrin.

The Sanhedrin questioned Jesus. Jesus claimed to be the Messiah. The priests were outraged.

The Sanhedrin found Jesus guilty of violating the Sabbath, threatening to destroy the Temple, performing sorcery, exorcising with demons, and claiming to be the Messiah and the Son of God.

The Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to death.

According to their law, the Jews could not carry out an execution during Passover.

Good Friday

The Sanhedrin took Jesus to Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judea, who was in Jerusalem at the time, and demanded his death.

Pontius Pilate

Image result for Pontius Pilate Inscription at Caesarea

In 1961, Italian archaeologists excavating in Caesar Maritima found a limestone block with a damaged inscription in Latin:



To the Divine Augusti (this) Tiberieum
...Pontius Pilate
...prefect of Judea
...has dedicated

Pontius Pilate was the Roman prefect of the province of Judea from AD 25 to 36. The stone fragment may have been a dedication by Pilate of a temple built in honour of Tiberius, the Roman emperor from AD 14 - 37.


Pontius Pilate Inscription at Caesarea







Lauren Brown




Brian Jekel Jesus Before Pilate Unframed Canvas #BrianJekel #Art ...

Pilate questioned Jesus.

Jesus before Pilate by the Hungarian painter Munkácsy Mihály (1881).

Because Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas, ethnarch of Galilee, who was visiting Jerusalem.

Herod Antipas

Related image

Jesus before Herod Antipas by Duccio di Buoninsegna of Siena.  

trial before herod - YouTube

Herod and his soldiers mocked Jesus and sent him back to Pilate.

Pontius Pilate

A reproduction of Nikolai Ge s painting What is Truth 1890 Stock ...

Pilate questioned Jesus.

If Pontius Pilate had pardoned Jesus | Web24 News

Then Pilate turned to the crowd:

'Behold! I find no fault in him.'

Recalling the custom of freeing a Jewish prisoner at Passover, Pilate presented two prisoners to the crowd. 

Which one shall I free? Jesus, the 'King of the Jews', and Bar Abbas, a thief, a rebel and a murderer.

The crowd demanded Bar Abbas.

Pilate ordered his release.

'What shall I do then with Jesus who is called the Messiah?'

The crowd cried out: 'Crucify him!'

'But I find no fault in him. I shall chastise him and release him.'

Pilate offered to chastise Jesus and ordered his soldiers to whip him.

James Tissot The Scourging Of The Back

Pilate ordered the Roman soldiers to scourge Jesus.

Pilate presents Jesus to the crowd in 1871 painting Ecce Homo ('Behold the man!') by Antonio Ciceri.

 Related image

Ecce Homo ('Behold the man!') in 1896 painting by Munkácsy Mihály.  

Pilate presented Jesus. to the crowd:

'Behold your King! Shall I crucify your King? Why, what evil hath he done?'  

The crowd: 'Crucify him!'  

Pilate relented and told the soldiers to crucify Jesus.

Jesus Is Condemned Before Pilate: Matthew 27:11–25 - Bible Story

Pilate washed his hands.

The trials of Jesus – part 3: An interview with Pilate | philmoser

Then Pilate said to the crowd: 'I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it.'  

(The Four Biblical Gospels)

Pontius Pilate





1961 Hollywood movie



'Give Us Barabbas!'

Showcase Theatre (1961) (1:15)



The Scourging at the Pillar

Episode 2 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary (26 min.) 



The Crowning with Thorns

Episode 3 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary (26 min.)


Jesus - The Real Story


3-part BBC documentary about Christ and the Passion


Episode 1. The Early Years




Episode 2. The Mission



Episode 3. The Last Days





Jesus carrying his cross to the crucifixion

Christ carries the cross  -  Painting by Andrey Mironov 



50 Best Jesus and Soldiers images | Jesus pictures, Christ, New ...

Jesus meets his mother, Mary, while carrying his Cross stock image ...
Jesus carries his wooden cross.

Meditation on the Third Joyful Mystery: The Nativity of Jesus ...
The soldiers forced a by-stander, Simon of Cyrene, to help Jesus carry the cross. 

They carried the cross outside the walls of the city to a hill called Golgotha   -   meaning 'skull' in Aramaic (In Latin: Calvariea Locus).

The Carrying of the Cross

Episode 4 of part 2, The Sorrowful Mysteries, of the three-part 1957 documentary series The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary (21:29)



File:Jesus Being Crucified - William Brassey Hole.jpg - Wikimedia ...
The soldiers nailed Jesus to his cross.

c. A.D. 30-33 B.C. Jesus Christ is crucified by the... | Sutori

Pilate ordered a sign above Jesus.

Brian Deacon being nailed to the cross by Roman in a scene from ...


I N R I  


Jesus of Nazareth (Jesus the Nazarene), King of the Jews

 Symbolism: Why “INRI”? – Restless Pilgrim


Ἰ Ν β Ἰ  (Ι Ν B Ι)

Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων

The Crucifixion


 הויה  (Y H W H)

To both sides of Jesus were thieves, one on each side, condemned to die.

Jesus On Cross, Meadow with Stock Footage Video (100% Royalty-free ...

Locating Golgotha – TaborBlog


Related image

Christ on the cross between the two thieves by Albrecht Altdorfer, 1526


The Execution of Jesus
Episode from the documentary series Mysteries of the Bible narrated by Richard Kiley and Jeanne Simmons
Crucifixion scene from a movie
Who Killed Jesus?
Episode from the BBC documentary series Bible Mysteries