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An average Balinese knows, however vaguely, the names of countless bataras. He is well aware, for instance, that Batara" Brahma is the god of fire, that Surya is the Sun, Indra the Lor of Heaven, and Yama that of Hell, Durga the goddess of deathi, Semara the god of physical love, and so forth ; but unless he has had. a certain amount of theological edu-,, cation, to him the Batara Siwa is simply another of the remote high gods, although the highest in rank; a sort of Radja among the bataras.

However, to the learned Brahmanic priests Siwa represents, the abstract idea of divinity that permeates everything - the, total of the forces we call God. Siwa is the source of all life,.. the synthesis of the creative and generative powers in nature;, consequently in him are the two sexes in one-. the Divine, Hermaphrodite (Windu"), symbol of completion, the ultimate perfection. As male Siwa is the mountain, the Gunung Agug) the Lingga, Pasupati, the father of all humanity, all phallic symbols. He is also the Sun, the Space, and as Batara Guru', the,' Supreme Teacher, be is the maker of the world. As female is Uma,mother of all nature, Giri Putri, goddess of the mountains, Dewi Gangga and Dewi Danul, deities of rivers and lakes., These, his feminine manifestations (sakti), are taken by the common people as his literal wives, but the learned interpretthese wives, and his connubial relations with them, as the two, eternal principles: male and female, spirit and matter, unit d,~ for the constant production and reproduction of the universe, the exaltation of the union of the sexes for procreation.

The well-known Indian'trinity, the supreme gods Brahma,, Vishnu, and Siva, are in Bali expressions of the one force called, Siwa, but there is also a trinity in Bali: Brahma Siwa (Brahma) Sada Siwa (Wisnu'), and Prama Siwa (Iswara). In the mind. of the common people even this trinity becomes, with typical", Balinese miscomprebension, a deity in itself called Sanghyang trimurti or Sanggah Tiga Sakti, "the -Sbrine of the Three Forces." Thus Siwa "is fire (Brahma) wbotbrougbsmoke (vapour) becomes water (Wisnu')," which in turn fertilizes the earth (Pertiwi) to produce rice (Sri). Ideas such as this, juggled cleverly by the high priests, repeat themselves in endless sequence to form the intricate Brahmanic philosophy. All the gods that overcrowd the Balinese pantheon are thus manifestations of Siwa ' but they are not always on the side of righteousness, because the good creative and reproductive forces can be polluted and turn into evil and acquire a destroying, angry form. Thus the reversed form of Siwa is Kala, Lord of Darkness, born out of Siwa to destroy the world, just as Siwa's wife Uma became Durga, goddess of death, completing the cycle from life to death. In the Balinese manuscript Usana Diawa we find the story of the birth of Batara Kala:

Siwa had created creatures with no ethics and without a code of morals, who went naked, lived in caves, and had no religion. They mated under the trees, left their children uncared for, and ate whatever they found, living like beasts. This made Siwa so angry that he decided to create a son to destroy the unworthy human beings and told his wife Uma of his intentions while mating with her. She withdrew indignant and in the struggle Siwa's sperm fell on the ground. He then called the gods together and told them, pointing to the sperm, that should it develop life the result would bring them into great difficulties. The alarmed gods began to shoot arrows at it; the sperm grew a pair of shoulders when the first arrow struck it, hands and feet sprang out after the second, and as they continued to shoot arrows into it, the drop of sperm grew into a fearful giant who stood as high as 'a mountain, demanding food with which to calm his insatiable hunger. Siwa called him Kala and sent him down to earth, where every day he could eat his fill of people, and the human race -rapidly dwindled away. Wisnu, alarmed, called upon Indra for help to save mankind, and it was decided to civilize them by sending several of the gods to teach them the law of life, agriculture, and the arts and to provide them with the necessarytools.

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