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Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, Colorado
Medieval History

- The Middle Ages -
The Hundred Years War and Joan of Arc

Hundred Years War (1337 - 1453)

The Hundred Years War was in the middle of another very stupid war. It was a series of wars between England and France, and all fighting occurred in France.

The English Kings

Edward III
Richard II
Henry IV
Henry V
Henry VI

The French Kings
Philip VI
John II (the good)
Charles V (the wise) 1364 - 1380
Charles VI (the wise)
Charles VII (the victorious)
He was the dauphin , and persuaded to allow
Joan of Arc to command French troops.

Beginning of the Hundred Years War
The Hundred Years War began when English King Edward III claimed he was entitled to the French crown - through his mother, Isabella, sister to King Charles IV of France, who died in 1328. The French said the crown could not descend through the female line and gave the crown to Philip VI, cousin to the deceased king.

Edward's father, Edward II was a wormy little wimp; Edward III was manly, handsome and chivalrous, also a great warrior and good king. He became king at the age of 14 due to the scheming of his mother, Isabella and her lover, Mortimer. When Edward turned 17, he threw them off completely - Mortimer was tried before Parliament for a long list of crimes and was executed, and Isabella was obliged to retire to a castle in Norfolk. Also, under Edward III tournaments became big, especially jousting. Edward III was worried about how French kings had been taking English land in France for a long time.

First Phase of the Hundred Years War
In 1338, Edward III declared himself king of France and invaded. There were no conclusive battles on land, but the English navy won the English Channel. In 1343, England invaded again and Edward III led a great victory at Crecy during August of 1346. After this, Edward began the Order of the Garter, based on King Arthur's Round table. Tradition has it that one day at court a lady's garter slipped off, and as the people laughed, Edward picked it up and said, "Honi soit qui mal y pense." "Evil be to him who evil thinks" became the motto.

Edward the Black Prince captured Bordeaux in 1355. During September 1356, England won at Poiters (in south-central France) under Edward the Black Prince. The English had invented the long bow, and this gave them an advantage. They easily could, from long range, knock the French off their horses, plus the French had a hard time moving around in their heavy armor. Treaty gave England control of large parts of France.

France renewed the war in 1364 under Charles V. France turned the tide by not directly engaging the English. The death of the Black Prince in 1376, and the death of Edward III in 1377 weakened the English. (Edward III was succeeded by the 9-year-old, Richard II.) England had been weakened due to internal struggling, primarily over taxes. France regained most of the lost land.

Final Battles of the Hundred Years War
In 1414, Henry V of England reasserted the English claim to the throne (during a French civil war) and invaded in 1415. The English won at Agincourt and controlled northern France. Charles VI of France claimed Henry as his heir and declared his son, Charles VII, the dauphin, as an illegitimate son and repudiated him as his heir. When Charles VI died, the infant King Henry VI of England was seen as king of northern France, and Charles VII as king of southern France.

Death of Charles VI
The death of Charles VI in 1422 was an occasion for an elaborate
state funeral arranged by the Duke of Bedford. Charles VI's death signaled
a monumental seven-year struggle for succession to the throne.

Charles VII
JEAN FOUQUET: Charles VII's weak-willed and self-indulgent son, Charles VII,
had to win his throne by the force of arms against the English.

Joan of Arc
(1412 - 1431)

Joan of Arc persuaded the French dauphin to let her lead. He didn't want to let this tiny woman lead the French troops, but she convinced him. She left the farm where she worked at age 17. At first, she had to dress like a man so the troops wouldn't know her true identity.

Contemporary sketch of Joan of Arc
A rare contemorary sketch of Joan of Arc from the official account of her
historic siege of Orléans. It was drawn by the notary of the Paris Parlement. The
date of the English withdrawal from the city, May 1429, appears at the top.

Joan of Arc believed God had commanded her to drive the English from France. She led the French to victory at Orleans, the turning point of the war, and Joan of Arc pushed the English north. Superstitious English soldiers were afraid when she rode up carrying an ancient sword (used by Charles the Hammer at the Battle of Tours).

Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc was captured by opponents of the French king and turned over to the English King Henry VI, who burned her at the stake for being a witch. She set an example that inspired the French. France drove England from France (except for Calais) and the power of the French Monarchy prevailed. The dauphin became King Charles VII, the victorious. The fighting ended in 1453, but no formal treaty was ever signed.

In 1920, the Pope made her a saint.

Decline of the Medieval Church
Pope Boniface VIII issued a decree asserting his power over the kings. The King of France, Philip IV, had him arrested. The Church was criticized for its power in politics This was the beginning of the end for the Medieval Church.

Back to Top of Page

1. Early Middle Ages: Dark Ages and Feudalism

2. Clovis, Charles the Hammer, Charlemagne,
Magyars, Vikings / The Life of a Serf

3. The Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages

4. High Middle Ages / National Monarchies

5. The Black Death

6. Knights, Heraldry, and Medieval Warfare

7. The Hundred Years War

8. Medieval Culture

8th- to 15th-Century Poems and Prose
Dante Alighieri, Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland & more.

Including: Divine Comedy, Beowulf, Canterbury Tales...
Medieval Poetry I
Medieval Poetry & Prose II

More Information
The Entire Bayeux Tapestry

Mr. Sedivy's Tour of Medieval Rothenburg

Medieval Penalties of Shame and Honor -
Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages

Historical Periods of
World History Class Study

| Prehistory | Mesopotamia & Phoenicians |
| Ancient Egypt | Greece | Rome |
| Medieval History | The Renaissance and Reformation |
| Exploration | National Monarchies |
| The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment |
| Colonial America and American Revolution |
| The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era



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Mr. Sedivy's History Classes
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